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Anti-aging Research > Acetyl-l-carnitine
News & Research:
used supplement may improve recovery from spinal cord injuries - Science
Daily, 9/28/11 - "in experimental models, severe spinal cord injury can be
treated effectively by administering the supplement acetyl-L-carnitine or ALC, a
derivative of essential amino acids that can generate metabolic energy, soon
after injury ... following spinal cord injury, the mitochondria, or
energy-generation components of cells, are overwhelmed by chemical stresses and
lose the ability to produce energy in the form of the compound adenosine
triphosphate (ATP). [1,2] This leads to cell death at the injury site and,
ultimately, paralysis of the body below the injury level ... ALC can preserve
the vitality of mitochondria by acting as an alternative biofuel providing
energy to cells, thus bypassing damaged mitochondrial enzymes and promoting
Effect of Oral
Acetyl L-Carnitine Arginate on Biomarkers in Pre-Diabetics - Medscape,
10/28/09 - "3 g.day−1 of ALCA (n = 14; 31 +/- 3 yrs)
or placebo (n = 15; 35 +/- 3 yrs) in a double-blind design, to consume for
eight weeks ... slight improvements in glucose (109 +/- 5 to 103 +/- 5 mg.dL−1),
HbA1c (6.6 +/- 1.1 to 6.2 +/- 1.2%), and HOMA-IR (3.3 +/- 1.3 to 2.9 +/- 1.2) ...
slight improvement in glucose metabolism, as evidenced by minor decreases in
blood glucose, insulin, and HbA1c (which may have been more pronounced with
longer treatment, as HbA1c has a half-life equal to approximately 12 weeks"
ester carnitine propionyl at iHerb.
Protecting the Brain from Aging? - Dr. Weil, 6/22/09 -
"Dr. Khalsa is president and medical director of the
Alzheimer's Prevention Foundation International and author of the book "The
Better Memory Kit" to be published later this year. He tells me that
supplemental acetyl-L-carnitine can increase energy in the mitochondria, the
power plants of all cells, and thereby helps generally boost physical and
mental energy. He describes acetyl-L-carnitine as a superior antioxidant
that promotes the production in cells of glutathione, perhaps our most
potent free radical scavenger. If you decide to try it, Dr. Khalsa
recommends taking 500 to 1,500 mg per day along with 100 mg of
Curbs ADHD Associated With Fragile X Syndrome - Medscape, 3/12/08 -
"L-acetylcarnitine (LAC) may be considered an
alternative to stimulants for the treatment of attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with fragile X syndrome, based on
results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study"
Lipoic acid and carnitine combo show diabetes potential - Nutra USA,
2/18/08 - [Abstract]
- "the combination of LA and LCAR increased the
mass, oxygen consumption, mitochondrial DNA expression, and fatty acid
oxidation in the fat cells ... However, the treatments with LA or ALC alone
at the same concentrations showed little effect on mitochondrial function
and biogenesis ... Lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine have become very hot
after our reports on the complementary effects on improving memory and
ambulatory activity in old rats"
Integrative Approaches to Dementia - Medscape, 7/5/05 -
"There have been several controlled
clinical trials suggesting that ALc slows the progression of AD"
Jarrow Formulasí, Inc. Introduces ALCA 500(TM) (Acetyl-L-Carnitine Arginate
Dihydrochloride) - NPI Center, 3/8/05 -
"Acetyl-l-carnitine arginate (ALCA)
represents an advancement in the carnitine and arginine fields as this new
dietary supplement offers potential benefits in affecting levels of nitric
oxide over and above the traditional benefits of carnitine" - See
Jarrow Acetyl L Carnitine Arginate.
- Common Nutrient May Ease Diabetic Pain - WebMD,
1/6/05 - "1,000 milligrams three times a day of acetyl-L-carnitine was effective in
relieving pain caused by nerve damage associated with the condition"
- Supplemental Carnitine May Be Helpful in Diabetic Neuropathy
- Medscape, 1/3/05 - "Pain as the most bothersome symptom significantly improved with ALC"
New uses for carnitine - Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, 11/04 -
"Because L-carnitine is central to the
formation of energy from fat, the heart is therefore dependent on
L-carnitine for most of its energy production ... L-Carnipure carries
long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria where they are oxidised for
energy. Its ability to generate energy from fat makes carnitine useful as
part of a weight management program ... L-carnitine plus its metabolite,
acetyl-L-carnitine, can treat symptoms of male ageing, including sexual
dysfunction, depressed mood and fatigue"
- Carnitine Improves Symptoms of Male Aging -
Medscape, 4/14/04 -
is more active than testosterone for improving symptoms of male aging such
as sexual dysfunction, depressed mood, and fatigue ... In this trial, 120
patients were randomized to receive testosterone undecanoate 160 mg/day,
propionyl-L-carnitine 2 g/day plus acetyl-L-carnitine 2 g/day, or placebo
for six months" - [Abstract]
acetyl-l-carnitine products and propionyl-l-carnitine at
Do Anti-aging Supplements Really Work? - Life Extension Magazine, 6/02 -
"The National Academy of Sciences has published three new reports showing
that aging may be partially reversible with currently available supplements"
The Wizard is Oz - Life Extension Magazine, 11/01 -
"Best-selling author and nutritional guru to the rich and famous, Oz Garcia
is singing the praises of the Life Extension Foundation and its products in
his newest book,
Healthy High Tech Body, published in September 2001 ... Supplements at
the top of Garcia's list of recommendations ...
DHA ... NADH ...
... Acetyl-L-Carnitine ... An expanded list of his recommendations includes
lycopene, gamma tocopherol,
carnosine, glutathione, DMAE,
Huperzine A, probiotics,
IP-6, bioflavonoid formulas and
grape skin/seed extracts"
Sustain the Brain - Nutrition Science News, 2/01 -
"By enhancing membrane stability, energy production, and neurotransmission,
ALC may improve mental function. In addition, it may also have
anti-inflammatory effects that reduce free radical generation. . . ALC's
ability to bind cortisol and increase nerve
growth factor production within the hippocampal region may explain its
positive effects on neurons."
- Sperm Booster? - WebMD, 1/1/01
Can L-carnitine help reverse Alzheimer's disease? - Nutrition Science
The Anti-Aging Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine - Life Extension Magazine,
5/00 - "When acetyl-L-carnitine was
administered, their heart rates became almost completely restored to the
metabolic function level of young control rats . . . acetyl-L-carnitine is
critical to youthful cellular function in the brain, heart, liver,
peripheral nerve and immune system. Supplementation with
acetyl-L-carnitine becomes an even greater consideration when we realize the
potential antiaging effects this amino acid may produce when taken in
combination with coQ10 and
alpha lipoic acid"
Staying Young Forever, Putting new research findings into practice -
Life Extension Foundation, 12/99 - "acetyl l-carnitine significantly reversed age-associated mitochondrial
decay. It increased cellular respiration, membrane potential and cardiolipin
- Lower AGE with Acetyl L-Carnitine - Life
Enhancement Magazine, 8/99 - "Diabetics and others who become susceptible to high levels of glucose in
blood serum as they age suffer from the formation of deleterious hybrid
protein-sugar complexes known as advanced glycation end products (AGE) ...
ALC decreased the glycation by 42%"
Anti-Cortisols May Offer New Hope For Retinitis Pigmentosa - Doctor's
Guide, 11/17/97 - "According to Sapse, RP can be treated initially with a cocktail of anti-cortisol
nutritional compounds including vitamin A, zinc, ginkgo biloba and
acetyl-L-carnitine . . ."
Life Extension Drugs - Life Extension Magazine, 9/95
Acetyl-L-Carnitine Supplements Slow Progression of Alzheimer's Disease
-The Nutrition Reporter, '95
Acetyl-l-carnitine supplementation reverses the age-related decline in carnitine
palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) activity in interfibrillar mitochondria without
changing the l-carnitine content in the rat heart - Mech Ageing Dev. 2012
Feb 1 - "The aging heart displays a loss of bioenergetic
reserve capacity partially mediated through lower fatty acid utilization. We
investigated whether the age-related impairment of cardiac fatty acid catabolism
occurs, at least partially, through diminished levels of l-carnitine, which
would adversely affect carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), the
rate-limiting enzyme for fatty acyl-CoA uptake into mitochondria for
β-oxidation. Old (24-28 mos) Fischer 344 rats were fed+/-acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR;
1.5% [w/v]) for up to four weeks prior to sacrifice and isolation of cardiac
interfibrillar (IFM) and subsarcolemmal (SSM) mitochondria. IFM displayed a 28%
(p<0.05) age-related loss of CPT1 activity, which correlated with a decline
(41%, p<0.05) in palmitoyl-CoA-driven state 3 respiration. Interestingly, SSM
had preserved enzyme function and efficiently utilized palmitate. Analysis of
IFM CPT1 kinetics showed both diminished V(max) and K(m) (60% and 49%
respectively, p<0.05) when palmitoyl-CoA was the substrate. However, no
age-related changes in enzyme kinetics were evident with respect to l-carnitine.
ALCAR supplementation restored CPT1 activity in heart IFM, but not apparently
through remediation of l-carnitine levels. Rather, ALCAR influenced enzyme
activity over time, potentially by modulating conditions in the aging heart that
ultimately affect palmitoyl-CoA binding and CPT1 kinetics"
L-arginine and niacin in sexual medicine: a nutraceutical approach for erectile
dysfunction - Andrologia. 2011 Oct 4 - "In a group of 54 unselected men
(35-75 years), consecutively presenting to our ED clinic and naive to other ED
treatments, we carried out a single-blind, one-arm study to evaluate the effects
of a 3-month supplementation with propionyl-L-carnitine, L-arginine and niacin
on their sexual performance ... Analyses on GAQs revealed that treatment improved
erections in 40% of cases, with a partial response occurring in up to 77% of
enrolled subjects. These preliminary findings indicate that the favourable
cardiovascular effects of nutraceuticals might also reflect on male sexual
function with possible implication in the treatment and prevention of ED. This
study documents a considerable patients' interest toward nutritional
supplementation - as first-line or adjunctive treatment to PDE5 inhibitors -
that goes beyond the measurable increment in penile rigidity" - See
Ester Carnitine Propionyl at iHerb,
Twinlab niacin 1000mg at iHerb
Jarrow Formulas, Arginine 1000, 1000 mg, 100 Easy-Solv Tablets
acetyl-L-carnitine therapy reduces fatigue in overt hepatic encephalopathy: a
randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011
Feb 10 - "Fatigue is frequently reported in hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and may
be related to hyperammonemia. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) offers neuroprotective
benefits and improves mitochondrial energetics and function ... At the end of
the study period, the ALC-treated patients in the HE1 group showed significantly
better improvement than did the placebo group in mental fatigue score (-1.7
compared with -0.3; P < 0.05), the fatigue severity scale (-6.4 compared with
2.3; P < 0.001), 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire score (17.1 compared
with -2.5; P < 0.001), and Short Physical Performance Battery (2.1 compared with
0.2; P < 0.001); the HE2 group showed significantly better improvement in the
fatigue severity scale (-8.1 compared with -5.1; P < 0.001) and 6-min walk test
(19.9 compared with 2.3; P < 0.05). Significant decreases in NH(4)(+) were
observed in both groups (P < 0.001)"
encephalopathy - NIH - "Hepatic
encephalopathy is a worsening of brain function that occurs when the liver
is no longer able to remove toxic substances in the blood"
of acetyl-L-carnitine and oxfenicine on aorta stiffness in diabetic rats
- Eur J Clin Invest. 2010 Jul 29 - "Oxfenicine, but
not acetyl-L-carnitine, increased total peripheral resistance in diabetes,
which paralleled its elevation in plasma levels of free fatty acids. By
contrast, acetyl-L-carnitine, but not oxfenicine, resulted in a significant
increase in wave transit time and a decrease in wave reflection factor,
suggesting that acetyl-L-carnitine may attenuate the diabetes-induced
deterioration in systolic loading condition for the left ventricle. This was
in parallel with its lowering of MDA/TBARS content in plasma and aortic
walls in diabetes. Acetyl-L-carnitine therapy also prevented the
diabetes-related cardiac hypertrophy, as evidenced by the reduction in ratio
of the left ventricular weight to body weight. Conclusion
Acetyl-L-carnitine, but not oxfenicine, attenuates aortic stiffening and
cardiac hypertrophy, possibly through its decrease of lipid
oxidation-derived MDA/TBARS in the rats with insulin deficiency"
Ameliorating Hypertension and Insulin Resistance in Subjects at Increased
Cardiovascular Risk. Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine Therapy -
Hypertension. 2009 Jul 20 - "glucose disposal rate
(GDR) ... Systolic blood pressure decreased from 144.0+/-13.6 to 135.1+/-8.4
mm Hg and from 130.8+/-12.4 to 123.8+/-10.8 mm Hg in the lower and higher
GDR groups, respectively (P<0.05 for both; P<0.001 overall) and
progressively recovered toward baseline over 8 weeks posttreatment. Total
and high molecular weight adiponectin levels followed specular trends.
Diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased only in those with higher
GDRs. Treatment was well tolerated in all of the patients.
Acetyl-L-carnitine safely ameliorated arterial hypertension, insulin
resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypoadiponectinemia in subjects
at increased cardiovascular risk"
of a Vitamin/Nutriceutical Formulation for Early-stage Alzheimer's Disease:
A 1-Year, Open-Label Pilot Study With an 16-Month Caregiver Extension -
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2008 Dec 1 - "We
examined the efficacy of a vitamin/nutriceutical formulation (folate,
vitamin B6, alpha-tocopherol, S-adenosyl methionine, N-acetyl cysteine, and
acetyl-L-carnitine) in a 12-month, open-label trial with 14
community-dwelling individuals with early-stage Alzheimer's disease.
Participants improved in the Dementia Rating Scale and Clock-drawing tests (Clox
1 and 2). Family caregivers reported improvement in multiple domains of the
Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and maintenance of performance in the
Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living (ADL).
Sustained performance was reported by caregivers for those participants who
continued in an 16-month extension. Performance on the NPI was equivalent to
published findings at 3 to 6 months for donepezil and exceeded that of
galantamine and their historical placebos. Participants demonstrated
superior performance for more than 12 months in NPI and ADL versus those
receiving naproxen and rofecoxib or their placebo group. This formulation
holds promise for treatment of early-stage Alzheimer's disease prior to
and/or as a supplement for pharmacological approaches"
Acetyl-L-Carnitine in the Treatment of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
(November) - Ann Pharmacother. 2008 Oct 21 -
"acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy
(DPN) ... Data on treatment of DPN with ALC support its use. It should be
recommended to patients early in the disease process to provide maximal
benefit. Further studies should be conducted to determine the effectiveness
of ALC in the treatment and prevention of the worsening symptoms of DPN"
R-alpha-Lipoic acid and acetyl-L: -carnitine complementarily promote
mitochondrial biogenesis in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes - Diabetologia.
2008 Jan;51(1):165-74 - "Treatments with the
combination of LA and ALC at concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 10 mumol/l for 24
h significantly increased mitochondrial mass, expression of mitochondrial
DNA, mitochondrial complexes, oxygen consumption and fatty acid oxidation in
3T3L1 adipocytes. These changes were accompanied by an increase in
expression of Pparg, Ppara and Cpt1a mRNA, as well as increased expression
of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator 1
alpha (Ppargc1a), mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear
respiratory factors 1 and 2 (Nrf1 and Nrf2). However, the treatments with LA
or ALC alone at the same concentrations showed little effect on
mitochondrial function and biogenesis" - See
Doctor's Best, Best Stabilized R-Lipoic Acid Na-RALA
Doctor's Best acetyl-l-carnitine at iHerb.
Effect of L-carnitine and/or L-acetyl-carnitine in nutrition treatment for
male infertility: a systematic review - Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16
Suppl:383-90 - "the administration
of LC and/or LAC may be effective in improving pregnancy rate and sperm
kinetic features in patients affected by male infertility"
Acetyl-L-Carnitine Improves Pain, Nerve Regeneration, and
Vibratory Perception in Patients With Chronic Diabetic Neuropathy: An
analysis of two randomized placebo-controlled trials
- Diabetes Care. 2005 Jan;28(1):89-94 -
is efficacious in alleviating symptoms, particularly pain, and improves
nerve fiber regeneration and vibration perception in patients with
established diabetic neuropathy"
Carnitine versus androgen administration in the treatment of
sexual dysfunction, depressed mood, and fatigue associated with male aging
- Urology. 2004 Apr;63(4):641-6 - "Carnitines proved significantly more active than testosterone in improving
nocturnal penile tumescence and International Index of Erectile Function
score. Testosterone significantly increased the prostate volume and free and
total testosterone levels and significantly lowered serum luteinizing
hormone; carnitines did not"
Memory loss in old rats is associated with brain
mitochondrial decay and RNA/DNA oxidation: Partial reversal by feeding
acetyl-L-carnitine and/or R-alpha -lipoic acid
- Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002 Feb 19;99(4):2356-2361 -
"Electron microscopic studies in the hippocampus showed that
ALCAR and/or LA reversed age-associated mitochondrial structural decay"
Mitochondrial decay in aging. Reversal through supplementation of
acetyl-L-carnitine and N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenyl-nitrone - Ann N Y Acad
Sci. 1998 Nov 20;854:214-23 - "ALCAR supplementation (1 month) resulted in significant increases in
cellular respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cardiolipin
Acetyl L-carnitine slows decline in younger patients with
Alzheimer's disease: a reanalysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled
study using the trilinear approach - Int
Psychogeriatr. 1998 Jun;10(2):193-203 - "ALC slows the progression of Alzheimer's disease in younger
subjects, and the use of the trilinear approach to estimate the average rate
of change may prove valuable in pharmacological trials"
Acetyl-L-carnitine in Alzheimer disease: a short-term study
on CSF neurotransmitters and neuropeptides -
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 1995 Fall;9(3):128-31 - "beta-endorphins significantly decreased after treatment;
plasma cortisol levels matched this reduction. Since both CSF
beta-endorphins and plasma cortisol decreased, one possible explanation is
that ALCAR reduced the AD-dependent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical
(HPA) axis hyperactivity"