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Anti-aging Research > Acetyl-l-carnitine
News & Research:
used supplement may improve recovery from spinal cord injuries - Science
Daily, 9/28/11 - "in experimental models, severe
spinal cord injury can be treated effectively by administering the
supplement acetyl-L-carnitine or ALC, a derivative of essential amino acids
that can generate metabolic energy, soon after injury ... following spinal
cord injury, the mitochondria, or energy-generation components of cells, are
overwhelmed by chemical stresses and lose the ability to produce energy in
the form of the compound adenosine triphosphate (ATP). [1,2] This leads to
cell death at the injury site and, ultimately, paralysis of the body below
the injury level ... ALC can preserve the vitality of mitochondria by acting
as an alternative biofuel providing energy to cells, thus bypassing damaged
mitochondrial enzymes and promoting neuroprotection"
Effect of Oral
Acetyl L-Carnitine Arginate on Biomarkers in Pre-Diabetics - Medscape,
10/28/09 - "3 g.day−1 of ALCA (n = 14; 31 +/- 3 yrs)
or placebo (n = 15; 35 +/- 3 yrs) in a double-blind design, to consume for
eight weeks ... slight improvements in glucose (109 +/- 5 to 103 +/- 5
mg.dL−1), HbA1c (6.6 +/- 1.1 to 6.2 +/- 1.2%), and HOMA-IR (3.3 +/- 1.3 to
2.9 +/- 1.2) ... slight improvement in glucose metabolism, as evidenced by
minor decreases in blood glucose, insulin, and HbA1c (which may have been
more pronounced with longer treatment, as HbA1c has a half-life equal to
approximately 12 weeks"
propionyl-l-carnitine products at Amazon.com.
Protecting the Brain from Aging? - Dr. Weil, 6/22/09 -
"Dr. Khalsa is president and medical director of the
Alzheimer's Prevention Foundation International and author of the book "The
Better Memory Kit" to be published later this year. He tells me that
supplemental acetyl-L-carnitine can increase energy in the mitochondria, the
power plants of all cells, and thereby helps generally boost physical and
mental energy. He describes acetyl-L-carnitine as a superior antioxidant
that promotes the production in cells of glutathione, perhaps our most
potent free radical scavenger. If you decide to try it, Dr. Khalsa
recommends taking 500 to 1,500 mg per day along with 100 mg of
L-Acetylcarnitine Curbs ADHD Associated With Fragile X Syndrome -
Medscape, 3/12/08 -
"L-acetylcarnitine (LAC) may be considered an
alternative to stimulants for the treatment of attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with fragile X syndrome, based on
results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study"
Lipoic acid and carnitine combo show diabetes potential - Nutra USA,
2/18/08 - [Abstract]
- "the combination of LA and LCAR increased the
mass, oxygen consumption, mitochondrial DNA expression, and fatty acid
oxidation in the fat cells ... However, the treatments with LA or ALC alone
at the same concentrations showed little effect on mitochondrial function
and biogenesis ... Lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine have become very hot
after our reports on the complementary effects on improving memory and
ambulatory activity in old rats"
Integrative Approaches to Dementia - Medscape, 7/5/05 -
"There have been several controlled clinical trials
suggesting that ALc slows the progression of AD"
Jarrow Formulas’, Inc. Introduces ALCA 500(TM) (Acetyl-L-Carnitine Arginate
Dihydrochloride) - NPI Center, 3/8/05 -
"Acetyl-l-carnitine arginate (ALCA) represents an
advancement in the carnitine and arginine fields as this new dietary
supplement offers potential benefits in affecting levels of nitric oxide
over and above the traditional benefits of carnitine" - See
acetyl l-carnitine products at Amazon.com.
- Common Nutrient
May Ease Diabetic Pain - WebMD, 1/6/05 - "1,000
milligrams three times a day of acetyl-L-carnitine was effective in
relieving pain caused by nerve damage associated with the condition"
Carnitine May Be Helpful in Diabetic Neuropathy
- Medscape, 1/3/05 - "Pain as the most bothersome
symptom significantly improved with ALC"
New uses for carnitine - Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, 11/04 -
is central to the formation of energy from fat, the heart is therefore
dependent on L-carnitine for most of its energy production ... L-Carnipure
carries long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria where they are oxidised
for energy. Its ability to generate energy from fat makes carnitine useful
as part of a weight management program ... L-carnitine plus its metabolite,
acetyl-L-carnitine, can treat symptoms of male ageing, including sexual
dysfunction, depressed mood and fatigue"
- Carnitine Improves
Symptoms of Male Aging - Medscape, 4/14/04 -
is more active than testosterone for improving symptoms of male aging such
as sexual dysfunction, depressed mood, and fatigue ... In this trial, 120
patients were randomized to receive testosterone undecanoate 160 mg/day,
propionyl-L-carnitine 2 g/day plus acetyl-L-carnitine 2 g/day, or placebo
for six months" - [Abstract]
acetyl l-carnitine at Amazon.com.
Do Anti-aging Supplements Really Work? - Life Extension Magazine, 6/02 -
"The National Academy of Sciences has published
three new reports showing that aging may be partially reversible with
currently available supplements"
The Wizard is Oz - Life Extension Magazine, 11/01 -
"Best-selling author and nutritional guru to the
rich and famous, Oz Garcia is singing the praises of the Life Extension
Foundation and its products in his newest book,
Healthy High Tech Body, published in September 2001 ... Supplements at
the top of Garcia's list of recommendations ...
DHA ... NADH ...
Alpah Lipoic Acid
... Acetyl-L-Carnitine ... An expanded list of his recommendations includes
lycopene, gamma tocopherol,
carnosine, glutathione, DMAE,
Huperzine A, probiotics,
IP-6, bioflavonoid formulas and
grape skin/seed extracts"
Sustain the Brain - Nutrition Science News, 2/01 -
"By enhancing membrane stability, energy production,
and neurotransmission, ALC may improve mental function. In addition, it may
also have anti-inflammatory effects that reduce free radical generation. . .
ALC's ability to bind cortisol and increase
nerve growth factor production within the hippocampal region may explain its
positive effects on neurons."
Booster? - WebMD, 1/1/01
The Anti-Aging Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine - Life Extension Magazine,
5/00 - "When acetyl-L-carnitine was administered,
their heart rates became almost completely restored to the metabolic
function level of young control rats . . . acetyl-L-carnitine is critical to
youthful cellular function in the brain, heart, liver, peripheral nerve and
immune system. Supplementation with acetyl-L-carnitine becomes an even
greater consideration when we realize the potential antiaging effects this
amino acid may produce when taken in combination with
alpha lipoic acid"
Staying Young Forever, Putting new research findings into practice -
Life Extension Foundation, 12/99 - "acetyl
l-carnitine significantly reversed age-associated mitochondrial decay. It
increased cellular respiration, membrane potential and cardiolipin levels"
- Lower AGE
with Acetyl L-Carnitine - Life Enhancement Magazine, 8/99 -
"Diabetics and others who become susceptible to high levels of glucose in
blood serum as they age suffer from the formation of deleterious hybrid
protein-sugar complexes known as advanced glycation end products (AGE) ...
ALC decreased the glycation by 42%"
Anti-Cortisols May Offer New Hope For Retinitis Pigmentosa - Doctor's
Guide, 11/17/97 - "According to Sapse, RP can be
treated initially with a cocktail of anti-cortisol
nutritional compounds including vitamin A, zinc, ginkgo biloba and
acetyl-L-carnitine . . ."
Life Extension Drugs - Life Extension Magazine, 9/95
Acetyl-l-carnitine supplementation reverses the age-related decline in carnitine
palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) activity in interfibrillar mitochondria without
changing the l-carnitine content in the rat heart - Mech Ageing Dev. 2012
Feb 1 - "The aging heart displays a loss of bioenergetic
reserve capacity partially mediated through lower fatty acid utilization. We
investigated whether the age-related impairment of cardiac fatty acid catabolism
occurs, at least partially, through diminished levels of l-carnitine, which
would adversely affect carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), the
rate-limiting enzyme for fatty acyl-CoA uptake into mitochondria for
β-oxidation. Old (24-28 mos) Fischer 344 rats were fed+/-acetyl-l-carnitine
(ALCAR; 1.5% [w/v]) for up to four weeks prior to sacrifice and isolation of
cardiac interfibrillar (IFM) and subsarcolemmal (SSM) mitochondria. IFM
displayed a 28% (p<0.05) age-related loss of CPT1 activity, which correlated
with a decline (41%, p<0.05) in palmitoyl-CoA-driven state 3 respiration.
Interestingly, SSM had preserved enzyme function and efficiently utilized
palmitate. Analysis of IFM CPT1 kinetics showed both diminished V(max) and K(m)
(60% and 49% respectively, p<0.05) when palmitoyl-CoA was the substrate.
However, no age-related changes in enzyme kinetics were evident with respect to
l-carnitine. ALCAR supplementation restored CPT1 activity in heart IFM, but not
apparently through remediation of l-carnitine levels. Rather, ALCAR influenced
enzyme activity over time, potentially by modulating conditions in the aging
heart that ultimately affect palmitoyl-CoA binding and CPT1 kinetics"
Propionyl-L-carnitine, L-arginine and niacin in sexual medicine: a nutraceutical
approach for erectile dysfunction - Andrologia. 2011 Oct 4 -
"In a group of 54 unselected men (35-75 years), consecutively presenting to our
ED clinic and naive to other ED treatments, we carried out a single-blind,
one-arm study to evaluate the effects of a 3-month supplementation with
propionyl-L-carnitine, L-arginine and niacin on their sexual performance ...
Analyses on GAQs revealed that treatment improved erections in 40% of cases,
with a partial response occurring in up to 77% of enrolled subjects. These
preliminary findings indicate that the favourable cardiovascular effects of
nutraceuticals might also reflect on male sexual function with possible
implication in the treatment and prevention of ED. This study documents a
considerable patients' interest toward nutritional supplementation - as
first-line or adjunctive treatment to PDE5 inhibitors - that goes beyond the
measurable increment in penile rigidity" - See
propionyl-l-carnitine products at Amazon.com,
niacin at Amazon.com
L-arginine products at Amazon.com.
acetyl-L-carnitine therapy reduces fatigue in overt hepatic encephalopathy: a
randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011
Feb 10 - "Fatigue is frequently reported in hepatic
encephalopathy (HE) and may be related to hyperammonemia. Acetyl-l-carnitine
(ALC) offers neuroprotective benefits and improves mitochondrial energetics and
function ... At the end of the study period, the ALC-treated patients in the HE1
group showed significantly better improvement than did the placebo group in
mental fatigue score (-1.7 compared with -0.3; P < 0.05), the fatigue severity
scale (-6.4 compared with 2.3; P < 0.001), 7-d Physical Activity Recall
questionnaire score (17.1 compared with -2.5; P < 0.001), and Short Physical
Performance Battery (2.1 compared with 0.2; P < 0.001); the HE2 group showed
significantly better improvement in the fatigue severity scale (-8.1 compared
with -5.1; P < 0.001) and 6-min walk test (19.9 compared with 2.3; P < 0.05).
Significant decreases in NH(4)(+) were observed in both groups (P < 0.001)"
encephalopathy - NIH - "Hepatic
encephalopathy is a worsening of brain function that occurs when the
liver is no longer able to remove toxic substances in the blood"
of acetyl-L-carnitine and oxfenicine on aorta stiffness in diabetic rats
- Eur J Clin Invest. 2010 Jul 29 - "Oxfenicine, but
not acetyl-L-carnitine, increased total peripheral resistance in diabetes,
which paralleled its elevation in plasma levels of free fatty acids. By
contrast, acetyl-L-carnitine, but not oxfenicine, resulted in a significant
increase in wave transit time and a decrease in wave reflection factor,
suggesting that acetyl-L-carnitine may attenuate the diabetes-induced
deterioration in systolic loading condition for the left ventricle. This was
in parallel with its lowering of MDA/TBARS content in plasma and aortic
walls in diabetes. Acetyl-L-carnitine therapy also prevented the
diabetes-related cardiac hypertrophy, as evidenced by the reduction in ratio
of the left ventricular weight to body weight. Conclusion
Acetyl-L-carnitine, but not oxfenicine, attenuates aortic stiffening and
cardiac hypertrophy, possibly through its decrease of lipid
oxidation-derived MDA/TBARS in the rats with insulin deficiency"
Ameliorating Hypertension and Insulin Resistance in Subjects at Increased
Cardiovascular Risk. Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine Therapy -
Hypertension. 2009 Jul 20 - "glucose disposal rate
(GDR) ... Systolic blood pressure decreased from 144.0+/-13.6 to 135.1+/-8.4
mm Hg and from 130.8+/-12.4 to 123.8+/-10.8 mm Hg in the lower and higher
GDR groups, respectively (P<0.05 for both; P<0.001 overall) and
progressively recovered toward baseline over 8 weeks posttreatment. Total
and high molecular weight adiponectin levels followed specular trends.
Diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased only in those with higher
GDRs. Treatment was well tolerated in all of the patients.
Acetyl-L-carnitine safely ameliorated arterial hypertension, insulin
resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypoadiponectinemia in subjects
at increased cardiovascular risk"
of a Vitamin/Nutriceutical Formulation for Early-stage Alzheimer's Disease:
A 1-Year, Open-Label Pilot Study With an 16-Month Caregiver Extension -
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2008 Dec 1 - "We
examined the efficacy of a vitamin/nutriceutical formulation (folate,
vitamin B6, alpha-tocopherol, S-adenosyl methionine, N-acetyl cysteine, and
acetyl-L-carnitine) in a 12-month, open-label trial with 14
community-dwelling individuals with early-stage Alzheimer's disease.
Participants improved in the Dementia Rating Scale and Clock-drawing tests
(Clox 1 and 2). Family caregivers reported improvement in multiple domains
of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and maintenance of performance in
the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living (ADL).
Sustained performance was reported by caregivers for those participants who
continued in an 16-month extension. Performance on the NPI was equivalent to
published findings at 3 to 6 months for donepezil and exceeded that of
galantamine and their historical placebos. Participants demonstrated
superior performance for more than 12 months in NPI and ADL versus those
receiving naproxen and rofecoxib or their placebo group. This formulation
holds promise for treatment of early-stage Alzheimer's disease prior to
and/or as a supplement for pharmacological approaches"
Acetyl-L-Carnitine in the Treatment of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
(November) - Ann Pharmacother. 2008 Oct 21 -
"acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy
(DPN) ... Data on treatment of DPN with ALC support its use. It should be
recommended to patients early in the disease process to provide maximal
benefit. Further studies should be conducted to determine the effectiveness
of ALC in the treatment and prevention of the worsening symptoms of DPN"
R-alpha-Lipoic acid and acetyl-L: -carnitine complementarily promote
mitochondrial biogenesis in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes - Diabetologia.
2008 Jan;51(1):165-74 - "Treatments with the
combination of LA and ALC at concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 10 mumol/l for 24
h significantly increased mitochondrial mass, expression of mitochondrial
DNA, mitochondrial complexes, oxygen consumption and fatty acid oxidation in
3T3L1 adipocytes. These changes were accompanied by an increase in
expression of Pparg, Ppara and Cpt1a mRNA, as well as increased expression
of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator 1
alpha (Ppargc1a), mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear
respiratory factors 1 and 2 (Nrf1 and Nrf2). However, the treatments with LA
or ALC alone at the same concentrations showed little effect on
mitochondrial function and biogenesis" - See
alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com
acetyl l-carnitine at Amazon.com.
Effect of L-carnitine and/or L-acetyl-carnitine in nutrition treatment for
male infertility: a systematic review - Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16
Suppl:383-90 - "the administration of LC and/or LAC
may be effective in improving pregnancy rate and sperm kinetic features in
patients affected by male infertility"
Acetyl-L-Carnitine Improves Pain, Nerve Regeneration, and Vibratory
Perception in Patients With Chronic Diabetic Neuropathy: An analysis of two
randomized placebo-controlled trials
- Diabetes Care. 2005 Jan;28(1):89-94 -
"ALC treatment is efficacious in alleviating
symptoms, particularly pain, and improves nerve fiber regeneration and
vibration perception in patients with established diabetic neuropathy"
Carnitine versus androgen administration in the treatment of sexual
dysfunction, depressed mood, and fatigue associated with male aging
- Urology. 2004 Apr;63(4):641-6 - "Carnitines proved
significantly more active than testosterone in improving nocturnal penile
tumescence and International Index of Erectile Function score. Testosterone
significantly increased the prostate volume and free and total testosterone
levels and significantly lowered serum luteinizing hormone; carnitines did
Memory loss in old rats is associated with brain mitochondrial decay and
RNA/DNA oxidation: Partial reversal by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and/or
R-alpha -lipoic acid
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002 Feb 19;99(4):2356-2361 -
"Electron microscopic studies in the hippocampus
showed that ALCAR and/or LA reversed age-associated mitochondrial structural
Mitochondrial decay in aging. Reversal through supplementation of
acetyl-L-carnitine and N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenyl-nitrone - Ann N Y Acad
Sci. 1998 Nov 20;854:214-23 - "ALCAR supplementation
(1 month) resulted in significant increases in cellular respiration,
mitochondrial membrane potential, and cardiolipin values"
Acetyl L-carnitine slows decline in younger patients with Alzheimer's
disease: a reanalysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study using the
trilinear approach - Int Psychogeriatr. 1998 Jun;10(2):193-203 -
"ALC slows the progression of Alzheimer's disease in younger subjects, and
the use of the trilinear approach to estimate the average rate of change may
prove valuable in pharmacological trials"
Acetyl-L-carnitine in Alzheimer disease: a short-term study on CSF
neurotransmitters and neuropeptides - Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 1995
Fall;9(3):128-31 - "beta-endorphins significantly
decreased after treatment; plasma cortisol levels matched this reduction.
Since both CSF beta-endorphins and plasma cortisol decreased, one possible
explanation is that ALCAR reduced the AD-dependent
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis hyperactivity"
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