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Home > Anti-aging Research > Vitamin E

Vitamin E

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News & Research:

  • Mechanism outlined by which inadequate vitamin E can cause brain damage - Science Daily, 4/13/15 - "that zebrafish fed a diet deficient in vitamin E throughout their life had about 30 percent lower levels of DHA-PC, which is a part of the cellular membrane in every brain cell, or neuron. Other recent studies have also concluded that low levels of DHA-PC in the blood plasma of humans is a biomarker than can predict a higher risk of Alzheimer's disease ... the deficient levels of vitamin E they were given, are equivalent to humans eating a low vitamin E diet for a lifetime. In the United States, 96 percent of adult women and 90 percent of men do not receive adequate levels of vitamin E in their diet" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Pharmacological Potential of Tocotrienols: A Review - Medscape, 1/29/15 - "In contrast to αT, despite no evidence that deficiency of other vitamin E forms would result in obvious clinical symptoms, accumulating evidence suggests that γT, δT, and tocotrienols seem to have unique properties that are superior to αT and relevant to prevention and therapy against chronic diseases even under conditions with adequate αT status. It is noteworthy that these bioactivities of tocopherols and tocotrienols including anti-inflammatory properties have been identified by mechanistic studies and subsequently substantiated in some preclinical models as well as clinical studies ... Hence, tocotrienols possess neuroprotective, antioxidant, anti-cancer and cholesterol lowering properties. Tocotrienols are thought to have more potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties due to their better distribution in the lipid layers of the cell membrane. In spite of the promising potential, the experimental analysis of tocotrienols accounts for only a small portion of vitamin E research" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Extra vitamin E protected older mice from getting common type of pneumonia - Science Daily, 12/16/14 - "The older mice fed a diet containing extra amounts of vitamin E, the equivalent to about 200 IU/day consumed by humans -- about 10 times the Recommended Daily Allowance but well below the upper limit -- were far more resistant to the bacteria than the older mice that had a normal amount of vitamin E in their diet ... Compared to the mice that had normal amounts of vitamin E in their diet, the mice fed extra vitamin E had ... 1,000 times fewer bacteria in their lungs ... Two times fewer the number of white blood cells (neutrophils) ... The reduced numbers of bacteria and white blood cells resulted in less lung damage in the older mice who received extra vitamin"
  • Vitamin E intake critical during 'the first 1,000 days' - Science Daily, 9/15/14 - "A lifelong proper intake of vitamin E is also important, researchers said, but often complicated by the fact that this nutrient is one of the most difficult to obtain through diet alone. It has been estimated that only a tiny fraction of Americans consume enough dietary vitamin E to meet the estimated average requirement ... people who are highly motivated to eat a proper diet consume almost enough vitamin E, but broader surveys show that 90 percent of men and 96 percent of women don't consume the amount currently recommended, 15 milligrams per day for adults"
  • Brain saver: Vitamin E supplement helps 'redirect' blood during stroke - Science Daily, 4/29/14 - "brain damage during a stroke can be prevented by triggering the surrounding blood vessels to dilate and redirect the blood flow around a blockage ... The blood vessel "redirect" is the result of 10 weeks' worth of supplementation with a little-known type of vitamin E called tocotrienol. Tocotrienol appears to stimulate arteriogenesis -- or the remodeling of existing blood vessels that can instantaneously expand in response to a demand for oxygen-rich blood. This collateral blood supply can make a major difference in stroke outcomes ... Tocotrienol, found naturally in palm oil, is a vitamin E variant and currently available in stores as an oral nutritional supplement. Because it doesn't appear to interfere with other stroke therapies like blood thinners, or have any other side effects, Rink thinks that the vitamin could someday become a common stroke prevention strategy"
  • Several forms of vitamin E protect against memory disorders, study says - Science Daily, 1/7/14 - "Studies investigating the link between vitamin E and memory disorders have usually focused on a single form of vitamin E, namely α-tocopherol, which is also used in vitamin E supplements. However, vitamin E exists in eight different natural forms, tocopherols and tocotrienols, all of which have antioxidant properties ... This recently published study comprises a sample of 140 over 65-year-old Finnish persons with no memory impairment at the onset of the study. During the eight-year follow-up, it was discovered that higher total serum levels of vitamin E, and higher levels of γ-tocopherol, β-tocotrienol and total tocotrienols in particular, seemed to protect against memory disorders. According to the researchers, the results show that the entire vitamin E family plays a role in memory processes" - See mixed tocopherols at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin E Improves Function in Mild Alzheimer's Disease - Medscape, 12/31//13 - "The study, conducted at 14 Veterans Affairs medical centers, assessed the effect of vitamin E alone or with memantine on functional decline in 613 patients (97% men) with mild to moderate AD ... By random assignment, 152 patients received 2000 IU of α-tocopherol per day, 155 received 20 mg of memantine per day, 154 received the combination of vitamin E and memantine, and 152 received placebo. They were followed for a mean of 2.3 years ... The annual rate of decline in ADLs was reduced by 19% (P = .03) with vitamin E compared with placebo" - [Science Daily] [Abstract] - Note:  I'm still sticking with the mixed form of vitamin E.  See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Oxidative Stress in Prostate Cancer - Medscape, 9/17/13 - "Several potential suggestions have been put forth to explain the results of the study, which were contrary to the original prevention hypothesis. (i) The high dose of vitamin E (400 IU), which was eight times higher than the 50 IU used in the ABTC study, may abolish the preventive effect or even contribute to the increased risk of PC demonstrated in the study.[82] (ii) Animal studies demonstrate cancer preventive activity of γ- and δ-tocopherols, as well as for the naturally occurring mixture of tocopherols, but not by α-tocopherol,[83] the source of vitamin E used in the SELECT trail. (iii) Different individuals may respond inconsistently to antioxidant treatment depending on specific, intrinsic genetic risk factors"
  • Vitamin E identified as potential weapon against obesity - Science Daily, 4/23/13 - "The collaborators, from Case Western Reserve University, the Cleveland Clinic Foundation and Cornell University, discovered the essential nutrient vitamin E can alleviate symptoms of liver disease brought on by obesity ... These findings may have a significant impact on public health ... as the vast majority of adults in the United States do not consume the amount of vitamin E recommended by the National Institute of Medicine ... There is currently no treatment for NASH, making it one of the most common reasons for liver transplantation. Manor also points out that "NASH piggybacks on the two great epidemics of our time: obesity and Type 2 diabetes.""
  • Excess vitamin E intake not a health concern, study suggests - Science Daily, 4/15/13 - "a new review concludes that biological mechanisms exist to routinely eliminate excess levels of the vitamin, and they make it almost impossible to take a harmful amount ... A much more important issue is that more than 90 percent of people in the U.S. have inadequate levels of vitamin E in their diet ... On the other hand, vitamin E performs many critical roles in optimum health. It protects polyunsaturated fatty acids from oxidizing, may help protect other essential lipids, and has been studied for possible value in many degenerative diseases" - Note:  That may be true but everything I've read claims that taking high amounts of only the alpha-tocopherol lowers the other forms which may be as important if not more important.
  • How vitamin E can help prevent cancer - Science Daily, 3/16/13 - "In this new work, researchers showed in prostate cancer cells that one form of vitamin E inhibits the activation of an enzyme that is essential for cancer cell survival. The loss of the enzyme, called Akt, led to tumor cell death. The vitamin had no negative effect on normal cells ... Vitamin E occurs in numerous forms based on their chemical structure, and the most commonly known form belongs to a variety called tocopherols. In this study, researchers showed that, of the tocopherols tested, the gamma form of tocopherol was the most potent anti-cancer form of the vitamin ... The researchers began the work with both alpha and gamma forms of the vitamin E molecule. Both inhibited the enzyme called Akt in very targeted ways, but the gamma structure emerged as the more powerful form of the vitamin"
  • Vitamin E may lower liver cancer risk - Science Daily, 7/17/12 - "China who were enrolled in the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) from 1997-2000 or the Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS) from 2002-2006, two population-based cohort studies jointly conducted by the Shanghai Cancer Institute and Vanderbilt University. Using validated food-frequency questionnaires, the researchers conducted in-person interviews to gather data on study participants' dietary habits. They compared liver cancer risk among participants who had high intake of vitamin E with those with low intake ... Vitamin E intake from diet and vitamin E supplement use were both associated with a lower risk of liver cancer. This association was consistent among participants with and without self-reported liver disease or a family history of liver cancer"
  • Vitamin E in diet protects against many cancers, study suggests - Science Daily, 4/23/12 - "Our message is that the vitamin E form of gamma-tocopherols, the most abundant form of vitamin E in the American diet, and delta-tocopherols, also found in vegetable oils, are beneficial in preventing cancers while the form of vitamin E, alpha- tocopherol, the most commonly used in vitamin E supplements, has no such benefit ... the most commonly used form of vitamin E supplements, alpha-tocopherol, not only did not prevent prostate cancer, but its use significantly increased the risk of this disease among healthy men" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • More vitamin E linked to better mental function: Study - Nutra USA, 1/11/12 - "Alzheimer patients were 85% less likely to have the highest levels of vitamin E, compared with people with normal cognitive function ... There are eight forms of vitamin E: four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) and four tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) ... the new study is said to be the first to evaluate all the forms of vitamin E in relation to Alzheimer’s disease ... Consumers should be taking a full spectrum vitamin E especially for improving/ preserving cognitive health and performance" - [Abstract]
  • Scientists identify an innate function of vitamin E - Science Daily, 12/20/11 - "Everyday activities such as eating and exercise can tear the plasma membrane and the new research shows that vitamin E is essential to repair. Without repair of muscle cells, for example, muscles eventually waste away and die in a process similar to what occurs in muscular dystrophy ... Vitamin E appears to aid repair in several ways. As an antioxidant, it helps eliminate destructive byproducts from the body's use of oxygen that impede repair. Because it's lipid-soluble, vitamin E can actually insert itself into the membrane to prevent free radicals from attacking. It also can help keep phospholipids, a major membrane component, compliant so they can better repair after a tear"
  • Elevated Risk for Prostate Cancer Found With Vitamin E - Medscape, 11/22/11 - "vitamin E (400 IU)  ... The overall risk for prostate cancer was significantly elevated (by 17%) in the vitamin E group" - Note:  It's the alpha-tocopherol that's measured in IU like that and it's the form in most supplement.  Here's what I take: Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com
  • Combination Antioxidant Therapy May Help Fatty Liver - Medscape, 11/7/11 - "A combination of vitamin E and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) can improve the inflammatory and steatosis scores in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis ... combination therapy resulted in a 70% difference in change in tumor necrosis factors-alpha levels from baseline. ... ALA alone or vitamin E alone were not as effective ... Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common liver disease in the world ... In the United States, 20% of the general population and 75% to 92% of the morbidly obese population suffer from the disease" - See alpha lipoic acid products at Amazon.com and Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Listen up! Antioxidants may slash risk of hearing loss, says study - Nutra USA, 7/19/11 - "People with the highest average intakes of vitamin A had a 47 percent reduced risk of moderate or greater hearing loss, compared to people with the lowest average intakes ... In addition, increasing dietary vitamin E intakes were linked with a 14 percent reduction in hearing loss"
  • 'Gifted' natural vitamin E tocotrienol protects brain against stroke in 3 ways - Science Daily, 7/5/11 - "This is one of the first studies to provide evidence that a safe nutrient - a vitamin - can alter microRNA biology to produce a favorable disease outcome ... Here, a natural nutritional product is simultaneously acting on multiple targets to help prevent stroke-induced brain damage. That is a gifted molecule" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Preventive use of one form of natural vitamin E may reduce stroke damage - Science Daily, 7/5/11 - "Vitamin E occurs naturally in eight different forms, and this work led by Ohio State University scientists is focused on the tocotrienol form, also known as TCT. The commonly known form of vitamin E belongs to a variety called tocopherols. TCT is not abundant in the American diet but is available as a nutritional supplement. It is a common component of a typical Southeast Asian diet ... In the study, 24 hours after a stroke, lesions indicating brain tissue damage were about 80 percent smaller in dogs that received supplementation than were the lesions in dogs that received no intervention. Imaging tests showed that the treated animals' brains had better blood flow at the stroke site as compared to untreated dogs' brains, a difference attributed to tiny collateral blood vessels' ability to improve circulation in the brain when blood flow stopped in more substantial vessels ... In the study, 20 dogs were randomly assigned to one of two groups: those receiving a placebo pill, and those receiving 200 milligrams of mixed tocotrienols ... Additional examination of the affected brain tissue showed that the TCT supplementation appeared to support arteriogenesis, a process by which collateral arteries remodel themselves into larger vessels so they can bypass the site of blockage" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin E tocotrienols show cholesterol benefits for healthy adults: Study - Nutra USA, 6/29/11 - "Daily supplements of a palm oil-based tocotrienol-rich product increased the ratio of HDL cholesterol to total cholesterol – reported to be the most specific lipid risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) – by 14 percent in people over 50, compared to a decrease of about 5 percent in the placebo group ... HDL cholesterol increases of the magnitude observed in this study have been associated with a 22.5 percent reduced risk of cardiovascular events" - [Abstract] - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin E tocotrienols may reduce cholesterol: RCT data - Nutra USA, 5/9/11 - "Supplements containing a mixture of tocotrienols – forms of vitamin E – may reduce cholesterol levels by about 15 percent in people with raised cholesterol ... Overall, there are eight forms of vitamin E: four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) and four tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta). Alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) is the main source found in supplements and in the European diet, while gamma-tocopherol (gamma-Toc) is the most common form in the American diet ... After four months of supplementation, the researchers noted a decrease in total cholesterol of 9 percent, with the decrease recorded as 11 percent after six months ... In addition, LDL cholesterol levels were decreased by 13 and 17.5 percent after four and six months of supplementation, respectively" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin E helps diminish a type of fatty liver disease in children, study suggests - Science Daily, 4/27/11 - "Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease among U.S. children. NAFLD ranges in severity from steatosis (fat in the liver without injury) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis or NASH (fat, inflammation, and liver damage). Fatty liver increases a child's risk of developing heart disease and liver cirrhosis ... after 96 weeks of treatment, 58 percent of the children on vitamin E no longer had NASH, compared to 41 percent of the children on metformin (a diabetes drug), and 28 percent on placebo. Vitamin E was better than placebo because it significantly reduced enlargement and death of liver cells ... These results suggest that vitamin E improves or resolves NASH in at least half of children, which we previously showed to be true in adults"
  • Long-Term Vitamin E Intake Linked to Reduced ALS Risk - Medscape, 3/29/11 - "For dietary vitamin E intake, the adjusted RR comparing the highest quartile with the lowest was 0.79"
  • Vitamin E May Affect the Life Expectancy of Men - Medscape, 2/23/11
  • Essential oil pill prevents PMS, study suggests - Science Daily, 1/16/11 - "Women who were given capsules containing 2 grams of a combination of gamma linolenic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, other polyunsaturated acids and vitamin E reported significantly eased PMS symptoms at both 3 and 6 months after they began the treatment" - See borage oil at Amazon.com (GLA) and Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.  Oleic acid is omega-9 in which olive oil is a good source.  Linoleic acid is omega-6.  Most Americans get about 10 to 20 times too much omega-6 to begin with.  I don't know why they included it.  It makes me wonder about some of the researchers.  If they are showing a benefit, I would guess it's from the other ingredients and not the omega-6.  Gamma linolenic acid is an omega-6 also but it's a form that most don't get enough of.
  • The science of the ‘next generation’ vitamin E - Nutra USA, 11/3/10 - "there are eight forms of vitamin E: four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) and four tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta). Alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) is the main source found in supplements and in the European diet, while gamma-tocopherol (gamma-Toc) is the most common form in the American diet ... In terms of benefits to the body, [tocotrienols] would protect a larger area of membrane in a cell, than a tocopherol that stays stationary in one place ... Heart disease ... Cancer ... Immune health ... Brain health ... Male pattern baldness" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin E tocotrienols show immune boosting potential - Nutra USA, 10/27/10 - "TocominSupraBio ... there are eight forms of vitamin E: four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) and four tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta). Alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) is the main source found in supplements and in the European diet, while gamma-tocopherol (gamma-Toc) is the most common form in the American diet ... Results showed significant increases in levels of the anti-TT antibody, interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-4 in the tocotrienol group, compared with placebo" - [Abstract] - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin E in front line of prostate cancer fight - Science Daily, 10/23/10 - "the research team have discovered a particular form of T3, called gamma-tocotrienol (γ-T3), can successfully kill off the prostate cancer CSCs ... Other research has found γ-T3 is also effective in suppressing other types of cancer, including breast, colon, liver and gastric ... not all vitamin E preparations had the active constituent" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Burn injuries rapidly deplete vitamin E, study finds - Science Daily, 10/20/10 - "An analysis of eight children with third-degree burns over much of their body found they lost almost half of their stored vitamin E in three weeks, even though they were being given about 150 percent of the recommended daily allowance of vitamin E and other nutrients in a high-calorie diet ... "the depletion of vitamin E may be a very significant problem in patients with burn injury" and other forms of severe trauma"
  • Omega-3, vitamins C and E may boost pancreatic health - Nutra USA, 9/9/10 - "consuming at least 850 milligrams of omega-3 fatty acids per day was associated with a 53 percent reduction in the risk of pancreatic cancer, compared to intakes of between 330 and 580 milligrams per day ... According to findings published in the International Journal of Cancer, benefits were also observed for intakes of vitamin C and E, the highest average intakes associated with 31 and 33 percent reductions, respectively, compared with the lowest average intakes" - [Abstract]
  • Eating foods rich in vitamin E associated with lower dementia risk - Science Daily, 7/12/10 - "the one-third of individuals who consumed the most vitamin E (a median or midpoint of 18.5 milligrams per day) were 25 percent less likely to develop dementia than the one-third of participants who consumed the least (a median of 9 milligrams per day)"
  • High blood levels of vitamin E reduces risk of Alzheimer's, Swedish study finds - Science Daily, 7/7/10 - "High levels of several vitamin E components in the blood are associated with a decreased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in advanced age, suggesting that vitamin E may help prevent cognitive deterioration in elderly people. This is the conclusion reached in a Swedish study ... Vitamin E is a family of eight natural components, but most studies related to Alzheimer's disease investigate only one of these components, +/--tocopherol ... We hypothesized that all the vitamin E family members could be important in protecting against AD ... subjects with higher blood levels of all the vitamin E family forms had a reduced risk of developing AD, compared to subjects with lower levels. After adjusting for various confounders, the risk was reduced by 45-54%, depending on the vitamin E component" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com
  • Finally, Vitamin E May Work -- And It's in the Liver - Medscape, 7/6/10 - "We used to call this "fatty liver"; now it's got a fancier name -- it's "nonalcoholic steatohepatitis." ... It turned out that only the Vitamin E group managed to reach that level of significance"
  • Vitamin E may boost immune function: Mouse study - Science Daily, 5/20/10 - "The animals were fed 0.1 per cent Tocomin 50 per cent (Carotech), which is a mixture of tocotrienols and alpha-tocopherols, or a control diet containing only tocopherol, for six weeks ... Older mice fed the tocotrienol supplement displayed a greater level of lymphocyte proliferation, a marker of how quickly white blood cells can reproduce in response to infection, than old mice fed the control ... mice of both ages fed the tocotrienol supplement had higher levels of the interleukin-1beta, a cytokine released by immune cells (macrophages). ... There are eight forms of vitamin E: four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) and four tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta). Alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) is the main source found in supplements and in the European diet, while gamma-tocopherol (gamma-Toc) is the most common form in the American diet" - [Abstract] - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Long-term use of vitamin E may decrease COPD risk, study finds - Science Daily, 5/16/10 - "Long-term, regular use of vitamin E in women 45 years of age and older may help decrease the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by about 10 percent in both smokers and non-smokers"
  • Vitamin E may be new boon for liver disease - MSNBC, 4/28/10 - "In the study published online in the New England Journal of Medicine, 247 adults with advanced fatty liver disease were randomly assigned to take a high dose of vitamin E (800 international units), the diabetes drug Actos or dummy pills for nearly two years ... Biopsies before and after treatment showed that liver function improved in 43 percent of those in the vitamin E group compared with 19 percent in the placebo group ... participants on the diabetes drug Actos also improved, but to a lesser degree and with a drawback: gaining 10 pounds on average, which remained even after they stopped taking the drug"
  • How one form of natural vitamin E protects brain after stroke - Science Daily, 1/11/10 - "Our research suggests that the different forms of natural vitamin E have distinct functions. The relatively poorly studied tocotrienol form of natural vitamin E targets specific pathways to protect against neural cell death and rescues the brain after stroke injury ... Vitamin E occurs naturally in eight different forms. The best-known form of vitamin E belongs to a variety called tocopherols. The form of vitamin E in this study, tocotrienol or TCT, is not abundant in the American diet but is available as a nutritional supplement. It is a common component of a typical Southeast Asian diet" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Putting limits on vitamin E - Science Daily, 12/31/09
  • Antioxidant compound reduced incidence of colorectal metachronous adenomas - Science Daily, 12/7/09 - "The researchers randomized 411 participants to the placebo group or to receive an antioxidant compound -- specifically selenomethionnine 200 μg, zinc 30 mg, vitamin A 6,000 IU, vitamin C 180 mg and vitamin E 30 mg ... individuals who consumed antioxidants had a 40 percent reduction in the incidence of metachronous adenomas of the large bowel ... It is noteworthy that the benefit observed after the conclusion of the trial persisted through 13 years of follow up"
  • Antioxidant vitamins may protect against female cancer - Nutra USA, 6/3/09 - "for every 1,000 microgram increase per 1,000 kcal of diet of beta-carotene was associated with a 12 per cent reduction in the risk of endometrial cancer ... Similarly, for every 50 milligram increase per 1,000 kcal of vitamin C the risk of endometrial cancer was reduced by 15 per cent, and for every 5 milligram increase per 1,000 kcal of vitamin E the risk of endometrial cancer was reduced by 9 per cent" - [Abstract]
  • High-Dose Vitamin E Slows Functional Decline in Alzheimer's Disease - Medscape, 5/4/09 - "The clinical-effectiveness study enrolled 540 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (324 women) who had a mean age of nearly 74 years. All were receiving 1 of the following cholinesterase inhibitors: donepezil, rivastigmine, or galantamine (800 to 1000 U twice daily). In addition, 208 patients received vitamin E (800 to 2000 IU/day) ... Vitamin E treatment showed small to medium effect sizes in slowing functional decline, the abstract reports. For vitamin E, the ADL Cohen's d significantly increased, from 0.20 in year 1 (P = .02) to 0.42 by year 5 (P < .001)"
  • Vitamin E may reverse male pattern baldness: Study - Nutra USA, 4/28/09 - "Volunteers were randomly assigned to the palm tocotrienol complex (total tocotrienol intake of 100 mg) or the placebo (soft gelatin capsule containing 600 mg soy bean oil) ... Hair counts, measured by the counting the number of hairs in a pre-selected 2x2 cm area, were found to significantly increase by an average of 41.8 per cent in the tocotrienol group, with eight volunteers experiencing greater than 50 per cent hair growth ... There are eight forms of vitamin E: four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) and four tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta). Alpha-tocopherol is the main source found in supplements ... While the majority of research on vitamin E has focused on alpha-Toc, studies into tocotrienols account for less than one per cent of all research into vitamin E" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Tocotrienol build-up in tumours ‘critical’ for anti-cancer benefits: Study - Nutra USA, 3/31/09 - "the effects of gamma- and delta-tocotrienol on mouse cancer cells ... the diet supplemented with 0.1 per cent gamma-tocotrienol or 0.1 per cent delta-tocotrienol for four weeks ... In conclusion, our results suggested that accumulation is critical for the anti-tumour activity of tocotrienols" - [Abstract] - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin E May Decrease Mortality Of Elderly Male Smokers, Yet Increase Mortality Of Middle-aged Smokers - Science Daily, 2/14/09
  • Vitamin E Shows Possible Promise In Easing Chronic Inflammation - Science Daily, 12/4/08 - "the larger take-home message of the study, published in the December issue of the journal Experimental Physiology, is that Vitamin E “may be beneficial in individuals with chronic inflammation, such as the elderly or patients with type II diabetes or chronic heart failure"
  • Vitamin E may slash lung cancer risk: Study - Nutra USA, 10/31/08 - "The researchers calculated that the highest average intakes of alpha-tocopherol (more than 7.73 mg per day) were associated with a 53 per cent reduction in lung cancer risk, compared to the lowest average intakes (less than 4.13 mg per day) ... When the researchers accounted for the other tocopherols they observed no significant associations on lung cancer risk for beta-, gamma, and delta-tocopherol" - [Abstract] (see the abstract, I don't believe that last part is true on the gamma. - Ben
  • Optimal Dose Of Vitamin E Maximizes Benefits, Minimizes Risk - Science Daily, 10/30/08 - "One of the most compelling studies of the benefits of vitamin E is the Women’s Health Study, in which 40,000 healthy women, 45 and older, took 600 IU vitamin E supplements or a placebo every other day for 10 years. Women taking the supplements had 24 percent fewer deaths from heart disease. Vitamin E’s protective effect appeared even stronger in women 65 and older. Those taking the vitamin experienced a 26 percent reduction in cardiovascular events and a 49 percent reduction in cardiovascular deaths ... Vitamin K in the liver appears to diminish as vitamin E increases" - Note:  Alpha-tocopherol is the only form of vitamin E that is measured in IU's.  See my vitamin E page for problems with just taking the one form of vitamin E.  For one thing, in addition to reducing vitamin K it reduces the gamma-tocopherol form of vitamin E which may be as important if not more important.  See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Prostate Cancer: Vitamin E, Selenium No Help - WebMD, 10/28/08 - "That evidence included a 1998 Finnish study of whether vitamin E could prevent lung cancer in some 30,000 smokers. It didn't, but men taking vitamin E had 32% fewer prostate cancers ... I am afraid it will be the end of the story for large trials of vitamin E and selenium to prevent prostate cancer" - Note:  Most of the vitamin E studies I've read on prostate cancer indicated that only the gamma-tocopherol worked yet they spent $114 million on this study and used the cheapest synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate form.  How dumb was that?  I don't know what the story on the selenium was.  Some say it's because people in the U.S. aren't deficient in selenium.  See my comments in my 10/29/08 newsletter.
  • Vitamin E May Help Alzheimer's Patients Live Longer, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 4/15/08 - "people who took vitamin E, with or without a cholinesterase inhibitor, were 26 percent less likely to die than people who didn't take vitamin E"
  • Vitamin C can keep you healthy, looking younger - CNN.com, 2/27/08 - "Pairing vitamins C and E is smart for another reason: It may lessen your Alzheimer's risks by as much as 64 percent ..."
  • Vision: Antioxidants May Cut Cataracts - New York Times, 2/12/08 - "Compared with the one-fifth of women who consumed the least antioxidants, the one-fifth who consumed the most reduced their risk for cataracts by 14 percent with vitamin E and 18 percent with lutein"
  • Vitamin E for Vitality? - WebMD, 1/22/08 - "people with high blood levels of vitamin E showed a milder decline in their physical function test scores" - [Science Daily] - Note:  I feel that the reason the studies stress food as the source is because you are getting the mixed form of vitamin E instead of the alpha-tocopherol found in most supplements, which may lower the other forms.
  • Vitamin E Could Help 40% Of Diabetics Ward Off Heart Attacks - Science Daily, 11/23/07 - "After 18 months of treatment, people with the haptoglobin (Hp) 2-2 gene who took 400 International Units (IU) of vitamin E daily had more than 50 percent fewer heart attacks, strokes, and related deaths than Hp 2-2 patients who took a placebo pill. 40% of individuals with diabetes carry the Hp 2-2 gene" - Note:  Only the alpha-tocopherol form of vitamin E is measured in IUs and I'm leery of only taking that form.  See:
  • Vitamin E pills may cut heart disease risk in diabetics - Nutra USA, 10/19/07
  • Vitamin supplement use and risk for breast cancer: the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study - Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007 Oct 5 - "a 20% reduction in breast cancer risk was observed with vitamin E supplement use among women with low-dietary vitamin E intake ... A non-significant 20% risk reduction was observed among vitamin B supplement users with low B dietary intake (OR = 0.8; 95% CI, 0.6-1.1). Frequent use of a vitamin B supplement was adversely associated with breast cancer risk among those with high dietary vitamin B intake (OR = 1.4"
  • Tocotrienol may protect against DNA damage, says study - Nutra USA, 9/24/07 - "There are eight forms of vitamin E: four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) and four tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta). Alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) is the main source found in supplements and in the European diet, while gamma-tocopherol (gamma-Toc) is the most common form in the American diet ... While the majority of research on vitamin E has focused on alpha-Toc, studies into tocotrienols account for less than one per cent of all research into vitamin E ... blood cells from patients receiving the tocotrienol-rich supplement had significantly less DNA damage after three and six months of supplementation than those in the placebo group" - See my favorite Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin E Trials 'Fatally Flawed' - Science Daily, 9/23/07
  • Vitamin E May Protect Against Venous Thromboembolism in Women - Medscape, 9/12/07 - "Of 482 women who had VTE during follow-up, 213 were in the vitamin E group and 269 were in the placebo group, yielding a significant 21% hazard reduction (relative hazard, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 - 0.94; P = .010). The hazard reduction was 27% for unprovoked VTE (relative hazard, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.57 - 0.94; P = .016)"
  • Vitamin E May Lower Blood Clot Risk - WebMD, 9/11/07 - "Overall, women who took vitamin E were 21% less likely to develop venous thromboembolism than women who did not, but the reduction was more than double this (44%) among the women who had a history of clots ... taking vitamin E appeared to cut the clot risk in half among women with genetic mutations that increased their risk"
  • Industry must wake up to tocotrienol opportunities - Nutra USA, 8/1/07 - "While the majority of research on vitamin E has focused on alpha-Toc, studies into tocotrienols account for less than one per cent of all research into vitamin E"
  • Vitamin E: Friend or Foe During Radiation Therapy? - Physician's Weekly, 7/16/07 - "Not only did it show that vitamin E supplementation was of no benefit to patients, but it was also associated with a nearly 40% increased risk of death when compared to study counterparts who received a placebo. Vitamin E, despite what patients may think, appears to be much more harmful for patients who have head and neck cancer who are receiving radiation therapy"
  • Pro-vitamin E Shown To Be Active Against Breast Cancer Cells - Science Daily, 12/9/06 - "pro-vitamin E or alpha-tocopheryl succinate can reduce tumour volume in experimental animals with high levels of HER2"
  • Vitamin E may protect against cancer, heart ills - MSNBC, 11/22/06 - "Men with the highest levels of vitamin E in their blood were 18 percent less likely to die than those with the lowest levels, the researchers found. They also had a 21-percent lower risk of death from cancer, a 19-percent lower risk of dying from heart disease, and a 30-percent lower risk of death from other causes"
  • Antioxidant-rich Pecans Can Protect Against Unhealthy Oxidation - Science Daily, 10/3/06 - "adding just a handful of pecans to your diet each day may inhibit unwanted oxidation of blood lipids, thus helping reduce the risk of heart disease. Researchers suggest that this positive effect was in part due to the pecan's significant content of vitamin E ... Pecans are especially rich in one form of vitamin E -- gamma tocopherol"
  • What Makes Gamma Tocopherol Superior to Alpha Tocopherol - Life Extension Magazine, 4/06 - "vitamin E supplements should contain a ratio of alpha tocopherol to gamma tocopherol that is closer to what is found in nature ... For optimal supplementation, it would appear logical to consume at least 200 mg of gamma tocopherol each day, in addition to around 400 IU of alpha tocopherol"
  • Nutritional Friend Or Foe? Vitamin E Sends Mixed Messages - Science Daily, 3/3/06 - "We think that gamma-tocopherol may have this kind of damaging effect on nearly every type of cell in the body"
  • Healthy Diet May Help Seniors' Vision - WebMD, 12/27/05 - "People with above-average intakes of all four antioxidants were 35% less likely to develop AMD during the study ... Vitamin E and zinc stood out"
  • Meta-analysis Results Suggest High-Dose Vitamin E Increases All-Cause Mortality - Medscape, 11/6/05 - "there are several theories about why vitamin E increases risk. One theory is that it increases bleeding risk, which would increase the risk of hemorrhagic stroke, while another theory suggests that at high doses vitamin E stops working like an antioxidant that mops up free radicals that attack cells that line blood vessels and instead becomes a prooxidant and actually promotes the production of free radicals ... Still another scenario suggests that high-doses of vitamin E tend to destroy other fat-soluble antioxidants"
  • Vitamin E: Alpha or Gamma? - Natural Food Merchandiser, 10/05 - "Given these synergistic relationships and the results of research to date, a mixed-tocopherol product seems to be the best choice"
  • Low Vitamin E Serum Levels Correlate With Dementia Risk - Clinical Psychiatry News, 10/05 - "those individuals in the bottom tertile of vitamin E plasma levels were at significantly higher risk not only of being demented (OR 2.6, 95% CI) but also of having impaired cognitive function (OR 2.2, 95% CI), compared with the highest vitamin E tertile"
  • High Doses Of Vitamin E Boost Rat Survival Rate 40%; Brain Function, Neuromuscular Gains - Science Daily, 9/5/05 - "male mice showed a 40% increase in median lifespan ... 17% increase in maximal lifespan (to 136 weeks from 116 weeks) ... increases in the ability to perform tests measuring neuromuscular performance (high-wire tightrope) and cognitive exploratory activity (T-maze)"
  • Vitamin E Boosts Lifespan, Brain Functioning - mercola.com, 9/2/05 - "be sure to find a brand that contains gamma-tocopherol, the most naturally occuring form of vitamin E, not dl-alpha-tocopherol, the synthetic variety that's most commonly available in most stores"
  • Are you getting enough vitamin E? - MSNBC, 8/12/05 - "Most supplements contain – and thus most research looks at – the form of vitamin E known as alpha-tocopherol. However, gamma-tocopherol is actually the major form in the American diet ... Some studies show that blood levels of gamma-tocopherol are a good or better indicator of heart and cancer risk. Gamma-tocopherol may even have unique cancer-suppressing functions within cells. Some studies suggest that alpha-tocopherol supplements may have the undesirable effect of reducing blood and tissue levels of gamma-tocopherol"
  • Can Rice Bran Oil Melt Away Cholesterol? - Science Daily, 5/12/05 - "Vitamin E ... consists of both tocopherols and tocotrienols ... the tocotrienols (TRF) seem to have greater antioxidant properties ... taking any form of Vitamin E for a long time can be harmful ... The most effective dose in rats was 8 IU kg/day. Extrapolated to humans, a person with an average body weight of 154 pounds would get around 560 IU"
  • Tocotrienol-Rich Rice Bran Oil A New Natural Cholesterol-Fighter - mercola.com, 5/12/05 - "This good news certainly supports other studies that have shown the antioxidant effects of tocotrienols to be 40 to 60 times more effective than alpha tocopherol"
  • Boost In Immune Response Fights Common Cold - Science Daily, 4/24/05 - "Nursing facility residents who consumed 200 International Units (IUs) of vitamin E daily for one year were less likely to get the sniffles than those who took a placebo ... those who took the moderate supplements were 20 percent less likely to contract upper respiratory infections, such as colds"
  • Vitamin E Harms More Than It Helps - WebMD, 3/15/05 [Abstract] - "All were over age 55. Half got high-dose vitamin E -- 400 IU every day (about 400 milligrams) -- and half got fake pills that looked the just the same ... Vitamin E was linked to a 13% higher risk of heart failure and a 21% increased risk of hospitalization for heart failure" - Note: The way I understand it, only the alpha tocopherol form (used in most supplements) is measured in IU.  So I assume they used that form for this study.  I've been saying for some time that taking just the alpha tocopherol form causes more harm than good because it lowers gamma tocopherol.  See item 6 on my home page.  With all the evidence against alpha tocopherol, I'm surprised they are still using it in studies and I'm surprised how slow vitamin companies are to offer multi-vitamins with mixed tocopherols/tocotrienols.
  • Vitamin E: Which Type Best for Prostate Cancer? - WebMD, 3/1/05 - "the men with the highest blood levels of alpha and gamma tocopherol had lower prostate cancer risk. Men with the highest levels of both forms of the vitamin were 30%-40% less likely to develop prostate cancer as those with the lowest levels"
  • Vitamin E From Food Sources May Reduce Risk of AD - Medscape, 2/11/05 - "High intake of vitamin E from food (tocopherol), but not from supplements (which usually contain α-tocopherol), is inversely associated with Alzheimer disease ... various tocopherol forms rather than α-tocopherol alone may be important in the vitamin E protective association with Alzheimer disease"
  • Vitamin E In Plant Seeds Could Halt Prostate, Lung Cancer, Says Purdue Scientist - Science Daily, 12/30/04 - "gamma-tocopherol, which occurs naturally in walnuts, pecans, sesame seeds, and in corn and sesame oils, inhibits the proliferation of lab-cultured human prostate and lung cancer cells"
  • Vitamin E in Food May Fight Cancer - WebMD, 12/15/04 - "Most supplements provide a different form of the vitamin, alpha-tocopherol ... Gamma-tocopherol aced its lab tests. It inhibited the spread of prostate and lung cancer cells without hurting the healthy cells ... Mixing several forms of vitamin E -- including gamma-tocopherol -- was even better at blocking cancer's spread"
  • Gamma-tocopherol halts cancer cells in lab study - Nutra USA, 12/15/04 - "Gamma-tocopherol, found naturally in walnuts, sesame seeds and corn, was found to hold back the proliferation of lab-cultured human prostate and lung cancer cells, reports the team from Purdue University in the 13 December online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... This could indicate that the vitamin Could be used to target lung and prostate cancer cells without the damaging side effects of chemotherapy"
  • Vitamin E, Heart Disease, and Mortality - Dr. Murray's Natural Facts, 11/12/04
  • Carotech Communication Regarding Johns Hopkins vitamin E Meta-analysis - NPI Center, 11/12/04 - "a high dosage of alpha-tocopherol alone has been shown to deplete the body's gamma-tocopherol. Despite alpha tocopherol's action as an antioxidant, gamma tocopherol is required to effectively remove the harmful peroxynitrite-derived nitrating species"
  • High-Dose Vitamin E May Shorten Life Span - WebMD, 11/10/04 - "too much vitamin E -- daily doses of 400 IU or more -- actually increases the risk of dying" - Note:  Most vitamin E supplements are the d-alpha tocopherol or dl-alpha tocopheryl (synthetic) form, which have been shown to deplete serum gamma tocopherol and alpha tocotrienol.  I've been saying for some time that taking just the d-alpha tocopherol causes more harm than good (item 6 on my home page).
  • CRN Questions Conclusions Reached by Researchers in Recent Vitamin E Meta-Analysis - NPI Center, 11/10/04 - "Most of the trials involved middle-aged to elderly persons who had heart disease or other serious conditions or were at risk of disease. The placebo groups had an ACM rate of 1022/10,000 and the high-dose (defined by the researchers as 400 IU and up) vitamin E subjects had an ACM increase of 39/10,000"
  • Vitamin E: Reducing Diabetes Risk? - Physician's Weekly, 11/8/04 - "Although the improvement in insulin resistance was temporary, elevations in alanine transferase liver enzyme were sustained throughout the study period"
  • Vitamin E + Lycopene Fights Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 9/30/04 - "a combination treatment with low-dose lycopene and vitamin E had the strongest effect at slowing tumor growth -- a 73% slowing of growth on the 42nd day of the test ... The next best results came from the low dose of lycopene alone, which slowed tumor growth by 53% in the same time frame"
  • Nourishing Your Noggin - WebMD, 9/22/04 - "For a long time, people believed that a common component of vitamin E called alpha tocopherol was most important, but another form called gamma tocopherol is definitely a protective antioxidant in brain disorders"
  • Vitamin E review - ConsumerLab.com, 8/25/04 - "There are studies underway to determine whether gamma-tocopherol (which is more abundant in the diet than alpha-tocopherol) may be important for some of the beneficial effects associated with natural vitamin E in the diet ... 32 products were purchased ... Five vitamin E products failed"
  • Vitamin E May Prevent Common Cold - WebMD, 8/17/04 - "Participants in the vitamin E group who completed the study had significantly fewer common colds and a 20% lower risk of acquiring a cold than those in the placebo group"
  • Technical Communication from CAROTECH INC, Edison, NJ (In Response to the latest Scientific Review on Vitamin E, published in the Archives of Internal Medicine) - NPI Center, 8/1/04 - "There are 8 forms of vitamin E in nature - 4 forms of tocopherols and 4 forms of tocotrienols (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol and corresponding tocotrienols). The idea that one single form of vitamin E – alpha-tocopherol out of eight fractions is the “magic” vitamin E and assuming that the other forms are worthless denies the very fact that nature put these seven other tocopherols and tocotrienols out there for a reason"
  • Vitamin E Useless in Fighting Heart Disease - WebMD, 7/28/04 - "vitamin E had no significant effect in reducing the risk of heart attack, stroke, or heart-related death"
  • Study Shows Vitamins C And E Can Prevent Metabolic Damaage In Extreme Exercise - Science Daily, 7/15/04 - "ultramarathon runners who used supplements of vitamins C and E for six weeks prior to their races totally prevented the increase in lipid oxidation that is otherwise associated with extreme exercise"
  • Higher Serum Vitamin E Levels Linked to Lower Prostate Cancer Risk - Doctor's Guide, 3/30/04 - "Compared with men in the lowest tertile of alpha-tocopherol levels, men in the highest tertile were 53% less likely to develop prostate cancer (P = .05). Men in the highest tertile of gamma-tocopherol were 39% less likely to develop the cancer than those in the lowest tertile"
  • Vitamins C and E May Lower Alzheimer's Risk - WebMD, 1/20/04
  • Vitamins E and C May Fend Off Alzheimer's - HealthDay, 1/19/04 - "those who took extra vitamin E and C were about 60 percent less likely to develop dementia and other memory and thinking problems linked with Alzheimer's as those who didn't use the two supplements ... The effect appeared only in people who combined the two vitamins"
  • Vitamin E Helps People with Sudden Hearing Loss - Healthwell Exchange Daily News, 10/2/03 - "one group received vitamin E, 600 IU two times per day, while the other did not. Treatment was considered successful when hearing improved by 75% or more ... At follow-up examinations, successful treatment was noted in 76% of those receiving vitamin E and 56% of those not receiving vitamin E"
  • Vitamin E Supplements Effective Treatment for Mild Hypertension - Doctor's Guide, 10/1/03 - "Vitamin E supplements of 200 IU/day improved the blood pressure status of 70 mild hypertensive ... Subjects who received vitamin E supplements had a 24% decrease in systolic blood pressure compared to a 1.6% decrease among placebo controls"
  • Vitamin Supplements Improve Blood Vessel Function - Physician's Weekly, 9/8/03 - "In a study where children with hyperlipidemia were given doses of the antioxidants vitamins C and E, researchers have found that the supplements can significantly improve blood vessel function ... the test group received 500 mg of vitamin C and 400 IU of vitamin E daily. Both groups saw an 8% decline in LDL cholesterol and the test group had significant improvement in endothelial function comparable to the levels of normal healthy children"
  • Age-Related Disease: Reduce Risk with Vitamin E, Exercise - Physician's Weekly, 8/25/03 - "Free radical cells, which are unstable molecules that damage cells and are believed to contribute to the development of various diseases, were significantly reduced when exercise was combined with taking vitamin E. Moreover, the combined strategies reduced the risk of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, all of which worsen free radical cell damage. The researchers note that after age 40, the body produces more free radicals and fewer natural antioxidants to fight them, and taking vitamin E supplements can be beneficial to the well-being of patients"
  • Exercise, Vitamin E Combo Can Slow Aging - HealthDay, 8/11/03 - "those who exercised regularly and took vitamin E supplements became healthier and greatly decreased their levels of a blood marker that signals destruction of certain cells ... people who didn't exercise, but took vitamin E, had large decreases in oxidative stress and blood pressure ... Cells, tissues and organs are damaged by the oxidation caused by free radicals. Previous research has shown that free radicals play a role in the development of cancer, obstructed arteries, Alzheimer's disease and some 200 other diseases, as well as the aging process itself"
  • Can Vitamins Help Kids With High Cholesterol? - HealthDay, 8/11/03 - "All of the participants followed the National Cholesterol Education Program Step II diet for the entire six months of the study ... After an initial six-week period, the participants were randomly assigned to receive either 500 milligrams of vitamin C and 400 international units of vitamin E per day or placebos for the next six weeks ... The diet had no effect on endothelial dysfunction ... The vitamin supplements, however, improved endothelial function to almost normal levels" - [Abstract]
  • E and C May Give Older Women a Mental Edge - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 8/03 - "The women who had taken vitamin C and E supplements for more than 10 years scored an average of 1.5 years younger in cognitive function than those not taking vitamins. The results were even more marked for those with low dietary vitamin E intake: Women with the lowest 30 percent of dietary vitamin E intake who did not take supplements tested two years older in mental function than women who compensated for low dietary intake with antioxidant supplements"
  • Protecting Muscle Mass As You Age - Life Extension Magazine, 8/03 - "researchers gave both young (age 23 to 35) and elderly (age 66 to 78) men who were in an intensive exercise program either 1000 IU of vitamin E or a placebo daily for three months. The results showed that both the young and older men who were taking the daily vitamin E supplements had significantly less biochemical markers of free radical damage when compared to the men who were taking placebo"
  • Vitamin E, Exercise Prevent Aging Damage - WebMD, 7/31/03 - "Whether they exercised or not, those taking vitamin E pills had the same reduction in harmful substances known as free radicals -- unstable molecules that damage cells and are believed to contribute to the development of some 200 different diseases, many of them age-related. The levels of a blood marker that signals free-radical damage were cut in half ... Basically, vitamin E prevents free radicals from bumping into cell walls and destroying them"
  • What do you think of the new study showing that antioxidants don’t cut the risk of heart disease - Dr. Weil, 7/14/03 - "If you want to supplement your diet, take a product that provides as many members of this family of protective pigments as possible: alpha-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene, etc. As for vitamin E, most studies use synthetic alpha-tocopherol. I recommend using natural vitamin E supplements that provide all four tocopherols and all four tocotrienols"
  • Alpha-Tocopheryl Succinate Seen as Auxiliary Cancer Treatment - AltMedicine.com, 5/22/03 - "alpha-tocopheryl succinate has inhibited and killed both human and rodent cancer cells in test tubes (in vitro) and later in the living body of rodents (in vivo)—without causing normal cells to proliferate. So far, tests in living human bodies have not been conducted"
  • NOW Foods Introduces Advanced Gamma E Complex - NPI Center, 5/22/03 - "Gamma and alpha tocopherols must both be present in the correct ratios to provide Vitamin E’s broad range of benefits"
  • Vitamin E Protects Against Neurotoxicity From Cisplatin - Medscape, 3/10/03 - "Among 27 patients who completed six cycles of cisplatin chemotherapy, the incidence of neurotoxicity was 30.7% in the group receiving vitamin E compared with 85.7% in the unsupplemented group (P < .01), and the neurotoxicity that did occur in the supplemented group was less severe (P < .01)."
  • Is there anything that I can do to aid recovery and reduce soreness [from exercise]? - Dr. Murray - "Take 3,000-8,000 mg of vitamin C and 400-800 IU of vitamin E in divided doses daily"
  • Vitamins C and E may enhance effectiveness of insulin for diabetes - University of California at Irvine, 1/29/03 - "Boosting insulin with vitamins C and E may improve the drug's effectiveness for treating diabetes ... the popular antioxidant supplements not only enhance insulin's ability to reduce blood sugar, but also lower the risks of organ damage that can occur despite insulin treatments"
  • Bad Boy in the Blood: CRP - WebMD, 1/15/03 - "You can lower your CRP levels by doing the same things you would do to lower your cholesterol levels: lose weight, eat fewer calories and a very low fat diet, take the cholesterol-lowering drugs known as statins, and the natural form of vitamin E"
  • Vitamins C and E Improve Outcome in Critically Ill Surgical Patients - New Hope Natural Media, 1/9/03 - "Five-hundred and ninety-five people admitted to a surgical intensive care unit (ICU), 91% of whom were victims of trauma, were randomly assigned to receive standard care (control group) or standard care plus vitamins C and E. Vitamin E was given orally in the amount of 1,000 IU three times per day, and vitamin C was given intravenously in the amount of 1,000 mg three times per day ... The incidence of multiple organ failure was significantly lower (by 57%) in the group receiving antioxidants than in the control group (2.7% vs. 6.1%). In addition, the average length of stay in the ICU was significantly lower (by 17%) in the antioxidant group.  After 28 days, the mortality rate was 44% lower in the antioxidant group than in the control group (1.3% vs. 2.4%), but this difference was not statistically significant"
  • Antioxidant Vitamins Improve Surgical Outcomes - Medscape, 12/20/02 - "Compared with patients receiving standard care, those who received antioxidant supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and ascorbate had a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and length of ICU stay, and lower relative risk (RR) of pulmonary morbidity (RR, 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60 - 1.1) and of multiple organ failure (RR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.19 - 0.96)"
  • HRT, Vitamins C & E Don't Help Heart - WebMD, 11/19/02 - "New research offers still more evidence that hormone replacement therapy does more harm that good in older women with heart disease, and it also raises doubts about the safety of the antioxidant vitamins E and C"
  • How many international units of vitamin E are in the Gamma E Tocopherol/Tocotrienol product? - Life Extension Magazine, 11/02 - "The only form of vitamin E that has a standard conversion formula from milligrams to international units is alpha tocopherol. The other forms of vitamin E, beta, gamma and delta, do not have a conversion formula and are therefore listed in milligrams on the bottle ... The point to remember is to make sure that your daily total intake of vitamin E contains at least 20% gamma tocopherol. A study in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (April 1997) suggests that it could be dangerous to take high doses of alpha tocopherol without also consuming gamma tocopherol"
  • Dietary Intake Of Vitamin E May Reduce Risk Of Parkinson's Disease - Intelihealth, 10/22/02 - maybe the reason supplements didn't work is because most supplements only have the alpha form, which has been shown to lower the gamma.
  • Antioxidants May Reduce Alzheimer's Disease Risk - Clinical Psychiatry News, 10/02 - "Use of vitamins E and C together—which is what most subjects did—was associated with an eightfold reduction in prevalence and a fivefold lower incidence of Alzheimer's disease"
  • More Antioxidants, Less Fat May Reduce Alzheimer's Risk - Clinical Psychiatry News, 10/02 - "Data are now strong enough to recommend a dietary strategy for reducing Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk that includes low fat intake and high consumption of fish and antioxidants, along with vitamin E, folic acid, and vitamins B6 and B12 supplements"
  • Newly Discovered Benefits of Gamma Tocopherol - Life Extension Magazine, 10/02 - "Since taking large doses of alpha tocopherol depletes plasma levels of gamma tocopherol, the health-conscious consumer who takes only alpha tocopherol supplements needs to seriously reconsider this practice ... Likewise, most vitamin E supplements provide only alpha tocopherol. New evidence strongly suggests that this is inadequate supplementation ... men with the highest plasma levels of gamma tocopherol (the top quintile) had only one-fifth the risk of prostate cancer compared with the men with the lowest plasma levels" - I still feel that taking only the alpha can do more harm than good.  Here's the referenced Am J Clin Nutr abstract:
    • gamma-tocopherol, the major form of vitamin E in the US diet, deserves more attention - Am J Clin Nutr 2001 Dec;74(6):714-22 - "Both gamma-tocopherol and gamma-CEHC, but not alpha-tocopherol, inhibit cyclooxygenase activity and, thus, possess antiinflammatory properties. Some human and animal studies indicate that plasma concentrations of gamma-tocopherol are inversely associated with the incidence of cardiovascular disease and prostate cancer. These distinguishing features of gamma-tocopherol and its metabolite suggest that gamma-tocopherol may contribute significantly to human health in ways not recognized previously. This possibility should be further evaluated, especially considering that high doses of alpha-tocopherol deplete plasma and tissue gamma-tocopherol, in contrast with supplementation with gamma-tocopherol, which increases both"
  • Vitamins C And E Support Breathing Following An Operation - Intelihealth, 9/12/02 - "Patients who have recently undergone an operation experience less breathing problems after being given a cocktail of vitamins C and E"
  • Vitamin E Is Important For Early Prevention Of Cardiovascular Disease In Middle-Aged Women - Intelihealth, 8/23/02 - "Low intakes of vitamin E were significantly associated with plaques in the carotid bifurcations, which are the sites where most early atherosclerosis begins. Women with the lowest intakes and plasma concentrations of vitamin E were more than twice as likely to have this type of plaque"
  • Natural Remedies for Osteoarthritis: Now, More than Ever - New Hope Natural Media, 8/15/02 - "Other natural substances that have been reported to relieve the symptoms of OA include vitamin E (600 to 1,200 IU per day), Devil's claw, cat's claw and ginger root"
  • A Better Anti-Oxidant Formula? - Dr. Weil, 8/13/02
  • High Dose Vitamin E Appears to Reduce Alzheimer's Risk - Doctor's Guide, 7/24/02 - "An analysis of data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging suggests that vitamin E intake is associated with a statistically significant reduction in the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) ... People with the highest quartile of vitamin E intake, 46.5 mg, had a 26 percent reduction in risk for developing AD."
  • Vitamin E an Effective Treatment for Eczema - New Hope Natural Media, 7/11/02
  • Negative Results in Antioxidant-Heart Study Challenged: A Healthnotes Newswire Opinion - New Hope Natural Media, 7/11/02 - "Nutrients work in the body as a team, and all of them must be present in adequate amounts in order to promote good health. If magnesium, for example, were the weakest link in the nutritional chain, one would not expect antioxidants to do much good until the magnesium deficiency was corrected ... Rather than testing only one or a few nutrients at a time, researchers should use a supplement that contains all of the nutrients known to promote heart health" - Some of my concerns:  All the vitamin E studies I've read have only used the alpha tocopherol and taking only the alpha has been shown to significantly lower the gamma tocopherol.  I also feel that the studies using only beta carotene are pointless.  Beta carotene is just one of over 600 carotenoids and many researchers believe that taking mega doses of just one carotenoid can cause of deficiency of the others.
  • Link Found Between Vitamin E Intake and Immunoglobulin E In Treatment Of Atopic Dermatitis - Doctor's Guide, 5/31/02 - "Dietary vitamin E (VE) could be an excellent tool in treating atopic dermatitis"
  • Lipoprotein Alterations Impair Vitamin E In Patients With Parenchymal Liver Cirrhosis - Doctor's Guide, 5/21/02 - "Significant increases were seen in the plasma maximal oxidation rate in cirrhotic patients, which was inversely related to the serum concentration of vitamin E"
  • What's Wrong With Vitamin E? - Life Extension Magazine, 5/02 - "Most vitamin E supplements consist primarily of alpha tocopherol. Recent studies indicate that a lot more than alpha tocopherol is needed to protect against degenerative disease ... To obtain optimal health benefits from vitamin E, a mixture of tocopherols (alpha, beta, delta, and gamma) and tocotrienols (alpha, beta, delta, and gamma) are required ...In an animal model of aging, tocotrienols extended lifespan by 19% ... studies indicate that high dose alpha-tocopherol supplementation considerably decreases the absorption of gamma-tocopherol and reduces the effects of tocotrienols"
  • Does Vitamin E Prevent Breast Cancer? - Life Extension Magazine, 5/02 - "premenopausal women with a family history who consumed the highest quantity of vitamin E enjoyed a 43% reduction in breast cancer incidence compared to only a 16% risk reduction for women without a family history of breast cancer.[11] Based on this study, vitamin E appears to protect against genetic- predisposed breast cancer better than environmental-induced breast cancer. (Note that nutrients like indole-3-carbinol may specifically protect against environmental breast carcinogens.)"
  • Vitamins Help After Heart Transplant - WebMD, 3/28/02 - "The plaque-fighting benefits of the antioxidant supplements were even greater than those found using statin medications, which have already been shown to slow hardening of the arteries after transplants. Previous research has shown that antioxidants, such as vitamin C and E, can promote heart health by reducing blood clots and keeping the blood vessels flexible"
  • Few Vitamins Effectively Prevent or Reverse Skin Damage - Medscape, 3/02 - "New laboratory studies suggest vitamin E helps inactivate free radicals, making them less likely to cause damage"
  • Antioxidants, At Certain Levels, May Reduce Blood Pressure - Doctor's Guide, 11/14/01 - "increasing levels of serum beta- carotene were associated with significant reductions in systolic blood pressure, while increasing levels of serum vitamin C were associated with significant reductions in diastolic pressure ... In contrast, serum levels of vitamin E were associated with significant increases in diastolic blood pressure"
  • Everbody's Getting Alzheimer's, Decline Can Happen Fast in Those Over 65 - WebMD, 11/12/01 - "We know that dementia is extremely common, especially as we age ... He recommends 800IU twice a day for people who are already have dementia; for older people at risk, 400IU twice a day. Younger people and people at low risk are advised to take 400 IU once a day"
  • The Wizard is Oz - Life Extension Magazine, 11/01 - "Best-selling author and nutritional guru to the rich and famous, Oz Garcia is singing the praises of the Life Extension Foundation and its products in his newest book, The Healthy High Tech Body, published in September 2001 ... Supplements at the top of Garcia's list of recommendations ... DHA ... NADH ... Alpah Lipoic Acid ... Acetyl-L-Carnitine ... An expanded list of his recommendations includes lycopene, gamma tocopherol, vinpocetine, SAMe, folic acid, carnosine, glutathione, DMAE, Huperzine A, probiotics, MSM, secretagogues, arginine pyroglutamate, IP-6, bioflavonoid formulas and grape skin/seed extracts"
  • Vitamin E Prevents - Nutrition Science News, 11/01
  • Zinc, Antioxidants Prevent Some Forms of Vision Loss - WebMD, 10/12/01 - "people at risk of losing more sight due to a condition called "age-related macular degeneration" (AMD) could prevent further vision loss by taking a combination of zinc and antioxidants, including vitamins C and E and beta-carotene ... The antioxidants were taken once a day at a dose of 500 mg of vitamin C, 400 IU of vitamin E, and 15 mg of beta-carotene. Zinc was given as 80 mg of zinc oxide along with 2 mg of copper in the form of cupric oxide to prevent anemia, which can occur from too much zinc ... the high levels of dietary supplements that were taken in this study are very difficult to achieve from diet alone"
  • A Prescription for Alarm - Nutrition Science News, 9/01 - "Taking natural vitamin E supplements to reduce levels of C-reactive protein, an inflammatory compound that increases the risk of heart disease by 4.5 times.  Heart disease is increasingly viewed as a disease of blood-vessel inflammation"
  • Antioxidants Resolve Radiation Side Effects - Nutrition Science News, 9/01
  • Could Nicotinamide And Vitamin E Have Synergistic Effect And Reduce Insulin Usage? - Doctor's Guide, 7/11/01 - "The combination of nicotinamide and vitamin E might have a synergistic effect in lowering daily insulin usage among newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetics"
  • Vitamin E May Help Prevent Menopause Bone Loss - WebMD, 6/28/01 - "Treating these rats with vitamin E at a dose comparable to 400 IU in humans was just as good as estrogen treatment in restoring bone density and weight"
  • Newer Agents Offer Better Hot Flash Control In Breast Cancer Patients - Doctor's Guide, 4/4/01 - "If hot flashes are mild and/or the patient is risk averse, vitamin E (800 IU/day) is reasonable to try, because it is safe, inexpensive, and has some demonstrated efficacy"
  • The Prediabetic Epidemic - Nutrition Science News, 3/01 - "Supplements to Regulate Glucose and Insulin ... Alpha-Lipoic Acid ... Vitamin E ... A British study of 2,000 subjects with carefully diagnosed heart disease found that people taking 400­800 IU natural vitamin E daily for an average of 18 months had a 77 percent lower prevalence of heart attacks, compared with people taking placebos ... Vitamin C ... Chromium ... Silymarin" - (I assume that the natural form includes gamma tocopheryls whereas most US studies I have read use only the alpha, which has been shown to lower gamma.  That's why I feel there is conflicting studies with vitamin E. - Ben)
  • Vitamin E 2000 - Nutrition Science News, 3/01
  • High-Dose Vitamin E May Help Hearts -  WebMD, 3/1/01 - "Rimm led a study of vitamin E supplements (100 IU/day) in 38,884 men aged 40-75 without heart disease. Those who received vitamin E had a 25% reduction in risk of heart disease."
  • Vitamin E May Prevent Prostate Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 3/18/98 - "long-term use of a moderate-dose vitamin E supplement substantially reduced prostate cancer incidence and deaths in male smokers"
  • Military Program Proposes Saving Money Through Vitamin Supplementation - Doctor's Guide, 5/22/97 - "A new report by the National Defense Council Foundation finds that the federal government could save up to $6.3 billion annually by increasing the health of active and retired military personnel through a anti-aging program that includes the use of vitamin supplementation"


  • Supplementation with vitamin E alone is associated with reduced myocardial infarction: A meta-analysis - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2015 Feb 4 - "Sixteen randomized controlled trials of vitamin E treatment were analyzed in this meta-analysis ... Compared to controls, vitamin E given alone significantly decreased myocardial infarction (3.0% vs 3.4%) (random effects R.R.: 0.82; 95% C.I., 0.70-0.96; p = 0.01). This effect was driven by reduction of fatal myocardial infarction (random effects R.R.: 0.84; 95% C.I., 0.73-0.96; p = 0.01)" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin E and risk of age-related cataract: a meta-analysis - Public Health Nutr. 2015 Jan 16 - "age-related cataract (ARC) ... Dietary vitamin E intake, dietary and supplemental vitamin E intake, and high serum tocopherol levels were significantly associated with decreased risk of ARC, the pooled relative risk was 0.73 (95 % CI 0.58, 0.92), 0.86 (95 % CI 0.75, 0.99) and 0.77 (95 % CI 0.66, 0.91), respectively. Supplemental vitamin E intake was non-significantly associated with ARC risk (relative risk=0.92; 95 % CI 0.78, 1.07). The findings from dose-response analysis showed evidence of a non-linear association between dietary vitamin E intake and ARC. The risk of ARC decreased with dietary vitamin E intake from 7 mg/d (relative risk=0.94; 95 % CI 0.90, 0.97)"
  • Carnosine and vitamin E - a promising pair in the combat against testicular oxidative stress in aged rats - Andrologia. 2014 Dec 29 - "Oxidative stress is considered to play a key role in ageing. Carnosine alone or together with vitamin E may prove to be helpful in dealing with problems of ageing through its antioxidant activity. Testis, by producing steroids and possessing a poor antioxidant system may become a strong target for the chronic oxidative stress generated during ageing ... Carnosine plus vitamin E treatment appears to stage a powerful performance by attenuating testicular oxidative stress and sparing the antioxidant system" - See carnosine products at Amazon.com and Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Potent inhibitory effect of δ-tocopherol on prostate cancer cells cultured in vitro and grown as xenograft tumors in vivo - J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Oct 16 - "the effects of δ-tocopherol (δ-T) on growth and apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells were determined and compared with that of α-tocopherol (α-T), a commonly used form of vitamin E. Treatment of human prostate cancer cells with δ-T resulted in strong growth inhibition and apoptosis stimulation while the effects of α-T were modest ... In the in vivo study, we found that δ-T had a more potent inhibitory effect on the formation and growth of prostate xenograft tumors than α-T. Moreover, δ-T inhibited proliferation and stimulated apoptosis in the tumors" - Note: α = alpha, δ = delta.
  • Synergistic inhibition of cancer cell proliferation with a combination of δ-tocotrienol and ferulic acid - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 Oct 3 - "Rice bran consists of many functional compounds and thus much attention has been focused on the health benefits of its components. Here, we investigated the synergistic inhibitory effects of its components, particularly δ-tocotrienol (δ-T3) and ferulic acid (FA), against the proliferation of an array of cancer cells, including DU-145 (prostate cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer), and PANC-1 (pancreatic cancer) cells. The combination of δ-T3 and FA markedly reduced cell proliferation relative to δ-T3 alone, and FA had no effect when used alone" - Note:  δ is the delta form.  See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com and ferulic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Tocotrienol Rich Fraction Reverses Age-Related Deficits in Spatial Learning and Memory in Aged Rats - Lipids. 2014 Jul 12 - "tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) ... Aged rats supplemented with TRF showed a markedly reduced level of anxiety, improved spatial learning and memory, reduced amount and severity of DNA damage, a reduced level of MDA, and increased levels of antioxidant enzyme activity and plasma/brain vitamin E compared with age-matched controls. In conclusion, TRF supplementation reverses spatial learning and memory decline and decreases oxidative stress in aged rats"
  • Vitamin E intake and the lung cancer risk among female nonsmokers: A report from the Shanghai Women's Health Study - Int J Cancer. 2014 Jun 11 - "In summary, dietary tocopherol intake may reduce the risk of lung cancer among female non-smokers, however supplements may increase lung adenocarcinoma risk"
  • The Effects of α-Tocopherol on Bone: A Double-Edged Sword? - Nutrients. 2014 Apr 10;6(4):1424-1441 - "Recent studies have found conflicting evidence on the role of α-tocopherol (αTF) on bone health ... Our review found that αTF exerted beneficial, harmful or null effects on bone formation cells. Animal studies generally showed positive effects of αTF supplementation on bone in various models of osteoporosis. However, high-dose αTF was possibly detrimental to bone in normal animals. Human studies mostly demonstrated a positive relationship between αTF, as assessed using high performance liquid chromatography and/or dietary questionnaire, and bone health, as assessed using bone mineral density and/or fracture incidence. Three possible reasons high dosage of αTF can be detrimental to bone include its interference with Vitamin K function on bone, the blocking of the entry of other Vitamin E isomers beneficial to bone, and the role of αTF as a prooxidant. However, these adverse effects have not been shown in human studies"
  • Clinical Investigation of the Protective Effects of Palm Vitamin E Tocotrienols on Brain White Matter - Stroke. 2014 Apr 3 - "Previous cell-based and animal studies showed mixed tocotrienols are neuroprotective, but the effect is yet to be proven in humans. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the protective activity of mixed tocotrienols in humans with white matter lesions (WMLs). WMLs are regarded as manifestations of cerebral small vessel disease, reflecting varying degrees of neurodegeneration and tissue damage with potential as a surrogate end point in clinical trials ... total of 121 volunteers aged ≥35 years with cardiovascular risk factors and MRI-confirmed WMLs were randomized to receive 200 mg mixed tocotrienols or placebo twice a day for 2 years ... the mean WML volume of the placebo group increased after 2 years, whereas that of the tocotrienol-supplemented group remained essentially unchanged"
  • Genetic Variants Reflecting Higher Vitamin E Status in Men Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Prostate Cancer - J Nutr. 2014 Mar 12 - "Findings suggest lower prostate cancer risk for men whose genotypes reflect higher vitamin E (i.e., α-tocopherol) status. An SNP (rs964184) near budding-site selection protein 13 [BUD13 (yeast)], zinc finger protein 259 (ZNF259), and apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) on 11q23.3 was significantly associated with prostate cancer risk (per-allele OR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.98; P-trend = 0.03). The association between rs964184 and prostate cancer risk was stronger among homozygous carriers of the minor allele (OR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.83). Another variant, rs11057830 in scavenger receptor class-B member 1 (SCARB1) on 12p24.31, approached statistical significance (OR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.10, 1.01, P = 0.05; 2 minor allele copies)" - Note:  Some studies show that taking only the alpha form of vitamin E can cause a deficiency of the other forms.
  • Lower vitamin E serum levels are associated with osteoporosis in early postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study - J Bone Miner Metab. 2013 Jul;31(4):455-60 - "In a multivariate linear model with BMD of the lumbar spine as a dependent variable, the vitamin E:lipid ratio was clearly related with BMD of the lumbar spine (F ratio = 6.30, p = 0.002). BMD of the lumbar spine was significantly higher in the highest tertile of the vitamin E:lipid ratio than in the lowest tertile ... These findings highlight that vitamin E may increase BMD in healthy postmenopausal women"
  • Tocotrienols for normalisation of hepatic echogenic response in nonalcoholic fatty liver: a randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial - Nutr J. 2013 Dec 27;12(1):166 - "Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the commonest liver disorders. Obesity, insulin resistance, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress have been identified amongst the possible hits leading to the onset and progression of this disease. Nutritional evaluation of NAFLD patients showed a lower-than-recommended intake of vitamin E. Vitamin E is a family of 8 isoforms, 4 tocopherols and 4 tocotrienols. Alpha-tocopherol has been widely investigated in liver diseases, whereas no previous clinical trial has investigated tocotrienols for NAFLD ... The treatment, either mixed tocotrienols 200 mg twice daily or placebo, had a 1-year duration ... As primary outcome, the normalisation of hepatic echogenic response was significantly higher for the tocotrienols treated group compared to the placebo group in the intention to treat analysis (P = 0.039; 95% CI = 0.896-6.488). As secondary objective, the per protocol assessment also showed significant rate of remission (P = 0.014; 95% CI = 1.117-9.456). Worsening of NAFLD grade was recorded in two patients in the placebo group, but none in the group treated with tocotrienols" - See mixed tocopherols at Amazon.com.  My favorite is Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplementation on cancer incidence and mortality: 18-Year postintervention follow-up of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study - Int J Cancer. 2013 Dec 3 - "In the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study among 29,133 Finnish male smokers aged 50-69 years, daily α-tocopherol (50 mg) for a median of 6.1 years decreased the risk of prostate cancer, whereas β-carotene (20 mg) increased risk of lung cancer and overall mortality. To determine the postintervention effects of α-tocopherol and β-carotene, 25,563 men were followed 18 years for cancer incidence and all causes of mortality through national registers ... In conclusion, supplementation with α-tocopherol and β-carotene appeared to have no late effects on cancer incidence. The preventive effect of moderate-dose α-tocopherol on prostate cancer continued several years post-trial and resulted in lower prostate cancer mortality"
  • Serum levels of vitamin E forms and risk of cognitive impairment in a Finnish cohort of older adults - Exp Gerontol. 2013 Dec;48(12):1428-35 - "A sample of 140 non-cognitively impaired elderly subjects derived from the Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Dementia (CAIDE) study was followed-up for 8years to detect cognitive impairment, defined as development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer's dementia. The association between baseline serum vitamin E and cognitive impairment was analyzed with multiple logistic regression after adjusting for several confounders ... Elevated levels of tocopherol and tocotrienol forms are associated with reduced risk of cognitive impairment in older adults. The association is modulated by concurrent cholesterol concentration. Various vitamin E forms might play a role in cognitive impairment, and their evaluation can provide a more accurate measure of vitamin E status in humans" - [Nutra USA]
  • Intake and serum concentrations of α-tocopherol in relation to fractures in elderly women and men: 2 cohort studies - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov 13 - "Two cohort studies, the Swedish Mammography Cohort (SMC; n = 61,433 women) and the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM; n = 1138 men), were used ... A higher hip fracture rate was observed with lower intakes of α-tocopherol. Compared with the highest quintile of intake, the lowest quintile had a multivariable-adjusted HR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.67, 2.06). The HR of any fracture was 1.20 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.28). α-Tocopherol-containing supplement use was associated with a reduced rate of hip fracture (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.65, 0.93) and any fracture (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.94). Compared with the highest quintile of α-tocopherol intake in ULSAM (follow-up: 12 y), lower intakes (quintiles 1-4) were associated with a higher rate of hip fracture (HR: 3.33; 95% CI: 1.43, 7.76) and any fracture (HR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.18, 2.88). The HR for hip fracture in men for each 1-SD decrease in serum α-tocopherol was 1.58 (95% CI: 1.13, 2.22) and for any fracture was 1.23 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.48)"
  • Lower dietary vitamin E intake during the second trimester is associated with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia later in pregnancy - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Sep 25 - "Women with singleton pregnancies (n=205) underwent a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test at 30 weeks gestation and were asked to recall second trimester dietary intake ... Higher dietary vitamin E intake was associated with lower fasting glucose, lower HOMA insulin resistance, and higher Matsuda insulin sensitivity index after covariate adjustment including serum adiponectin among women consuming daily multivitamin supplements"
  • Green Tea and Vitamin E Enhance Exercise-Induced Benefits in Body Composition, Glucose Homeostasis, and Antioxidant Status in Elderly Men and Women - J Am Coll Nutr. 2013 Feb;32(1):31-40 - "For 12 weeks, 22 elderly men and women (age: 71.1 +/- 1.2 years; body mass index: 28.3 +/- 0.5 kg/m(2) [mean +/- SE]) undertook 30 minutes of moderately intense walking 6 d/wk. They were randomly assigned to ingest either green tea plus vitamin E (GTVE; 3 cups and 400 IU, respectively; n = 11) or placebo (n = 11) ... Though dietary intake was unchanged, improved exercise capacity was followed by a significant reduction in body weight and fasting insulin levels in all participants. Additional consumption of GTVE resulted in a twofold increase in serum vitamin E (from 20.4 to 40.6 μmol/L, p < 0.001) and a decrease of men's and women's waist circumferences (from 100.8 and 95.7 to 96.9 and 85.0 cm, p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively) and fasting glucose levels (from 5.30 to 4.98 mmol/L, p < 0.01)" - Note the decrease in waist circumference from 95.7 to 85.0 cm in men.  That's a 10.7 cm reduction or 4.2 inches. - See green tea extract at Amazon.com and Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of tocotrienol and lovastatin combination on osteoblast and osteoclast activity in estrogen-deficient osteoporosis - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:960742 - "48 Sprague Dawley female rats were randomly divided into 6 groups ... Delta-tocotrienol plus lovastatin treatment significantly increased bone formation and reduced bone resorption compared to the other groups. Therefore, the combined treatment may have synergistic or additive effects and have the potential to be used as an antiosteoporotic agent in patients who are at risk of both osteoporosis and hypercholesterolemia, especially in postmenopausal women"
  • Vitamin E δ-tocotrienol prolongs survival in the LSL-KrasG12D/+;LSL-Trp53R172H/+;Pdx-1-Cre (KPC) transgenic mouse model of pancreatic cancer - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013 Aug 20 - "Previous work has shown that vitamin E δ-tocotrienol (VEDT) prolongs survival and delays progression of pancreatic cancer in the LSL-KrasG12D/+;Pdx-1-Cre mouse model of pancreatic cancer ... KPC mice were randomized into 4 groups: 1) vehicle (olive oil, 1.0 mL/kg PO twice/day and PBS 1.0 mL/kg IP twice/week), 2) gemcitabine (100 mg/kg IP twice/week), 3) VEDT (200 mg/kg PO twice/day), and 4) gemcitabine + VEDT ... At 16 weeks, survival was 10% in the vehicle group, 30% in the gemcitabine group, 70% in the VEDT group (P<0.01), and 90% in the VEDT combined with gemcitabine group (P<0.05). VEDT alone and combined with gemcitabine resulted in reversal of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in tumors --- These results strongly support further investigation of VEDT alone and in combination with gemcitabine for pancreatic cancer prevention and treatment"
  • α-Tocopherol does not Accelerate Depletion of γ-Tocopherol and Tocotrienol or Excretion of their Metabolites in Rats - Lipids. 2013 Jul;48(7):687-95 - "These data showed that dietary α-tocopherol did not accelerate the depletion of γ-tocopherol and tocotrienol and their metabolite excretions, suggesting that the positive effect of α-tocopherol on vitamin E ω-hydroxylase is not sufficient to affect the other isoform concentrations in tissues" - [Nutra USA] - Note:  As with other studies, I wouldn't put my eggs in one basket.  Saturating the mice with that much gamma before testing the depletion with the alpha doesn't sound like a real life scenario.
  • Association of blood antioxidants and vitamins with risk of age-related cataract: a meta-analysis of observational studies - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jul 10 - "searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Web of Science for relevant studies ... A pooled estimate showed vitamin E (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.96), α-carotene (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.88), lutein (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.65, 0.87), and zeaxanthin (OR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.82) were inversely associated with age-related cataract. Vitamins A (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.83) and C (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.78) were inversely associated with age-related cataract in Asian populations but not in Western populations. β-Carotene (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.78, 1.05), lycopene (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.15), and β-cryptoxanthin (OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.68, 1.02) had no significant association with risk of cataract" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com and Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Lower vitamin E serum levels are associated with osteoporosis in early postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study - J Bone Miner Metab. 2013 Mar 28 - "BMD of the lumbar spine was significantly higher in the highest tertile of the vitamin E:lipid ratio than in the lowest tertile. The mean vitamin E:lipid ratio was significantly lower in osteoporotic postmenopausal women (T score ≤-2.5) (3.0 +/- 0.6 μmol/mmol) than normal (neither osteoporotic nor osteopenic) postmenopausal women (T score >-1) (3.5 +/- 0.7 μmol/mmol) using multivariable-adjusted BMD. These findings highlight that vitamin E may increase BMD in healthy postmenopausal women"
  • Low vitamin and carotenoid levels are related to cerebral white matter lesions - J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(5):456-60 - "To determine the effects of vitamins and carotenoids on brain white matter lesions (WMLs), we examined the associations between WMLs with vitamin and carotenoid levels in Japanese middle-aged and elderly subjects ... Deep white matter lesions (DWLs) ... Lower gamma-tocopherol levels were significantly associated with DWLs in all subjects. While lower gamma-tocopherol and vitamin C levels were significantly associated with DWLs in males, lower delta-tocopherol levels were associated with DWLs in females. The associations between DWLs and lower gamma- and delta-tocopherol and vitamin C levels were independent of age, hypertension, or smoking. However, the associations between DWLs and lower alfa-tocopherol were not significant following adjustments for smoking" - Note:  Most supplements only contain alfa-tocopherol which had no affect.
  • Atorvastatin improves erectile dysfunction in patients initially irresponsive to Sildenafil by the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase - Int J Impot Res. 2013 Jan 17 - "This study aimed at comparing the effects of atorvastatin and vitamin E on erectile dysfunction in patients initially irresponsive to sildenafil, with investigation into the underlying possible mechanisms. Sixty patients were randomly divided into three groups: the atorvastatin group received 80 mg daily, the vitamin E group received 400 IU daily and the control group received placebo capsules ... glutathione peroxidase (GPO) ... nitric oxide (NO) ... Both atorvastatin and vitamin E showed a statistically significant GPO increase (P<0.05) and a statistically significant IL-6 decrease (P<0.05). Only atorvastatin showed a statistically significant increase in NO (15.19%, P<0.05), eNOS (20.58%, P<0.01), IIEF-5 score (53.1%, P<0.001) and Rigiscan rigidity parameters (P<0.01), in addition to a statistically significant decrease in CRP (57.9%, P<0.01). However, SOD showed a statistically significant increase only after vitamin E intake (23.1%, P<0.05). Both atorvatstain and vitamin E had antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Although activating eNOS by atorvastatin was the real difference, and expected to be the main mechanism for NO increase and for improving erectile dysfunction"
  • Associations of intake of antioxidant vitamins and fatty acids with asthma in pre-school children - Public Health Nutr. 2012 Oct 1:1-6 - "Compared with children with the lowest intake tertile for vitamin C and vitamin E, those in the highest were significantly inversely associated with asthma; adjusted OR (95 % CI) were 0.35 (0.14, 0.88) and 0.32 (0.12, 0.85), respectively. A statistically significant trend was also observed. Fruit intake showed an inverse but insignificant association with asthma. There were no associations of any type of fatty acids with asthma" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com and Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Tocopherols and tocotrienols plasma levels are associated with cognitive impairment - Neurobiol Aging. 2012 Oct;33(10):2282-90 - "Vitamin E includes 8 natural compounds (4 tocopherols, 4 tocotrienols) with potential neuroprotective activity. α-Tocopherol has mainly been investigated in relation to cognitive impairment ... Low plasma tocopherols and tocotrienols levels are associated with increased odds of MCI and AD" - [Nutra USA]
  • Effects of vitamin E on bone turnover markers among US postmenopausal women - J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Feb 3 - "Increased oxidative stress and inflammation resulting from aging and declining estrogen levels can lead to increased bone loss in postmenopausal women. Alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, the two predominant isomers of vitamin E, have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but their effects on bone metabolism have not been well studied in humans. We examined the associations between dietary and total (diet and supplements) alpha-tocopherol intake, serum alpha- and gamma-tocopherol levels and their ratio, and bone turnover markers (BTMs) among postmenopausal women aged ≥45 years ... serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), a biomarker of bone formation, and urinary N-telopeptides/creatinine (uNTx/Cr), a biomarker of bone resorption ... Participants had a mean age of 65.5 +/- 0.6 years and over 45% used vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) supplements in the past month. Vitamin E supplement users had significantly lower serum gamma-tocopherol, higher serum alpha-tocopherol levels and higher ratio of serum alpha- to gamma-tocopherol than nonusers. High serum gamma-tocopherol levels and low ratio of serum alpha- to gamma-tocopherol were associated with increased BAP levels (P < 0.01 for both). There were no associations between any of the vitamin E variables and uNTx/Cr. In conclusion, we hypothesize that gamma-tocopherol may uncouple bone turnover, resulting in more bone formation than resorption. Vitamin E supplements in the form of alpha-tocopherol suppress serum gamma-tocopherol levels and may have negative effects on bone formation. Further research is needed to investigate the potential anabolic effect of gamma-tocopherol from food sources on bone" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Oral Tocotrienols Are Transported to Human Tissues and Delay the Progression of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease Score in Patients - J Nutr. 2012 Feb 1 - "The natural vitamin E family is composed of 8 members equally divided into 2 classes: tocopherols (TCP) and tocotrienols (TE). A growing body of evidence suggests TE possess potent biological activity not shared by TCP. The primary objective of this work was to determine the concentrations of TE (200 mg mixed TE, b.i.d.) and TCP [200 mg α-TCP, b.i.d.)] in vital tissues and organs of adult humans receiving oral supplementation ... α-TE was delivered to human brain at a concentration reported to be neuroprotective in experimental models of stroke. In prospective liver transplantation patients, oral TE lowered the Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score in 50% of patients supplemented, whereas only 20% of TCP-supplemented patients demonstrated a reduction in MELD score. This work provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence demonstrating that orally supplemented TE are transported to vital organs of adult humans. The findings of this study, in the context of the current literature, lay the foundation for Phase II clinical trials testing the efficacy of TE against stroke and end-stage liver disease in humans" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin E is a MIF Inhibitor - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012 Jan 18 - "Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is known to contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain ... Vitamin E inhibits not only the enzymatic activity of MIF but more importantly the biological function of MIF. Our findings suggest that Vitamin E may be attenuating hyperalgesia and reducing neuropathic pain at least in part by inhibiting MIF activity"
  • Vitamin E and the risk of prostate cancer: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) - JAMA. 2011 Oct 12;306(14):1549-56 - "Oral selenium (200 μg/d from L-selenomethionine) with matched vitamin E placebo, vitamin E (400 IU/d of all rac-α-tocopheryl acetate) with matched selenium placebo, both agents, or both matched placebos for a planned follow-up of a minimum of 7 and maximum of 12 years ... This report includes 54,464 additional person-years of follow-up and 521 additional cases of prostate cancer since the primary report. Compared with the placebo (referent group) in which 529 men developed prostate cancer, 620 men in the vitamin E group developed prostate cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 1.17; 99% CI, 1.004-1.36, P = .008); as did 575 in the selenium group (HR, 1.09; 99% CI, 0.93-1.27; P = .18), and 555 in the selenium plus vitamin E group (HR, 1.05; 99% CI, 0.89-1.22, P = .46). Compared with placebo, the absolute increase in risk of prostate cancer per 1000 person-years was 1.6 for vitamin E, 0.8 for selenium, and 0.4 for the combination" - Note:  The study used rac-α-tocopheryl acetate.  See my vitamin E page for several articles regarding taking only one of the  eight forms of vitamin E.  See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Natural Vitamin E {alpha}-Tocotrienol Protects Against Ischemic Stroke by Induction of Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 1 - Stroke. 2011 Jun 30 - "α-Tocotrienol (TCT) represents the most potent neuroprotective form of natural vitamin E that is Generally Recognized As Safe certified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... This work recognizes MRP1 as a protective factor against stroke. Furthermore, findings of this study add a new dimension to the current understanding of the molecular bases of α-TCT neuroprotection in 2 ways: by identifying MRP1 as a α-TCT-sensitive target and by unveiling the general prospect that oral α-TCT may regulate miR expression in stroke-affected brain tissue" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Induction of Apoptosis by γ-Tocotrienol in Human Cancer Cell Lines and Leukemic Blasts From Patients: Dependency on Bid, Cytochrome c, and Caspase Pathway - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Jun 9:1 - "Tocotrienols (Toc3) have been suggested to possess anticancer effects besides antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects. Previous studies have demonstrated that Toc3 induce apoptosis in epithelial carcinoma. However, the effects of Toc3 on malignant hematopoietic cells have not yet been thoroughly investigated. We investigated Toc3-induced apoptosis in human hematological cancer cell lines. α-, δ-, and γ-Toc3 induced concentration-dependent apoptosis, and γ-Toc3 demonstrated more effective induction than the other Toc3 derivatives in HL-60 cells. γ-Toc3 may have induced apoptosis by activation of the caspase cascade, cytochrome c (Cyt.c) release, Bid cleavage, and mitochondorial membrane depolarization in HL-60, NB-4, Raji, and SY-5Y cells. Furthermore, 10-30 μM γ-Toc3 showed cytotoxicity for leukemic cells from various patients regardless of lymphoblastic, myeloblastic, or relapsed leukemia, but the cytotoxic effect was weak in normal mononuclear cells, interestingly. γ-Toc3 may have a role in cancer prevention and potential for treating hematological malignancies" - Note:  The γ is the gamma symbol.
  • A Dietary Mixture Containing Fish Oil, Resveratrol, Lycopene, Catechins, and Vitamins E and C Reduces Atherosclerosis in Transgenic Mice - J Nutr. 2011 Mar 16 - "Chronic inflammation and proatherogenic lipids are important risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Specific dietary constituents such as polyphenols and fish oils may improve cardiovascular risk factors and may have a beneficial effect on disease outcomes ... AIDM was evaluated in an inflammation model, male human C-reactive protein (CRP) transgenic mice, and an atherosclerosis model, female ApoE*3Leiden transgenic mice. Two groups of male human-CRP transgenic mice were fed AIDM [0.567% (wt:wt) powder and 0.933% (wt:wt oil)] or placebo for 6 wk. The effects of AIDM on basal and IL-1β-stimulated CRP expression were investigated. AIDM reduced cytokine-induced human CRP and fibrinogen expression in human-CRP transgenic mice. In the atherosclerosis study, 2 groups of female ApoE*3Leiden transgenic mice were fed an atherogenic diet supplemented with AIDM [0.567% (wt:wt) powder and 0.933% (wt:wt oil)] or placebo for 16 wk. AIDM strongly reduced plasma cholesterol, TG, and serum amyloid A concentrations compared with placebo. Importantly, long-term treatment of ApoE*3Leiden mice with AIDM markedly reduced the development of atherosclerosis by 96% compared with placebo. The effect on atherosclerosis was paralleled by a reduced expression of the vascular inflammation markers and adhesion molecules inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin. Dietary supplementation of AIDM improves lipid and inflammatory risk factors of CVD and strongly reduces atherosclerotic lesion development in female transgenic mice" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com, Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com, Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com, green tea extract at Amazon.com and Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Gamma-tocotrienol induces apoptosis and autophagy in prostate cancer cells by increasing intracellular dihydrosphingosine and dihydroceramide - Int J Cancer. 2011 Mar 11 - "Although cell-based studies have shown that γ-tocotrienol (γTE) exhibits stronger anticancer activities than other forms of vitamin E including γ-tocopherol (γT), the molecular bases underlying γTE-exerted effects remains to be elucidated ... In agreement with these cell-based studies, γTE inhibited LNCaP xenograft growth by 53% (P<0.05), compared with 33% (P = 0.07) by γT, in nude mice. These findings provide a molecular basis of γTE-stimulated cancer-cell death and support the notion that elevation of intracellular dihydroceramide and dihydrosphingosine is likely a novel anticancer mechanism"
  • Effect of vitamins C and E on antioxidant status of breast-cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy - J Clin Pharm Ther. 2011 Jan 4 - "VCE (vitamin C 500 mg tablet and vitamin E 400 mg gelatin capsule ... The untreated group showed significantly lower levels of antioxidant enzymes (P<0.001) and reduced glutathione (P<0.001), and more extensive lipid peroxidation (P<0.001) and DNA damage than healthy controls. Similar but less pronounced patterns were observed in the patients receiving chemotherapy alone. The group of patients receiving VCE supplementation had all the marker levels moving towards normal values. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase, and the levels of reduced glutathione were significantly increased (P<0.01) while, the levels of malondialdehyde and DNA damage were significantly (P<0.01) reduced in the VCE supplemented group relative to those of patients receiving chemotherapy alone as well as relative to the pretreatment levels"
  • γ-Tocotrienol is a novel inhibitor of constitutive and inducible STAT3 signalling pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma: potential role as an anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and chemosensitizing agent - Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Dec 30 - "Overall, these results suggest that γ-tocotrienol is a novel blocker of the STAT3 activation pathway, with a potential role in future therapies for HCC and other cancers" - Note: The γ symbol stands for gamma.  See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Tocotrienols inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages of female mice - Lipids Health Dis. 2010 Dec 16;9(1):143 - "The present results clearly demonstrate that alpha-, gamma-, or delta-tocotrienol treatments inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of 20S rabbit muscle proteasomes ... These results represent a novel approach by using natural products, such as tocotrienols as proteasome modulators, which may lead to the development of new dietary supplements of tocotrienols for cardiovascular diseases as well as others that are based on inflammation" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of supplementation with tocotrienol-rich fraction on immune response to tetanus toxoid immunization in normal healthy volunteers - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Sep 22 - "Volunteers supplemented with TRF showed a significantly (P<0.05) enhanced production of interferon-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 by the mitogen or TT-stimulated leukocytes compared with the control group. Volunteers from the TRF group produced significantly (P<0.05) lower amounts of IL-6 compared with the placebo group. Anti-TT IgG production was also significantly (P<0.05) augmented in the TRF-supplemented group compared with the placebo group" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • The value of tocotrienols in the prevention and treatment of cancer - J Am Coll Nutr. 2010 Jun;29(3 Suppl):324S-333S - "Tocopherols and tocotrienols represent the 2 subgroups that make up the vitamin E family of compounds, but only tocotrienols display potent anticancer activity" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Palm oil-derived natural vitamin E alpha-tocotrienol in brain health and disease - J Am Coll Nutr. 2010 Jun;29(3 Suppl):314S-323S - "the scientific literature on tocotrienols accounts for roughly 1% of the total literature on vitamin E, thus warranting further investment and investigation" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Intake of fatty acids and antioxidants and pancreatic cancer in a large population-based case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area - Int J Cancer. 2010 Oct 15;127(8):1893-904 - "Positive associations were observed for high levels of the 8 individual saturated fatty acids (4th vs. 1st quartile: ORs ranged from 1.6 to 2.6; all p(trend) < 0.01), monounsaturated palmitoleic and oleic fatty acids [OR = 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.1) and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.9); both p(trend) < 0.01], and polyunsaturated linolenic acid [OR = 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-2.0); p(trend) = 0.02]. Inverse associations were observed for high levels of gadolic acid [4th vs. 1st quartile: OR = 0.68 (95% CI: 0.50-0.92); p(trend) = 0.007] and omega-3 fatty acids [>or=0.85 g/day vs. 1st quartile: OR = 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.90)]. An inverse association was also observed for high total intake of vitamin C [4th vs. 1st quartile: OR = 0.69 (95% CI: 0.51-0.94); p(trend) = 0.004] and of vitamin E [OR = 0.67 (95% CI: 0.49-0.92); p(trend) = 0.01]"
  • {gamma}-Tocotrienol but not {gamma}-tocopherol blocks STAT3 cell signaling pathway through induction of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and sensitizes tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents - J Biol Chem. 2010 Aug 18 - "We found that gamma-T3 but not gamma-tocopherol, the most common saturated form of Vitamin E, inhibited constitutive activation of STAT3 in a dose- and time-dependent manner and this inhibition was not cell type specific. gamma-T3 also inhibited STAT3 DNA binding ... This vitamin also sensitized the tumor cells to the apoptotic effects of thalidomide and bortezomib. Overall, our results suggest that gamma-T3 is a novel blocker of STAT3 activation pathway in both in vitro and in vivo and thus may have potential in prevention and treatment of cancers" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Mixed Tocotrienols Inhibit Prostate Carcinogenesis in TRAMP Mice - Nutr Cancer. 2010 Aug;62(6):789-94 - "mixed-tocotrienol-fed groups had a lower incidence of tumor formation along with a significant reduction in the average wet weight of genitourinary apparatus. Furthermore, mixed tocotrienols significantly reduced the levels of high-grade neoplastic lesions as compared to the positive controls. This decrease in levels of high-grade neoplastic lesions was found to be associated with increased expression of proapoptotic proteins BAD (Bcl(2) antagonist of cell death) and cleaved caspase-3 and cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27. In contrast, the expression of cyclins A and E were found to be decreased in mixed-tocotrienol groups. Taken together, our results show that by modulating cell cycle regulatory proteins and increasing expression of proapoptotic proteins, mixed tocotrienols suppress prostate tumorigenesis in the TRAMP mice" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Antioxidants and Long-term Risk of Dementia - Arch Neurol. 2010 Jul;67(7):819-25 - "Compared with participants in the lowest tertile of vitamin E intake, those in the highest tertile were 25% less likely to develop dementia (hazard ratio, 0.75"
  • Gamma-tocotrienol as an effective agent in targeting prostate cancer stem cell-like population - Int J Cancer. 2010 Jul 8 - "Emerging evidence supports that prostate cancer originates from a rare sub-population of cells, namely prostate cancer stem cells (CSCs). Conventional therapies for prostate cancer are believed to mainly target the majority of differentiated tumor cells but spare CSCs, which may account for the subsequent disease relapse after treatment. Therefore, successful elimination of CSCs may be an effective strategy to achieve complete remission from this disease. Gamma-tocotrienols (gamma-T3) is one of the vitamin-E constituents which have been shown to have anticancer effects against a wide-range of human cancers. Recently, we have reported that gamma-T3 treatment not only inhibits prostate cancer cell invasion but also sensitizes the cells to docetaxel-induced apoptosis, suggesting that gamma-T3 may be an effective therapeutic agent against advanced stage prostate cancer. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that gamma-T3 can down-regulate the expression of prostate CSC markers (CD133/CD44) in androgen independent (AI) prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3 & DU145), as evident from western blotting analysis. Meanwhile, the spheroid formation ability of the prostate cancer cells was significantly hampered by gamma-T3 treatment. In addition, pre-treatment of PC-3 cells with gamma-T3 was found to suppress tumor initiation ability of the cells. More importantly, while CD133-enriched PC-3 cells were highly resistant to docetaxel treatment, these cells were as sensitive to gamma-T3 treatment as the CD133-depleted population. Our data suggest that gamma-T3 may be an effective agent in targeting prostate CSCs, which may account for its anticancer and chemosensitizing effects reported in previous studies" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Gamma Tocopherol Upregulates the Expression of 15-S-HETE and Induces Growth Arrest Through a PPAR Gamma-Dependent Mechanism in PC-3 Human Prostate Cancer Cells - Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(5):649-62 - "These data demonstrate that the growth arrest mediated by gamma-tocopherol follows a PPAR-gamma-dependent mechanism" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • delta-Tocotrienol Suppresses VEGF Induced Angiogenesis whereas alpha-Tocopherol Does Not - J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Aug 25 - "Recently, tocotrienol (T3), a less well-known form of vitamin E, has gained considerable attention as a potent antiangiogenic agent. However, the majority of vitamin E research has focused on tocopherol (Toc) ... We showed delta-T3 (2.5-5 muM) completely abolished proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), whereas a similar dose of alpha-Toc had no such effects. delta-T3 suppressed VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) signaling, and activated caspases in HUVECs. In addition, via an in vivo mouse Matrigel plug angiogenesis assay, we found that delta-T3 (30 mug), but not alpha-Toc, inhibited tumor cell-induced vessel formation. In summary, our results demonstrate delta-T3 has superior antiangiogenic activities to alpha-Toc, and provide insights into the different mechanisms responsible for this effect of T3 and Toc" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidant vitamins and the risk of endometrial cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis - Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Jul;20(5):699-711 - "Based on case-control data, the random-effects summary odds ratios (OR) were, for beta-carotene: 0.88 (95% CI: 0.79-0.98) per 1,000 mcg/1,000 kcal (I2: 77.7%; p < 0.01); for vitamin C: 0.85 (95% CI: 0.73-0.98) per 50 mg/1,000 kcal (I2: 66.1%; p < 0.01); and, for vitamin E: 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84-0.99) per 5 mg/1,000 kcal (I2: 0.0%; p: 0.45)"
  • Multivitamin use and telomere length in women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun;89(6):1857-63 - "After age and other potential confounders were adjusted for, multivitamin use was associated with longer telomeres. Compared with nonusers, the relative telomere length of leukocyte DNA was on average 5.1% longer among daily multivitamin users (P for trend = 0.002). In the analysis of micronutrients, higher intakes of vitamins C and E from foods were each associated with longer telomeres, even after adjustment for multivitamin use. Furthermore, intakes of both nutrients were associated with telomere length among women who did not take multivitamins"
  • Specific accumulation of gamma- and delta-tocotrienols in tumor and their antitumor effect in vivo - J Nutr Biochem. 2008 Sep 26 - "In C3H/HeN mice implanted with MH134, it was found that gamma-T3 and delta-T3 feeding significantly delayed tumor growth ... Intriguingly, we found that T3 was detected in tumor, but not in normal tissues. These results, to our knowledge, are the first demonstration of specific accumulation of gamma-T3 and delta-T3 in tumors and suggest that T3 accumulation is critical for the antitumor activities of T3" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • The response of gamma vitamin E to varying dosages of alpha vitamin E plus vitamin C - Metabolism. 2009 Apr;58(4):469-78 - "vitamin E has several isomers, with the alpha form being available via dietary supplements and the gamma form being available via dietary foodstuffs. The gamma form of vitamin E demonstrates several superior properties (such as trapping reactive nitrogen species and detoxifying nitrogen dioxide) compared with alpha vitamin E. All clinical trials have used the alpha isomer, with little concern that this isomer of vitamin E may actually suppress the gamma isomer of vitamin E ... The results demonstrate that alpha vitamin E levels increased in proportion to the dose administered. However, at every dose of alpha vitamin E, gamma vitamin E concentration was significantly suppressed ... Our results suggest that all prospective cardiovascular clinical trials that used vitamin E supplementation actually suppressed the beneficial antioxidant gamma isomer of vitamin E" - Dah!!  I've been saying that for years.  They're finally catching on.  See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • gamma-Tocopherol-enriched mixed tocopherol diet inhibits prostate carcinogenesis in TRAMP mice - Int J Cancer. 2008 Oct 27 - "8 week old TRAMP males were fed 0.1% gamma-T-enriched mixed tocopherol diet that contained 20-fold higher levels of gamma-tocopherol, and roughly 3-fold higher levels of alpha-tocopherol ... Treatment with gamma-T-enriched mixed tocopherols significantly suppressed the incidence of palpable tumor and Prostate Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN) development without affecting the expression of the transgene (SV-40) ... gamma-T-enriched mixed tocopherols significantly up-regulated the expression of Nrf2 and its related detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes thereby suppressing PIN and tumor development" - Note:  One previous study was done with alpha-tocopherol.  I cannot understand why they did that when the previous research also supported the gamma unless they didn't do any homework at all before planning the study.  See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • The effect of vitamin E on the treatment of menstrual migraine - Med Sci Monit. 2009 Jan;15(1):CR16-19 - "Vitamin E is effective in relieving symptoms due to menstrual migraine"
  • Effect of alpha-tocopherol, N-acetylcysteine and omeprazole on esophageal adenocarcinoma formation in a rat surgical model - Int J Cancer. 2008 Oct 20 - "oxidative stress subsequent to gastroesophageal reflux is an important driving force of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) formation in the esophagogastroduodenal anastomosis (EGDA) rat model. This study investigated the possible tumor inhibitory effects of 2 antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol (389 and 778 ppm), N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 500 and 1,000 ppm), and their combination (389 and 500 ppm, respectively), as well as an antacid therapeutic agent, omeprazole (1,400 ppm) ... alpha-Tocopherol dose-dependently decreased the incidence of EAC (p = 0.03), with 778 ppm alpha-tocopherol reducing the incidence of EAC to 59% (16/27) in comparison with 84% (26/31) in the control group (p = 0.04). Supplementation of alpha-tocopherol also increased the serum concentration of alpha-tocopherol. NAC at 500 and 1,000 ppm did not significantly decrease EAC incidence; however, the combination of alpha-tocopherol 389 ppm and NAC 500 ppm significantly reduced the incidence of EAC to 55% (15/27) (p = 0.02). alpha-Tocopherol alone or in combination with NAC significantly reduced the number of infiltrating cells positively stained for 4-hydroxynonenal. Omeprazole showed only a slight nonsignificant inhibitory effect at the dose given"
  • Efficacy of a Vitamin/Nutriceutical Formulation for Early-stage Alzheimer's Disease: A 1-Year, Open-Label Pilot Study With an 16-Month Caregiver Extension - Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2008 Dec 1 - "We examined the efficacy of a vitamin/nutriceutical formulation (folate, vitamin B6, alpha-tocopherol, S-adenosyl methionine, N-acetyl cysteine, and acetyl-L-carnitine) in a 12-month, open-label trial with 14 community-dwelling individuals with early-stage Alzheimer's disease. Participants improved in the Dementia Rating Scale and Clock-drawing tests (Clox 1 and 2). Family caregivers reported improvement in multiple domains of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and maintenance of performance in the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Sustained performance was reported by caregivers for those participants who continued in an 16-month extension. Performance on the NPI was equivalent to published findings at 3 to 6 months for donepezil and exceeded that of galantamine and their historical placebos. Participants demonstrated superior performance for more than 12 months in NPI and ADL versus those receiving naproxen and rofecoxib or their placebo group. This formulation holds promise for treatment of early-stage Alzheimer's disease prior to and/or as a supplement for pharmacological approaches"
  • Antioxidant treatment with alpha-tocopherol improves erectile function in hypertensive rats - Hypertens Res. 2008 May;31(5):1007-13 - "Treatment with 24 mg alpha-tocopherol decreased TBARS levels and increased SOD activity in the serum and corpus cavernosum. Relaxation in response to acetylcholine chloride in the corpus cavernosum was improved with alpha-tocopherol treatment at each dose. These results suggest that alpha-tocopherol treatment increases the diminished relaxation in the corpus cavernosum of SHRs by improving neuronal or endothelial function related to nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. This, in turn, indicates that antioxidant therapy may play a role in treatment for ED in hypertensive patients"
  • Dietary alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols in lung cancer risk - Int J Cancer. 2008 Jun 10 - "When we entered the other tocopherols in our model, only the association with dietary alpha-tocopherol intake remained significant; i.e., increasing intake of dietary alpha-tocopherol accounted for 34-53% reductions in lung cancer risk"
  • alpha- and gamma-Tocopherol prevent age-related transcriptional alterations in the heart and brain of mice - J Nutr. 2008 Jun;138(6):1010-8 - "In the heart, both tocopherol-supplemented diets were effective in inhibiting the expression of genes previously associated with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and increased innate immunity. In the brain, induction of genes encoding ribosomal proteins and proteins involved in ATP biosynthesis was observed with aging and was markedly prevented by the mixture of alphaT and gammaT supplementation but not by alphaT alone. These results demonstrate that middle age-onset dietary supplementation with alphaT and gammaT can partially prevent age-associated transcriptional changes and that these effects are tissue and tocopherol specific"
  • Dietary carotenoids, vitamins C and e, and risk of cataract in women: a prospective study - Arch Ophthalmol. 2008 Jan;126(1):102-9 - "In these prospective observational data from a large cohort of female health professionals, higher dietary intakes of lutein/zeaxanthin and vitamin E from food and supplements were associated with significantly decreased risks of cataract"
  • Alpha-tocopherol supplementation prevents the exercise-induced reduction of serum paraoxonase 1/arylesterase activities in healthy individuals - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep 19 - "Alpha-T supplementation may result in protection of the enzyme PON 1/Aryl activities from free radical production"
  • Reduction of DNA damage in older healthy adults by Tri E((R)) Tocotrienol supplementation - Nutrition. 2007 Sep 19 - "Tri E((R)) Tocotrienol supplementation may be beneficial by reducing DNA damage as indicated by a reduction in DNA damage, SCE frequency, and urinary 8-OHdG" - See my favorite Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Alpha-tocopherol supplementation prevents the exercise-induced reduction of serum paraoxonase 1/arylesterase activities in healthy individuals - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep 19 - "Alpha-T supplementation may result in protection of the enzyme PON 1/Aryl activities from free radical production"
  • Vitamin E dietary supplementation significantly affects multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease in baboons - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep;86(3):597-603 - "vitamin E caused 2 paradoxical effects on HDL metabolism: higher apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) concentrations and lower HDL sizes ... They also show 2 apparently paradoxical effects on HDL metabolism: lower HDL(2), which is mediated by genes, and higher apo A-I, which is not. These effects have contrasting associations with CVD risk and may help account for the mixed results from clinical trials of dietary vitamin E"
  • Gamma-tocopherol and docosahexaenoic acid decrease inflammation in dialysis patients - J Ren Nutr. 2007 Sep;17(5):296-304 - "gamma tocopherol (308 mg) and DHA (800 mg) ... In the treatment group, but not in the placebo group, there were significant decreases in IL-6 (21.4 +/- 3.5 to 16.8 +/- 3.7 pg/mL), white blood cell (WBC) count (7.4 +/- 0.3 to 6.9 +/- 0.4 10(3)/microL), and neutrophil fraction of WBCs (4.8 +/- 0.3 to 4.4 +/- 0.3 10(3)/microL), at P < .05 for all"
  • Supplemental and dietary vitamin e intakes and risk of prostate cancer in a large prospective study - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Jun;16(6):1128-35 - "dietary gamma-tocopherol, the most commonly consumed form of vitamin E in the United States, was significantly inversely related to the risk of advanced prostate cancer (for highest versus lowest quintile: RR, 0.68"
  • Supplementation with vitamins C and e improves arterial stiffness and endothelial function in essential hypertensive patients - Am J Hypertens. 2007 Apr;20(4):392-7 - "Combined treatment with vitamins C and E has beneficial effects on endothelium-dependent vasodilation and arterial stiffness in untreated, essential hypertensive patients"
  • Effect of the main dietary antioxidants (carotenoids, gamma-tocopherol, polyphenols, and vitamin C) on alpha-tocopherol absorption - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jan 31 - "Naringenin, carotenoids and probably gamma-tocopherol can impair alpha-tocopherol absorption whereas vitamin C and phenolic acids have no effect"
  • The effect of vitamin E on blood pressure in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - J Hypertens. 2007 Jan;25(1):227-34 - "Treatment with alpha-tocopherol significantly increased systolic BP [7.0 (5.2, 8.8) mmHg, P < 0.0001], diastolic BP [5.3 (4.0, 6.5) mmHg, P < 0.0001], pulse pressure [1.8 (0.6, 3.0) mmHg, P < 0.005] and heart rate [2.0 (0.6, 3.3) bpm, P < 0.005] versus placebo. Treatment with mixed tocopherols significantly increased systolic BP [6.8 (4.9, 8.6) mmHg, P < 0.0001], diastolic BP [3.6 (2.3, 4.9) mmHg, P < 0.0001], pulse pressure [3.2 (2.0, 4.4) mmHg, P < 0.0001] and heart rate [1.8 (0.5, 3.2) bpm, P < 0.01] versus placebo"
  • Combined Lycopene and Vitamin E Treatment Suppresses the Growth of PC-346C Human Prostate Cancer Cells in Nude Mice - J Nutr. 2006 May;136(5):1287-93 - "lycopene combined with vitamin E may inhibit the growth of prostate cancer"
  • Supplementation with mixed tocopherols increases serum and blood cell {gamma}-tocopherol but does not alter biomarkers of platelet activation in subjects with type 2 diabetes - Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jan;83(1):95-102 - "Supplementation with alpha-tocopherol decreased red blood cell gamma-tocopherol, whereas mixed tocopherols increased both serum alpha-tocopherol and serum and cellular gamma-tocopherol"
  • Vitamin E Supplementation in Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Tardive Dyskinesia, and Cataract: Part 2 (December) - Ann Pharmacother. 2005 Nov 15 - "We encourage patients to supplement with vitamin E-rich foods. The use of a daily multivitamin, which usually contains 30 IU of alpha-tocopherol, may be beneficial; however, we discourage individual vitamin E supplements that usually contain 400 IU of alpha-tocopherol"
  • The therapeutic impacts of tocotrienols in type 2 diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia - Atherosclerosis. 2005 Oct;182(2):367-74 - "tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) ... After 60 days of TRF treatment, subjects showed an average decline of 23, 30, and 42% in serum total lipids, TC, and LDL-C, respectively ... daily intake of dietary TRF by type 2 diabetics will be useful in the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherogenesis"
  • Vitamin E at high doses improves survival, neurological performance and brain mitochondrial function in aging male mice - Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005 Jul 14 - "Male mice receiving vitamin E (5.0 g alpha-tocopherol acetate/kg of food) from 28 wk of age showed a 40 % increased median lifespan ... and 17 % increased maximal lifespan, whereas female mice equally supplemented exhibited only 14 % increased median lifespan ... Vitamin E-supplemented male mice showed a better performance in the tightrope (neuromuscular function) and the T-maze (exploratory activity) tests" - [eurekalert.org]
  • Vitamin E in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: the Women's Health Study: a randomized controlled trial - JAMA. 2005 Jul 6;294(1):56-65
  • The effect of gamma-tocopherol administration on alpha-tocopherol levels and metabolism in humans - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jun 1 - "The plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration decreased significantly during gamma-tocopherol administration"
  • Vitamins E and C are safe across a broad range of intakes - Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Apr;81(4):736-45 - "vitamin E supplements appear safe for most adults in amounts </=1600 IU (1073 mg RRR-alpha-tocopherol or the molar equivalent of its esters) and that vitamin C supplements of </=2000 mg/d are safe for most adults"
  • A randomized trial of antioxidant vitamins to prevent second primary cancers in head and neck cancer patients - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Apr 6;97(7):481-8 - "alpha-Tocopherol supplementation produced unexpected adverse effects on the occurrence of second primary cancers and on cancer-free survival"
  • Effects of long-term vitamin E supplementation on cardiovascular events and cancer: a randomized controlled trial - JAMA. 2005 Mar 16;293(11):1338-47
  • Dietary intake of vitamin C and vitamin E and the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy - Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2005 Mar 1;119(1):67-71 - "Low vitamin E intake was associated with a significant increase in the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy"
  • Vitamin E and respiratory tract infections in elderly nursing home residents: a randomized controlled trial - JAMA. 2004 Aug 18;292(7):828-36
  • Supplementation of Diets with alpha-Tocopherol Reduces Serum Concentrations of gamma- and delta-Tocopherol in Humans - J Nutr. 2003 Oct;133(10):3137-40 - "Despite promising evidence from in vitro experiments and observational studies, supplementation of diets with alpha-tocopherol has not reduced the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer in most large-scale clinical trials. One plausible explanation is that the potential health benefits of alpha-tocopherol supplements are offset by deleterious changes in the bioavailability and/or bioactivity of other nutrients ... Compared with placebo, supplementation with alpha-tocopherol reduced serum gamma-tocopherol concentrations by a median change of 58% ... and reduced the number of individuals with detectable delta-tocopherol concentrations ... In view of the potential benefits of gamma- and delta-tocopherol, the efficacy of alpha-tocopherol supplementation may be reduced due to decreases in serum gamma- and delta-tocopherol levels. Additional research is clearly warranted" - This is what I've been saying for years yet they still do nearly all the studies with the alpha-tocopherol.
  • Vitamin E supplementation increases LDL resistance to ex vivo oxidation in hemodialysis patients - "Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2003 Jul;73(4):290-6 - "Since oral vitamin E supplementation prevents oxidative stress and significantly increases LDL resistance to ex vivo oxidation, supplementation by natural antioxidants such as vitamin E may be beneficial in hemodialysis patients"
  • Oral Antioxidant Therapy Improves Endothelial Function in Type 1 but not Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003 Dec;285(6):H2392-8. Epub 2003 Jul 24 - "subjects were randomized to oral vitamin C 1000 mg and vitamin E 800 IU daily or matching placebo for six months ... Oral antioxidant therapy improves EDV in T1 but not T2 diabetes" - The measurement of Vitamin E in IUs shows that they are still using d-alpha-tocopherol or worse, the dl-alpha-tocopherol instead of mixed tocopherols including the tocotrienols in studies.  Just for starters, the d-alpha lowers gamma.
  • Gamma-Tocopherol, the new vitamin E? - AJCN, 3/1/03
  • Non-nutritive bioactive food constituents of plants: tocopherols (vitamin E) - Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2003 Mar;73(2):89-94 - "in food, gamma- and delta-tocopherol are a more potent antioxidant than alpha-tocopherol. Tocopherols as a group are the key antioxidants in human cell membranes and are also important in protecting the LDL particles"
  • Vitamin E prevents changes in the cornea and conjunctiva due to vitamin A deficiency - Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2003 Apr;241(4):287-97 - "The present study suggests that vitamin E has a protective effect against the corneal and conjunctival damage caused by vitamin A deficiency"
  • High-dose antioxidant supplements and cognitive function in community-dwelling elderly women - Am. J. of Clin. Nutr., 4/03 - "Long-term, current users of vitamin E with vitamin C had significantly better mean performance, as judged by a global score that combined individual test scores, than did women who had never used vitamin E or C (P = 0.03); there was a trend for increasingly higher mean scores with increasing durations of use (P = 0.04). These associations were strongest among women with low dietary intakes of alpha-tocopherol. Benefits were less consistent for women taking vitamin E alone, with no evidence of higher scores with longer durations of use. Use of specific vitamin C supplements alone had little relation to performance on our cognitive tests"
  • Mixed tocopherols inhibit platelet aggregation in humans: potential mechanisms - AJCN, 3/1/03 - "ADP-induced platelet aggregation decreased significantly in the mixed tocopherol group but not in the alpha-tocopherol and control groups ... Effects of mixed tocopherols were associated with increased NO release, ecNOS activation, and SOD protein content in platelets, which may contribute to the effect on platelet aggregation"
  • Antioxidants and Risk of Alzheimer Disease - JAMA, 11/13/02 - "Dr Morris and colleagues1 and Dr Engelhart and colleagues2 found an inverse relationship between intake of vitamin E from food, but not from supplements, with risk of Alzheimer disease (AD).3  I would like to suggest a mechanism for this finding.  The predominant dietary form of vitamin E, gamma-tocopherol, but not the form found in supplements, alpha-tocopherol, has been demonstrated to inhibit cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) production of prostaglandin E2 in macrophages and epithelial cells"
  • Association between alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, selenium, and subsequent prostate cancer - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Dec 20;92(24):2018-23 - "For gamma-tocopherol, men in the highest fifth of the distribution had a fivefold reduction in the risk of developing prostate cancer than men in the lowest fifth" - [Full Article]
  • Effect of oral supplementation with D-alpha-tocopherol on the vitamin E content of human low density lipoproteins and resistance to oxidation - J Lipid Res. 1991 Aug;32(8):1325-32 - "gamma-Tocopherol significantly decreased in plasma and LDL during vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) supplementation"
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