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Home > Anti-aging Research > B Vitamins

B Vitamins

Specific Recommendations:

News and Research:

  • Should Patients Taking Metformin Also Take Vitamin B12? - Medscape, 12/13/13 - "Vitamin B12 deficiency is estimated to be present in up to 30% of patients with diabetes taking metformin.[1] The risk for vitamin B12 deficiency increases with patient age and the dose and duration of metformin use.[5,7] Concomitant conditions such as suboptimal dietary intake, which is common among vegetarians and alcohol abusers, and malabsorption due to atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, chronic pancreatitis, and celiac disease may further increase risk for vitamin B12 deficiency.[5] The combination of metformin with proton pump inhibitors has been reported to have an additive effect on risk for vitamin B12 deficiency ... Screening for vitamin B12 deficiency seems reasonable for all adult patients with diabetes, especially those taking metformin" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Long-term use of common heartburn and ulcer medications linked to vitamin B12 deficiency - Science Daily, 12/10/13 - "Left untreated, vitamin B12 deficiency can increase the risk of dementia, nerve damage, anemia, and other medical complications, some of which may be irreversible. Stomach acid aids in vitamin B12 absorption; suppressing the acids can lead to the health-threatening vitamin deficiency ... Researchers examined the electronic health records (including diagnoses, pharmacy orders, and laboratory results) of 25,956 adult Kaiser Permanente patients diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency in Northern California between January 1997 and June 2011 ... Patients who took PPI medications for more than two years had a 65 percent increase in their risk of B12 deficiency" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Folic acid deficiency can affect the health of great, great grandchildren - Science Daily, 9/27/13 - "the scientists used mice in which a gene called Mtrr was specifically mutated. The gene is key to the normal progression of the folic acid cycle and, when mutated, it results in abnormal folic acid metabolism causing similar effects to dietary folic acid deficiency. The researchers found that when either the maternal grandmother or the maternal grandfather had this Mtrr mutation, their genetically normal grandchildren were at risk of a wide spectrum of developmental abnormalities. These developmental abnormalities were also seen in the fourth and fifth generations of mice"
  • Vitamin B Supplements May Lower Stroke Risk - Medscape, 9/18/13 - "Researchers searched for randomized controlled trials published before August 2012 that compared vitamin B supplementation with placebo, very-low-dose B vitamins, or usual care; had a minimum follow-up of 6 months; and included stroke events as a study endpoint ... The researchers noted a reduction in overall stroke events resulting from lowered homocysteine levels following B vitamin supplementation (risk ratio, 0.93"
  • Folate and vitamin B12 reduce disabling schizophrenia symptoms in some patients - Science Daily, 3/6/13 - "The symptoms of schizophrenia are complex, and antipsychotic medications provide no relief for some of the most disabling parts of the illness. These include negative symptoms, which can be particularly devastating ... Among all 140 participants in the study protocol, those receiving folate and vitamin B12 showed improvement in negative symptoms, but the degree of improvement was not statistically significant compared with the placebo group. But when the analysis accounted for the variants in the genes of interest, intake of the two nutrients did provide significant improvement in negative symptoms, chiefly reflecting the effects of specific variants in MTHFR and in a gene called FOLH1 ... Those with the low-functioning FOLH1 variant started the trial with substantially lower folate levels, suggesting a problem with folate absorption. Although supplementation enabled their blood folate levels to eventually catch up with those of participants with the high-functioning variant, it was probably too late to produce symptom improvement during the 16-week trial period ... For participants who did show a benefit, it took the full 16 weeks of treatment for that benefit to appear"
  • Lower autism risk with folic acid supplements in pregnancy - Science Daily, 2/12/13 - "Women who took folic acid supplements from four weeks before conception to eight weeks into pregnancy had a 40 per cent lower risk of giving birth to children with childhood autism (classic autism). Use of folic acid supplements midway through pregnancy (week 22) had no effect ... The ABC Study included participants in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) who were born in 2002-2008, and included a total of 85,176 children ... The Norwegian Directorate of Health recommends that women who are planning to become pregnant should take folic acid supplements from one month before conception and during the first three months of pregnancy" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Which nutritional factors help preserve muscle mass, strength and performance in seniors? - Science Daily, 1/18/13 - "The authors propose an intake of 1.0-1.2 g/kg of body weight per day as optimal for skeletal muscle and bone health in elderly people without severely impaired renal function ... adequate vitamin D should be ensured through exposure to sunlight and/or supplementation if required. Vitamin D supplementation in seniors, and especially in institutionalized elderly, is recommended for optimal musculoskeletal health ... Excess intake of acid-producing nutrients (meat and cereal grains) in combination with low intake of alkalizing fruits and vegetables may have negative effects on musculoskeletal health. Modifying the diet to include more fruits and vegetables is likely to benefit both bones and muscles ... Emerging evidence also suggests that vitamin B12 and/or folic acid play a role in improving muscle function and strength" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com, folic acid products at Amazon.com and vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Mild vitamin B12 deficiency associated with accelerated cognitive decline - Science Daily, 12/5/12 - "examined data from 549 men and women enrolled in a cohort of the Framingham Heart Study, focusing on scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), a short list of questions and tasks commonly used to screen for dementia. The subjects were divided into five groups, based on their vitamin B-12 blood levels ... Being in the two lowest groups was associated with significantly accelerated cognitive decline ... Rapid neuropsychiatric decline is a well-known consequence of severe vitamin B-12 deficiency, but our findings suggest that adverse cognitive effects of low vitamin B-12 status may affect a much larger proportion of seniors than previously thought" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Lack of nutrients and metabolic syndrome linked to different subtypes of depression - Science Daily, 11/26/12 - "Melancholic depression involves typical depressive symptoms, such as a depressed mood. Non-melancholic depression is characterized by other types of symptoms, such as low self-esteem and feelings of worry and anxiety ... Among subjects with the highest folate intake, the risk for melancholic depressive symptoms was almost 50 per cent lower than among those with the lowest intake. In addition, among those with the highest vitamin B12 levels, the risk for melancholic depressive symptoms was almost three times lower than among those with the lowest levels. Both findings are new. A similar association with non-melancholic depressive symptoms was not observed ... Another novel observation is that the risk for the metabolic syndrome was twofold among those with non-melancholic depressive symptoms, as compared to those with melancholic symptoms or those with no depressive symptoms"
  • Vitamin B12 May Boost Hep C Treatment - WebMD, 7/17/12 - "In the newly reported Italian study, previously untreated patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) who received vitamin B12 along with the drugs pegylated interferon and ribavirin were more likely to have undetectable levels of virus at 24 weeks after stopping treatment compared to patients who did not receive vitamin B12" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B12 and Sensory and Motor Peripheral Nerve Function - Medscape, 7/13/12 - "Deficient B12 status is associated with worse sensory and motor nerve function in older adults. These findings have important implications for functioning and disability in older adults. Several studies have shown an association between peripheral neuropathy or poor peripheral nerve function and impaired mobility and falls.[22,25,44–48] ... In the aftermath of the 1998 mandatory folic acid fortification in the United States, it is important to study vitamin B12 and consequences of poor B12 status in older adults.[2] A high intake of folic acid may correct megaloblastic anemia, which is caused by a deficiency in B12 or folic acid.[14, 49] Because the classic sign of anemia may not be present, B12 deficiency may go unnoticed, and neurological damage may progress and not be easily reversible.[2] Although current recommendations do not advise monitoring B12 levels in older adults, the current results suggest that low levels are associated with peripheral nerve impairments, which have been associated with lower musculoskeletal function in our population.[22,23,26] Supplemental B12 is easily available, adequately absorbed, and well tolerated in older adults[50] and may correct vitamin B12 deficits associated with impaired peripheral nerve function. Randomized clinical trials are needed to establish that sufficient B12 supplementation can improve peripheral nerve function" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Low Vitamin B6 Linked to Inflammation - WebMD, 6/19/12 - "people with the lowest levels of vitamin B6 in their blood had the highest levels of chronic inflammation, based on a wide variety of indicators. Those with the most vitamin B6 circulating in the bloodstream were also the least likely to have indicators of inflammation ... chronic inflammation is an emerging risk factor for a wide range of health problems, including heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes" - See vitamin B6 at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B12 Deficiency With Metformin Linked to Neuropathy - Medscape, 6/15/12 - "In patients with type 2 diabetes taking metformin, vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with higher levels of peripheral neuropathy ... Chronic metformin use has been previously shown to be associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Peripheral neuropathy is typically diagnosed as diabetic neuropathy, but this can also be a symptom of vitamin B12 deficiency ... I think we must be careful about older patients and patients who take metformin for a long time. We must measure levels of vitamin B12. We don't change therapies [at our institution], but we treat deficiencies with B12 supplements" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Folic acid intake during early pregnancy associated with reduced risk of autism in offspring - Science Daily, 6/14/12 - "The study found that women who each day consumed the recommended amount of folic acid (600 micrograms, or .6 milligrams) during the first month of pregnancy experienced a reduced risk of having a child with autism spectrum disorder, specifically when the mother and/or her child had a specific genetic variant (MTHFR 677 C>T) associated with less efficient folate metabolism"
  • B vitamins may slow cognitive decline: Oxford University study - Nutra USA, 10/25/11 - "A daily combination of folic acid, and vitamins B6 and B12 was associated with a 30% reduction in levels of the amino acid homocysteine, and improvements in a range of mental tests, including global cognition and episodic memory ... One interpretation [of the data] is that lowering homocysteine concentrations by administering B vitamins slows brain atrophy, which in turn slows both cognitive and clinical decline ... The Vitacog study involved 266 people over the age of 70 with diagnosed mild cognitive impairment. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or a B vitamin supplement providing 0.8 mg per day of folic acid, 0.5 mg of vitamin B12 and 20 mg of vitamin B6" - [Abstract]
  • Folic acid supplements in early pregnancy may reduce the risk of severe language delay in children - Science Daily, 10/12/11 - "mothers who took folic acid supplements from 4 weeks before to 8 weeks after conception reported a significantly lower prevalence of severe language delay in their children at age 3 ... Unlike the United States, Norway does not fortify foods with folic acid -- a fact that increases the contrast between women who do and do not take folic acid supplements and makes Norway a good place to study this effect"
  • Low vitamin B12 levels may lead to brain shrinkage, cognitive problems - Science Daily, 9/26/11 - "Older people with low blood levels of vitamin B12 markers may be more likely to have lower brain volumes and have problems with their thinking skills ... An average of four-and-a-half years later, MRI scans of the participants' brains were taken to measure total brain volume and look for other signs of brain damage ... Having high levels of four of five markers for vitamin B12 deficiency was associated with having lower scores on the cognitive tests and smaller total brain volume ... On the cognitive tests, the scores ranged from -2.18 to 1.42, with an average of 0.23. For each increase of one micromole per liter of homocysteine -- one of the markers of B12 deficiency -- the cognitive scores decreasedby 0.03 standardized units or points" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • High Folate Intake Linked to Better Grades in Swedish Teens - Medscape, 7/15/11 - "Sweden is a country that does not allow foods to be fortified ... We have a poor intake of folate compared to people in the US, our intake is below what is recommended daily. We do not achieve the recommended daily intake in Sweden ... Blood samples were obtained and assayed for total homocysteine, a biomarker for folate intake, and mutations in the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, which is known to raise levels of homocysteine ... teens in the lowest tertile of dietary folate intake had the poorest academic performance"
  • High folate intake may reduce risk of colorectal cancer - Science Daily, 7/5/11 - "We found that all forms and sources of folate were associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer ... A research team investigated the association between folate intake and colorectal cancer among 99,523 participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort; a total of 1,023 participants were diagnosed with colorectal cancer between 1999 and 2007 ... The study also addressed concerns that the intake of high levels of folate frequently consumed in the U.S. -- as a result of the recent increase in the use of folate-containing supplements and mandatory folate fortification of food -- may actually increase risk of cancer. No increased risk of colorectal cancer was found for the highest intake levels, suggesting that the high levels of this vitamin Consumed by significant numbers of Americans should not lead to increased incidence rates of this cancer in the population"
  • B vitamins in mother's diet reduce colorectal cancer risk in offspring, animal study suggests - Science Daily, 6/9/11 - "Using a mouse model of naturally occurring colorectal cancer, the USDA HNRCA scientists examined whether a mothers' B vitamin intake impacts her offspring's cancer risk. Mothers were fed diets containing supplemental, adequate or mildly deficient quantities of vitamins B2, B6, B12 and folate prior to conception through weaning after which all of the offspring received the same adequate diet ... Although the tumor incidence was similar between offspring of deficient and adequate mothers, 54% of tumors in the deficient offspring were advanced and had invaded surrounding tissue while only 18% of tumors in the offspring of adequate mothers displayed these aggressive properties" - See prenatal supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Folic acid unlikely to worsen B12 deficiency problems: NIH study - Nutra USA, 6/9/11
  • Folic acid given to mother rats protects offspring from colon cancer - Science Daily, 5/26/11 - "Folic acid supplements given to pregnant and breast-feeding rats reduced the rate of colon cancer in their offspring by 64 per cent"
  • Folic acid supplementation not associated with colon cancer: Meta-analysis - Nutra USA, 5/9/11 - "New research analysing data from the three largest trials of folic acid and the risk of colon cancer has suggested that supplementation has no effect on the risk of developing the disease ... Interestingly, we observed a potential beneficial effect of folic acid supplements on overall mortality" - [Abstract]
  • Increased consumption of folic acid can reduce birth defects but may also be associated with colorectal cancer - Science Daily, 12/12/10
  • Age-related hearing loss and folate in the elderly - Science Daily, 12/1/10 - "The main finding of the study was that low serum levels of folic acid were significantly associated with high-frequency hearing loss in the elderly" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B12 May Curb Risk for Alzheimer's Disease - Medscape, 10/18/10 - "holotranscobalamin (holoTC), the biologically active fraction of vitamin B12 ... for each 1-µmol/L increase in the baseline concentration of tHcy, the risk for AD increased by 16% (odds ratio [OR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 – 1.31). On the other hand, for each 1-pmol/L increase in baseline holoTC, the risk for AD was reduced by 2% (OR, 0.980; 95% CI, 0.965 – 0.995)" - [Science Daily] - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • B vitamins slow brain atrophy in people with memory problems - Science Daily, 9/12/10 - "on average the brains of those taking the folic acid, vitamin B6 and B12 treatment shrank at a rate of 0.76% a year, while those in the placebo group had a mean brain shrinkage rate of 1.08%. People with the highest levels of homocysteine benefited most, showing atrophy rates on treatment that were half of those on placebo"
  • Vitamin B is revolutionary new weapon against Alzheimer's Disease telegraph.co.uk, 9/9/10 - "Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) – a kind of memory loss and forgetfulness – and Alzheimer's ... On average, taking B vitamins slowed the rate of brain atrophy by 30 per cent, and in many cases reductions was as high as 53 per cent were seen"
  • Vitamin B may help prevent Alzheimer’s - Nutra USA, 9/9/10 - "The authors concluded that an accelerated rate of brain atrophy in elderly people with mild cognitive impairment could be slowed via dietary supplementation with homocysteine-lowering B vitamins"
  • B vitamins and the aging brain examined - Science Daily, 8/17/10 - "An analysis of volunteers' blood samples showed that lower levels of one B vitamin, folate, were associated with symptoms of dementia and poor brain function, also called "cognitive decline," ... In women, but not men, low levels of folate were associated with symptoms of depression. In fact, female volunteers whose plasma folate levels were in the lowest third were more than twice as likely to have symptoms of depression as volunteers in the highest third ... In research with vitamin B-12, the SALSA team determined that a protein known as holoTC, short for holotranscobalamin, might be key to a new approach for detecting cognitive decline earlier and more accurately"
  • Vitamins B6, B12 May Protect Against Depression in Older Adults - Medscape, 7/1/10 - "Odds of depressive symptoms were 2% lower per year for each additional 10 mg of vitamin B6 and an additional 10 μg of vitamin B12"
  • Higher levels of vitamin B6, common amino acid associated with lower risk of lung cancer - Science Daily, 6/15/10 - "Our results suggest that above-median se­rum measures of both B6 and methionine, assessed on average 5 years prior to disease onset, are associated with a reduction of at least 50 percent on the risk of developing lung cancer. An additional association for se­rum levels of folate was present, that when combined with B6 and methionine, was associated with a two-thirds lower risk of lung cancer"
  • Folate prevents alcohol-induced congenital heart defects in mice, study finds - Science Daily, 5/24/10 - "A new animal study has found that high levels of the B-vitamin folate (folic acid) prevented heart birth defects induced by alcohol exposure in early pregnancy"
  • Folic acid found to improve vascular function in amenorrheic runners - Science Daily, 5/10/10 - "folic acid supplement improved blood flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery which correlates with increased blood flow to the heart"
  • Diet high in B vitamins lowers heart risks in Japanese study - Science Daily, 4/15/10 - "The findings on the value of B vitamins were consistent with studies in Europe and North America, although the dietary consumption of vitamin B-6 is generally lower in Japan than in the United States ... Comparing those with the diets lowest and highest for each nutrient, they found that higher consumption of folate and vitamin B-6 was associated with significantly fewer deaths from heart failure in men, and significantly fewer deaths from stroke, heart disease and total cardiovascular diseases in women"
  • Low vitamin B6 may increase Parkinson’s disease risk - Nutra USA, 4/12/10 - "Insufficient levels of vitamin B6 may increase the risk of Parkinson’s disease by about 50 per cent" - [Abstract]
  • More folate may mean less depression: Study - Nutra USA, 1/27/10 - "Men with the highest blood levels of folate were50 per cent less likely to have symptoms of depression, compared to men with the lowest levels" - [Abstract] - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B12 Deficiency Implicated in Chronic Unexplained Cough - Medscape, 12/15/09 - "Results of a new study show that sensory neuropathy due to deficiency of vitamin B12 might be a factor in unexplained chronic cough and dysfunction of the pharynx and larynx. Vitamin B12 supplements improved histamine thresholds and significantly raised the cough threshold in patients with vitamin deficiency, but had no effect on control subjects"
  • Maternal folic acid may slash heart problems in children - Nutra USA, 12/3/09 - "Children of women who took additional folic acid, defined as a daily single supplement or as a multivitamin Containing a folic acid dose of at least 400 micrograms, were found to have an 18 per cent lower risk of CHDs" - [Abstract]
  • Folic acid supplements lift cancer risk: Study - Nutra USA, 11/18/09
  • Folic Acid, B12 May Increase Cancer Risk - WebMD, 11/17/09 - "During treatment, blood folate levels among patients who took 0.8 milligrams a day of folic acid plus 0.4 milligrams a day of vitamin B12 increased more than sixfold ... Folic acid and B12 supplementation was associated with a 21% increased risk for cancer, a 38% increased risk for dying from the disease, and an 18% increase in deaths from all causes"
  • Folic acid shows benefits for diabetic heart health - Nutra USA, 11/2/09 - "diabetic mice fed a daily folic acid supplement equivalent to 5 milligrams per day for a 70 kg human, led to a reversal in the dysfunction occurring in the lining of blood vessels (endothelial dysfunction), compared to a lower dose of the micronutrient"
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Problems Associated With Low Folate Levels In Pregnant Women - Science Daily, 10/28/09 - "A study published in an upcoming issue of The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry finds that low maternal folate levels is linked to the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems in children at age seven to nine years"
  • Folic acid over-intake not an issue: Study - Nutra USA, 11/26/09
  • Folate may prevent hearing loss in men - Nutra USA, 10/7/09 - "men over the age of 60 with high folate intake from foods and supplements had a 20 per cent decrease in risk of developing hearing loss"
  • Folate linked to lower colorectal cancer risk: Study - Nutra USA, 7/6/09 - "A possible explanation for the contradictory results of studies with the vitamin and colorectal cancer may be the difference between the synthetic and natural forms of the vitamin. “The fact that folic acid, which is not a naturally occurring form of the vitamin, is used by food and pharmaceutical industries for fortification and supplementation is potentially of importance,” wrote Tufts University’s Mason in Nutrition Reviews ... On passage through the intestinal wall, folic acid is converted to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the naturally circulating form of folate. However, some studies have suggested that oral doses of folic acid in high doses may overwhelm this conversion pathway, leading to measurable levels of folic acid in the blood ... There has been some concern that this oxidized, non-substituted form of folate might feasibly be detrimental because it is not a naturally occurring co-enzymatic form of the vitamin" - [Abstract]
  • Metformin Linked to B12 Deficiency - WebMD, 6/8/09 - "40% of type 2 diabetes patients using metformin had vitamin B12 deficiency or were in the low-normal range for the essential vitamin. And 77% of metformin users with vitamin B12 deficiency also had peripheral neuropathy, a common form of nerve damage associated with type 2 diabetes" - See vitamin B-12 at Amazon.com.
  • Folic acid in pregnancy better than thought - MSNBC, 6/1/09 - "Baby-protecting folic acid is getting renewed attention: Not only does it fight spina bifida and some related abnormalities, new research shows it also may prevent premature birth and heart defects"
  • Folic Acid Effective In Preventing Congenital Heart Defects, Canadian Research Shows - Science Daily, 5/19/09
  • B6 may slash colorectal cancer risk: Harvard study - Nutra USA, 5/5/09 - "increased intakes of vitamin B6 from dietary and supplements may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer by over 20 per cent (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev., Vol. 17, pp. 171-182)"
  • Folic Acid May Help Treat Allergies, Asthma - Science Daily, 4/30/09 - "People with higher blood levels of folate had fewer IgE antibodies, fewer reported allergies, less wheezing and lower likelihood of asthma ... People with the lowest folate levels (below 8 nanograms per milliliter) had 40 percent higher risk of wheezing than people with the highest folate levels (above 18 ng/ml) ... People with the lowest folate levels had a 30 percent higher risk than those with the highest folate levels of having elevated IgE antibodies, markers of allergy predisposition ... Those with the lowest folate levels had 31 percent higher risk of atopy (allergic symptoms) than people with the highest folate levels ... Those with lowest folate levels had 16 percent higher risk of having asthma than people with the highest folate levels" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Health Benefits, Consequences Of Folic Acid Dependent On Circumstances - Science Daily, 4/1/09 - "Under most circumstances, adequate intake of folate appears to assume the role of a protective agent against cancer, most notably colorectal cancer. However, in select circumstances in which an individual who harbors a pre-cancerous or cancerous tumor consumes too much folic acid, the additional amounts of folate may instead facilitate the promotion of cancer"
  • Folic Acid May Raise Prostate Cancer Risk - WebMD, 3/10/09 - "Men in the study who took high doses of the vitamin had a more than twofold increase in prostate cancer risk, compared to men who did not take folic acid supplements"
  • Folate Deficiency May Triple Dementia Risk in the Elderly - Medscape, 3/3/09 - "individuals who were folate deficient at study outset were 3.5 times more likely to develop dementia" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Can B Vitamins Lower Risk of Blindness? - WebMD, 2/23/09 - "researchers randomly assigned more than 5,000 women over 40 without signs of age-related macular degeneration to take a combination of 2.5 milligrams of folic acid, 50 milligrams of vitamin B6, and one milligram of vitamin B12 or a placebo every day ... The results showed that women taking the B vitamin supplements had a 34% lower risk of any AMD and a 41% lower risk of AMD with vision loss than the placebo group ... the benefits of the vitamin Combination in preventing AMD appeared to emerge about two years after treatment began"
  • B Vitamins May Cut Stroke Risk - WebMD, 2/20/09 - "people who took the vitamins were 25% less likely to suffer a stroke over the study period than those who took placebo"
  • Vitamin B12 identified As An Effective Canker Sore Therapy, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 2/10/09 - "a nightly dose of vitamin B12 is a simple, effective and low risk therapy to prevent Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS), better known as "canker sores." ... received either a dose of 1,000 mcg of B12 by mouth at bedtime or a placebo ... the duration of outbreaks, the number of ulcers, and the level of pain were reduced significantly at five and six months of treatment with vitamin B12, regardless of initial vitamin B12 levels in the blood. During the last month of treatment a significant number of participants in the intervention group reached 'no aphthous ulcers status' (74.1% vs 32.0%; P < .01)." - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B1 Could Reverse Early-stage Kidney Disease In Diabetes Patients - Science Daily, 12/8/08 - "the team show 300 mg of thiamine taken orally each day for three months reduced the rate of albumin excretion in type 2 diabetes patients. The albumin excretion rate was decreased by 41% from the value at the start of the study. The results also showed 35% of patients with microalbuminuria saw a return to normal urinary albumin excretion after being treated with thiamine ... were randomly assigned a placebo or 3 x 100mg tablets of thiamine a day for three months"
  • Cyanocobalamin May be Beneficial in the Treatment of Recurrent Aphthous Ulcers Even When Vitamin B12 Levels Are Normal - Am J Med Sci. 2008 Nov;336(5):379-382. - "recurrent aphthous ulcers (RAUs) ... vitamin B12 (cobalamin) ... cobalamin normal group (CNG) ... A significant increase in cobalamin levels was observed after cyanocobalamin treatment in both groups. A significant decrease in aphthous ulcer frequency was also concurrently observed. 96% of the patients showed good response to replacement treatment, 4% of the study population did not respond to the treatment ... Cyanocobalamin treatment maybe beneficial for patients with RAU even when serum cobalamin levels are normal. We suggest that higher serum cobalamin levels should be attained in patients with RAU for mucosal protection" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Form of Vitamin B3 May Help Alzheimer's - WebMD, 11/4/08 - "Researchers from the University of California, Irvine dissolved nicotinamide in drinking water and fed it to mice with Alzheimer's. The researchers found that nicotinamide prevented mental deficits in mice with Alzheimer's. It also seemed to improve short-term memory of mice without Alzheimer's" - [Science Daily} - See nicotinamide at Amazon.com.
  • Folic Acid Flops in Cancer Study - WebMD, 11/4/08
  • Aging - Lack of B12 Linked to Brain Shrinkage - New York Times, 9/8/08 - "The group with the lowest levels of vitamin B12 lost twice as much brain volume as those with the highest levels" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B12 Boasts Brain Benefits - WebMD, 9/8/08 - "None of the people in the study had a vitamin B12 deficiency ... When the researchers compared the results, they found that people who had higher vitamin B12 levels were six times less likely to experience brain shrinkage compared with those who had lower levels of the vitamin in their blood"
  • B-vitamin Deficiency May Cause Vascular Cognitive Impairment - Science Daily, 9/2/08 - "Mice fed a diet deficient in folate and vitamins B12 and B6 demonstrated significant deficits in spatial learning and memory compared with normal mice"
  • New Evidence On Folic Acid In Diet And Colon Cancer - Science Daily, 9/1/08 - "folate depletion caused increased DNA damage and a cascade of other biological changes linked to an increased cancer risk" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Higher Plasma Folate Associated With Lower Colorectal Cancer Mortality - Medscape, 8/5/08 - "In a study that was undertaken to address concerns that folic acid supplements promote tumor growth in patients with a history of colorectal cancer, researchers found that in fact, higher plasma folate levels are associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer-specific and overall mortality"
  • Trends Of Vitamin B6 Status In US Population Sample Identified - Science Daily, 5/20/08 - "Across the study population, we noticed participants with inadequate vitamin B6 status even though they reported consuming more than the Recommended Daily Allowance of vitamin B6, which is less than 2 milligrams per day ... Three quarters of the women who reported using oral contraceptives, but not vitamin B6 supplements, were vitamin B6 deficient"
  • Brief, High Doses Of Folate -- B Vitamin -- Blunt Damage From Heart Attack - Science Daily, 3/27/08 - "Long known for its role in preventing anemia in expectant mothers and spinal birth defects in newborns, the B vitamin folate, found in leafy green vegetables, beans and nuts has now been shown to blunt the damaging effects of heart attack when given in short-term, high doses to test animals ... a high dose of folic acid for humans comparable to that given the rats would require an average-size adult to swallow more than 200 one-milligram pills per day, "an impractical and unrealistic regimen, even if the body excretes the excess."" - I debated whether to publish this.  It is a ridiculous amount.
  • Vitamin B6 and Homocysteine Changes Seen in Women With Rheumatoid Arthritis - Medscape, 3/25/08 - "those with rheumatoid arthritis are deficient in vitamin B6 and have elevated levels of homocysteine ... The vitamin B6 deficit appears to be the result of altered metabolism, not reduced dietary intake ... dietary intake of B vitamins is not decreased in rheumatoid arthritis patients, yet they still show a deficit of vitamin B6. Consistent with this finding, rheumatoid arthritis was also associated with increased levels of homocysteine. None of the subjects in the study were using B vitamin supplements ... Individuals with rheumatoid arthritis may need to get more B vitamins through diet, supplements, or fortified foods"
  • Dads-to-Be May Need Folate, Too - WebMD, 3/20/08 - "Sperm with chromosomal abnormalities called aneuploidy were rare for all of the men, but they were 18% to 30% rarer in men who reported high folate or folic acid intake" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Folate Deficiency Associated With Tripling Of Dementia Risk, Study Shows - Science Daily, 2/5/08 - "Folate deficiency is associated with a tripling in the risk of developing dementia among elderly people" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Testosterone Reduces Visceral Fat Gain in Nonobese Older Men - Medscape, 2/1/08
  • Large Study Links Folic Acid Supplementation With Reduced Risk Of Preeclampsia During Pregnancy - Science Daily, 1/23/08 - "preeclampsia occurred in 2.2 per cent of women who took multivitamins containing folic acid compared to 5.1 per cent of women who did not"
  • Vitamin B6 may slash colorectal cancer risk - Nutra USA, 1/17/08 - "High vitamin B6 intakes were reported to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer by 19 per cent. The protective effect was found to be higher among 55-year-old individuals (1,001 cases compared to 1,010 controls)" - [Abstract]
  • CDC to Young Women: Take Folic Acid - WebMD, 1/10/08 - "All women, especially younger women ages 18-24 years, need to consume 400 micrograms of folic acid daily through supplements, fortified foods, or both in addition to a folate-rich diet to prevent serious birth defects"
  • Folic Acid and Stroke--Finally Some Good News - Medscape, 1/3/08 - "the results of this trial were notable for a 25% relative reduction in the risk for stroke among participants receiving folate and B vitamins vs placebo"
  • Vitamin B-12 Function May Be Diminished By Excessive Folate - Science Daily, 12/21/07 - "homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are at much higher levels in individuals who have a combination of vitamin B12 deficiency and high blood folate levels than in individuals who are also vitamin B12 deficient but have normal folate levels"
  • Excess folate worsens B12 deficiency effects: study - Nutra USA, 12/19/07 - "Finding that the combination of high blood folate levels and low vitamin B12 status is associated with even higher levels of these compounds is a strong indication that the high folate is interfering with the action of these B12-containing enzymes, thus resulting in the exacerbation or worsening of the vitamin B12 deficiency"
  • Folate may reduce depression symptoms for men, says study - Nutra USA, 12/7/07 - "male subjects with the highest average intake (235 micrograms per 100 kcal) were 50 per cent less likely to have depressive symptoms than men with the lowest average intake (119 micrograms per 100 kcal)" - [Abstract] - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Increased B12 levels could ward off dementia - Nutra USA, 11/16/07 - "The longitudinal cohort study followed 1648 participants for 10 years, and found a doubling in holotranscobalamin (holoTC) concentrations was associated with a 30 per cent slower rate of cognitive decline ... increased levels of the amino acid homocysteine doubled the risk of dementia or cognitive impairment" - [Abstract] - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Folic Acid in Preconceptual Period May Have a Preventive Effect on Congenital Heart Disease - Doctor's Guide, 11/6/07 - "The recent increase in folic acid intake has resulted in a decrease in the prevalence of infants born with severe congenital heart disease (CHD), supporting the idea that folic acid taken preconceptually may prevent CHD"
  • Riboflavin boosts folate's colorectal cancer protection - study - Nutra USA, 10/29/07
  • Mesalamine, Folic Acid Each Cut Colorectal Cancer in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease - oncologystat.com, 10/24/07 - "Patients who took at least 1 mg of folic acid daily also had about a 90% cut in their CRC incidence during follow-up, compared with the controls" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Folic Acid Lowers Blood Arsenic Levels, Study Shows - Science Daily, 10/8/07 - "treatment with 400 micrograms a day of folic acid, the U.S. recommended dietary allowance, reduced total blood arsenic levels in the study population by 14 percent"
  • Pantethine: A Better Cholesterol Treatment? - Dr. Weil, 10/8/07
  • Increased folate may slash breast cancer risk - Nutra USA, 8/9/07 - "women in the highest average intake group (456 micrograms of folate per day) had a 44 per cent lower risk of invasive breast cancer than women in the lowest average intake group (160 micrograms of folate per day)"  [Abstract]
  • Vitamin B1 Deficiency Key To Vascular Problems For Diabetic Patients, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 8/7/07 - "thiamine concentration in blood plasma was decreased 76% in type 1 diabetic patients and 75% in type 2 diabetic patients ... the decreased availability of thiamine in vascular cells in diabetes was linked to a marker of microvascular and macrovascular complications"
  • Too Much (Good-for-You) Folate Might Be Really Bad - US News and World Report, 8/5/07 - "Cells use folate to keep their genetic software—their DNA—in good repair and to make copies of DNA when they divide. DNA is less likely to develop the sorts of defects that lead to cancer when it's well maintained, so folate may lower cancer risk in people who are healthy. But once a defect is present, experts theorize, replicating cancer cells hungrily gobble up folate to make new copies of their malevolent DNA"
  • Selective Vitamin Supplementation May Improve Cognitive Functions - Clinical Psychiatry News, 6/07 - "Supplementation with vitamins B6 and B12 and folate in younger to middle-aged adults improves motor speed and sequencing ability on neuropsychological tests ... participants who took the supplements performed the task significantly faster than they had a month before, which indicated increased motor speed. The placebo group patients had no improvement on this test ... Among people who entered the trial with vitamin B12 levels on the low end of the normal range, those who received supplementation significantly improved their performance on the Trail Making Test Parts A and B. Part B includes some assessment of executive function"
  • Folate may reduce liver damage study - Nutra USA, 7/6/07 - "higher red blood cell folate levels were associated with a 67 per cent reduced risk of liver cancer" - [Abstract] - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Folic acid 'reduces stroke risks' - BBC News, 5/31/07 - "They found the vitamin reduced the relative risk of stroke by an average of 18% ... An even greater risk reduction - 30% - was seen when the treatment lasted more than 36 months"
  • Folic Acid May Lower Stroke Risk - WebMD, 5/31/07
  • High Folate Intake May Lower AD Risk - Clinical Psychiatry News, 2/07 - "The risk of AD decreased with increasing intake of folate but not of vitamins B6 or B12"
  • Folate And B12 May Influence Cognition In Seniors - Science Daily, 2/12/07 - "People with normal vitamin B12 status performed better if their serum folate was high ... But for people with low vitamin B12 status, high serum folate was associated with poor performance on the cognitive test ... For seniors, low vitamin B12 status and high serum folate was the worst combination"
  • Folic acid effects two-faced depending on B12 levels, says study - Nutra USA, 1/31/07 - "In this study of older Americans in the age of folic acid fortification, we found direct associations between high serum folate and both anaemia and cognitive impairment in subjects with low vitamin B12 status ... Among subjects with normal vitamin B12 status, on the other hand, high serum folate was associated with protection from cognitive impairment"
  • Folic Acid Improves Cognitive Performance in Older Adults - Medscape, 1/19/07 - "Patients were randomized to either placebo or 800 µg daily of folic acid for 3 years ... 3 years of treatment with folic acid conferred on individuals resulted in the performance of someone 4.7 years younger for memory, 1.7 years younger for sensorimotor speed, 2.1 years younger for information processing speed, and 1.5 years younger for global cognitive function"
  • Higher Folate Levels Linked To Reduced Risk For Alzheimer's Disease - Science Daily, 1/9/07 - "Folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6, are important in the body's processing of homocysteine--therefore, deficiencies in these nutrients increase homocysteine levels and may contribute to cardiovascular disease, stroke and dementia ... When the individuals were divided into four groups based on the total level of folate they took in through food and supplements and the analysis was adjusted for patient characteristics, comorbid diseases and B12 and B6 intake, the risk of Alzheimer's disease was lower in the groups with higher intake" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Folic Acid May Slow Hearing Loss - WebMD, 1/2/07 - "Half the study participants got strong folic acid supplements -- 800 micrograms per day, about twice what one would get in a multivitamin pill ... After three years, those who got folic acid pills had less low-frequency hearing loss than did placebo recipients"
  • Poor Athletic Performance Linked To Vitamin Deficiency - Science Daily, 12/27/06 - "Current national B-vitamin recommendations for active individuals may be inadequate, and athletes who follow the recommended daily allowances set by the U.S. government may be receiving lower amounts of nutrients than there bodies need"
  • Research Affirms the Benefits of Combination of Chromium Picolinate and Biotin for Improving Blood Sugar in People with Type 2 Diabetes - Doctor's Guide, 12/20/06 - "The 30-day study examined 36 overweight or obese poorly controlled patients with type 2 diabetes taking Diachrome who were already receiving oral anti-diabetic drug(s). The results also showed a significantly greater reduction in the total area under the curve for glucose (AUCg) during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for the treatment group (mean change -9.7%) compared with the placebo group (mean change +5.1%)"
  • Use Folic Acid To Cut Heart Disease, Say Experts - Science Daily, 11/28/06 - "The scientific evidence is strong enough to justify using folic acid as a cheap and simple way of reducing heart disease and strokes"
  • Folic Acid Modestly Protects Against Cardiovascular Events - Medscape, 11/27/06 - "the combined evidence from cohort, genetic, and randomized controlled studies is indeed strong enough to support a modest protective effect of this nutrient"
  • Low Folate Diets Found To Increase Risk Of Colorectal Cancer - Science Daily, 11/14/06 - "None of the mice fed a control diet developed tumours whereas 1 in 4 mice on the folate-deficient diet developed at least one tumour"
  • Encouraging Results For Folic Acid As A Cancer Prevention Drug - Science Daily, 6/12/06 - "31 of 43 patients with the precancerous laryngeal lesion called leucoplakia demonstrated 50 percent or greater reduction in the lesion size after six months of taking folate supplements. In 12 of 31 responders, there was no evidence of the original lesion ... Folate deficiency is the most common vitamin deficiency in the United States"
  • Vitamin B6 May Help Prevent Colorectal Cancer - Medscape, 6/10/06 - "There was an inverse association between vitamin B6 intake and colorectal cancer, with the relative risk (RR) for the highest quintile vs the lowest quintile being 0.66 ... Vitamin B6 may have a role in colorectal cancer prevention through reduction of oxidative stress and synthesis of a form of folate required for DNA repair, synthesis, and methylation"
  • Does your heart need more vitamin B? - MSNBC, 6/2/06
  • Folic Acid May Cut Stroke Deaths - WebMD, 3/13/06 - "In the U.S. and Canada, stroke deaths declined at a faster rate after mandatory folic acid (also known as folate) fortification"
  • Treating Hair Loss Naturally - WebMD - "Daly says he routinely recommends up to 3 mg of biotin daily for his hair loss patients, while Lessman developed a healthy hair, skin, and nails product containing 2 mg of biotin per daily dosage, which he believes is the minimum for healthy hair"
  • Thiamin Deficiency Common in Hospitalized Heart Failure Patients - Doctor's Guide, 1/13/06 - "Among patients hospitalized with heart failure, about one in three has deficient levels of thiamin ... a relatively small dose of thiamin from a multi-vitamin was protective against developing thiamin deficiency"
  • Folic Acid to Boost Memory? - Dr. Weil, 12/13/05 - "those who took the folic acid had memory scores equal to people five and a half years younger"
  • Do you get enough vitamin B-12? - MSNBC, 11/18/05 - "Now, a new concern about vitamin B-12 has arisen. It seems that adults over the age of 50 may have a reduced ability to absorb it ... A high intake of folate from fortified grains can hide the changes in red blood cells that show a lack of vitamin B-12" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Veggies May Keep an Aging Brain Sharp - WebMD, 9/28/05
  • Leafy Green Vegetables May Help Keep Brains Sharp Through Aging - Science Daily, 9/26/05 - "men who obtained more folate in their diets showed significantly less of a decline in verbal fluency skills over the course of three years than did men with lower dietary folate intake ... High folate levels, both in the diet and in the blood, also appeared to be protective against declines in another category of cognitive skills known as spatial copying"
  • Folates More Effective In Limiting Alzheimer's Disease Risk Than Antioxidants, Other Nutrients - Science Daily, 8/17/05 - "folates appear to have more impact on reducing Alzheimer's risk than vitamin E, a noted antioxidant, and other nutrients considered for their effect as a brain-aging deterrent" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Folate May Reduce Risk of Alzheimer's Disease - WebMD, 8/15/05 - "older adults whose total folate intake (diet and supplement) equaled or exceeded the 400 microgram RDA reduced their chances of developing Alzheimer's disease by 55%" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Supplemental Chromium Picolinate and Biotin Appear to Decrease Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in Type 2 Diabetics: Presented at ADA - Doctor's Guide, 6/17/05 - "Our most important finding is that chromium picolinate and biotin help to decrease hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] values in poorly controlled diabetics ... 600 mcg chromium picolinate and biotin 2 mg/per day" - See biotin at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B6 May Help Prevent Colorectal Cancer - Medscape, 6/10/05 - "those in the highest quintile had a 34% lower risk of colorectal cancer (multivariate rate ratio"
  • High vitamin B intake cuts risk of colorectal cancer - Nutra USA, 6/6/05
  • Vitamin B-6 May Help People Avoid Colon Cancer - WebMD, 5/3/05 - "The risk of colorectal cancer was 44% lower for the women with the highest blood level of vitamin B-6 compared with women with the lowest level of vitamin B-6"
  • Fight Osteoporosis: Bone Up On B12 - Science Daily, 4/23/05 - "This study suggests adequate vitamin B12 intake is important for maintaining bone mineral density"
  • Folate and Vitamin B12 Prevent Hip Fracture in Stroke Patients - Medscape, 3/25/05 - "The magnitude of benefit is similar to that found in trials of alendronate and raloxifene, with considerably less potential risk. The fact that BMD did not change suggests the benefit derives from quality, rather than quantity, of bone"
  • B Vitamins (including Thiamin, Niacin, B-6, B-12, Riboflavin and Folate) review - ConsumerLab.com, 4/5/05
  • Folic acid: It's not just for your baby’s health - MSNBC, 4/4/05 - "The younger group of women (ages 25 to 42) who consumed 1000 micrograms of folic acid through foods and supplements had a 46 percent decrease in their risk of developing hypertension as compared to those women who consumed less than 200 micrograms ... older group of women (ages 30 to 55) 1000 micrograms of folic acid was found to decrease risk of developing hypertension to a lesser extent — 18 percent" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Folic Acid and Vitamin B12 Decrease Risk of Hip Fracture in Stroke Patients - Doctor's Guide, 3/1/05 - "Patients who took folic acid and vitamin B12 after their stroke had a reduced risk of hip fracture compared to patients who took placebo"
  • Preventing Heart Disease and Depression with High-Dose Folic Acid - Life Extension Magazine, 3/05 - "High-dose folic acid—up to 5000 mcg daily—is a scientifically substantiated and safe nutritional approach to achieving optimal health in men and women who want to prevent or reverse chronic illness. With demonstrated benefits in reducing cardiovascular risk factors, preventing and enhancing treatment outcomes in depression, and preventing cancer, folic acid is highly indicated as a therapeutic ally for men and women of all ages"
  • Folic Acid May Prevent Hypertension in Addition to Reducing the Risk of Birth Defects - Doctor's Guide, 2/24/05 - "younger women who consumed at least 1,000 micrograms per day of total folic acid (dietary plus supplemental) had a 46 percent decreased risk of hypertension, compared with those who consumed less than 200 micrograms a day of total folic acid. Older women with high total folic acid intake also had an 18 percent reduced risk of hypertension"
  • Folate Lowers Risk of High Blood Pressure - WebMD, 10/11/04 - "Young women with very low dietary folate who got their folate from vitamin supplements had a 39% lower risk of high blood pressure compared with young women who did not take folate supplements"
  • High Vitamin B12 Levels May be Linked to Better Treatment Outcome for Major Depressive Disorder - Doctor's Guide, 1/5/04 - "Low levels of folate have also been associated with a poor response to antidepressive therapy ... patients with greater HDRS responses had higher vitamin B12 levels both at baseline (r = 0.39, P < .001) and at 6 months ... The positive relationship between higher vitamin B12 levels and improved HDRS score was also confirmed by linear regression analysis" - [Abstract]
  • Vitamin B12 might be an answer for depression - Time Magazine, 12/15/03 - "the patients who responded best to treatment were those who had higher concentrations of B12 in their blood"
  • Folic Acid Cuts Children's Cancer - WebMD, 9/29/03 - "neuroblastoma rates dropped by 60% since folic acid was added to flour"
  • The Chromium Connection - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 9/03 - "The body requires certain nutrients to control glucose metabolism, especially chromium, zinc and vitamins B and C" - See chromium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Cancer Fighter: Vitamin B-6 - Physician's Weekly, 8/11/03 - "Washington State University researchers suggest that consuming more vitamin B-6 can ward off cancer. The vitamin Converts folate to a form the body can use to produce thymine, a component of DNA"
  • Higher Folate Levels Correlate with Improved Outcome for SSRI-Treated Geriatric Patients - Doctor's Guide, 7/16/03 - "Geriatric patients who are treated with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) sertraline appear to experience greater improvement in depression if they have higher than normal folate levels at the start of therapy"
  • Vegetarian Diet and B12 Deficiency - WebMD, 6/18/03 - "92% of the vegans they studied -- those who ate the strictest vegetarian diet, which shuns all animal products, including milk and eggs -- had vitamin B12 deficiency. But two in three people who followed a vegetarian diet that included milk and eggs as their only animal foods also were deficient"
  • Low Folate Concentrations Associated With Depression - Doctor's Guide, 5/2/03 - "Physically healthy people who are depressed have detectably lower folate status than those who are not depressed" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Adding Folates Alters Methotrexate Treatment In Rheumatoid Arthritics - Doctor's Guide, 4/21/03 - "The researchers found the addition of folates to MTX treatment was strongly linked with lack of hepatotoxicity"
  • B-Vitamins Prove Effective In Relieving Chronic Pain - Intelihealth, 4/10/03 - "B-vitamins, such as thiamin (B1), pyridoxine (B6), and cyanocobalamin (B12), have been proven to be clinically effective in treating various painful conditions such as lumbago, sciatica, trigeminal neuralgia, facial paralysis and optic neuritis as acting as an analgesia (pain reliever)"
  • Folate, Vitamin B6 Reduce Breast Cancer Risk Among Moderate Drinkers - WebMD, 3/4/03 - "They found women with the highest folate levels were 27% less likely to have breast cancer than those with the lowest folate levels. And the reduction in breast cancer risk was much greater among women who drank about one glass of wine or a cocktail per day. These moderate drinkers with high folate levels were 89% less likely to develop breast cancer than those who drank less than one drink per day ... Women with high levels of vitamin B6 also had about a 30% lower risk of breast cancer than those with low levels of this nutrient. Although high levels of vitamin B12 seemed to protect premenopausal women against breast cancer, the effect was not found among postmenopausal women"
  • Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia: Vitamins Can Help Prevent - WebMD, 2/28/03 - "High levels of a substance in the blood called homocysteine tops the list of potentially new risk factors for heart disease, stroke, and now dementia. A new study suggests that high homocysteine levels are linked with mental declines associated with Alzheimer's disease in elderly people ... High homocysteine levels can be treated very easily with vitamins, including folate, niacin, and B-12"
  • Low Levels of Serum Vitamin B May Be Related to Helicobacter Pylori Infection - Doctor's Guide, 2/14/03 - "Of 25 subjects with vitamin B >145-180 pg/mL, 92% were seropositive ... Eighty-nine percent of the 47 subjects with vitamin B greater than 180-250 pg/mL were found to be seropositive compared with 51%, 31 out of 61, of subjects with B less than 250 pg/mL" - [abstract] - See the abstract.  I think they are talking about vitamin B12.
  • Canadian Folic Acid Supplementation Cuts in Half the Rate of Neural Tube Defects - Doctor's Guide, 12/19/02 - "A Canadian public-health initiative to enrich cereal grain foods with folic acid has halved the prevalence of neural-tube defects among both unborn and newborn children"
  • Folic Acid Improves Endothelial Function And Blood Pressure In Smokers - Doctor's Guide, 12/18/02 - "Smokers were randomly assigned to receive either 5 milligrams of folic acid or placebo every day ... Mean blood pressure was significantly reduced from 88 +/- 2 to 83 +/- 1 mmHg in those patients who received supplementation" - Seems like they could have tested non-smokers for the same effect while they were at it.  5 points is probably half of what you'd get from the standard dose of most anti-hypertensive medications. - Ben
  • Mechanisms Differ Between Depression and Either Vitamin B12 Or Folate - Doctor's Guide, 12/10/02 - "hyperhomocysteinemia, vitamin B12 deficiency and, to a lesser extent, folate deficiency all were related to depressive disorders"
  • I’ve heard that receiving weekly B-12 shots can help your metabolism. Any truth to it? - Dr. Weil, 12/4/02
  • Argument Strengthens For Folic Acid To Reduce Homocysteine Level - Doctor's Guide, 11/26/02 - "A decrease in serum homocysteine of 3 micromol/l, which can be achieved by a daily intake of about 0.8 mg folic acid, should reduce the risk of ischaemic heart disease by 16 percent, deep vein thrombosis by 25 percent, and stroke by 24 percent" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Folic Acid for Your Heart - WebMD, 11/22/02 - "By increasing folic acid intake and thus decreasing homocysteine, the researchers say the risk of heart disease would drop by 16%, blood clots in the legs by 25%, and stroke by 24%" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Folic Acid Could Prevent Heart Disease - Intelihealth, 11/22/02
  • More Antioxidants, Less Fat May Reduce Alzheimer's Risk - Clinical Psychiatry News, 10/02 - "Data are now strong enough to recommend a dietary strategy for reducing Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk that includes low fat intake and high consumption of fish and antioxidants, along with vitamin E, folic acid, and vitamins B6 and B12 supplements"
  • Low Folic Acid Linked to Miscarriage - WebMD, 10/15/02
  • B Vitamins Protect Heart Patients: The Best Evidence Yet - New Hope Natural Media, 9/12/02
  • Folic Acid May Have Benefits for Smokers - Doctor's Guide, 9/13/02 - "randomised to four weeks of folic acid 5 mg/day or placebo ... Results showed that folic acid reduced homocysteine concentrations (10.8+/-0.6 versus 7.9+/-0.5 µmol/L, p<0.001) and there was a significant reduction in blood pressure (mean BP 88+/-2 versus 83+/-1 mmHg, p<0.01) ... Benefits also seem to be largely independent of the lowering of homocysteine concentrations"
  • Homocysteine-Lowering Therapy [folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6] Improves Revascularisation, Angioplasty Outcome - Doctor's Guide, 8/28/02
  • Natural Remedies for Osteoarthritis: Now, More than Ever - New Hope Natural Media, 8/15/02 - "Some doctors recommend niacinamide (vitamin B3)"
  • Older Vegetarians Should Take Extra Vitamin B12 - Doctor's Guide, 8/7/02 - "Forty-two percent of participants had definite vitamin B12 deficiency, defined as vitamin B12 level less than 150 pmol/L and MMA ³ 0.4 µmol/L. Another 32.8 percent of the women had possible vitamin B12 deficiency" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Folate Supplements May Help Restore Endothelial Function In Type 2 Diabetics - Doctor's Guide, 8/1/02
  • New Views on Atherosclerosis - Life Extension Magazine, 8/02 - "A drug company has patented a product called FOLTX that cardiologists are now prescribing to their patients for the purpose of lowering homocysteine. Each tablet of FOLTX contains: 2.5 mg of folic acid, 1.0 mg of vitamin B12, 25 mg of vitamin B6.  The cost for 90 tablets of FOLTX from www.drugstore.com is $38.08—or about double the retail price of these same potencies of vitamins when purchased in a health food store"
  • Folic Acid Fights Colon Cancer - WebMD, 7/19/02
  • Folic Acid Supplement Reduces Cell Proliferation In High Risk Colorectal Cancer Patients - Doctor's Guide, 7/18/02 - "Patients at high risk of colorectal cancer could cut their risk dramatically with a daily supplement of 2 mg of folic acid" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Higher Folate Levels May Help Protect Against Vascular Disease in Children with Diabetes - Doctor's Guide, 7/18/02 - "High folate levels may protect children with type I diabetes from vascular damage"
  • Dietary Folate May Reduce Stroke Risk - Medscape, 7/5/02
  • Biotin Supplement Needed During Pregnancy - New Hope Natural Media, 6/20/02 - "Preliminary studies have suggested that biotin in large amounts (such as 5 to 16 mg per day) can help control blood sugar levels or improve nerve damage in diabetics. In a study of individuals with dry, splitting nails, supplementation with 2.5 mg of biotin per day improved the quality of the nails in 63% of those treated. Improvement was seen after an average of two months, although some individuals did not see results until they had taken biotin for four months." - Note:  Biotin is expensive so most multi's cut you short on that B vitamin.
  • Herbal Assisted Weight Loss Causes Neurological Ailment In Woman - Intelihealth, 6/11/02 - "The disorder is known to stem from a deficiency of vitamin B1, or thiamine, essential for carbohydrate metabolism"
  • An Anti-Atherosclerosis Aid For Adults With Hyperhomocysteinemia? - Doctor's Guide, 6/7/02 - "One year of folic acid supplementation was found to be linked with a significant increase in the subjects' mean plasma folate levels and a significant decline in their homocysteine levels ... Study authors suggest the findings demonstrate long-term folic acid improves arterial endothelial function and has potential implications for prevention of atherosclerosis in people with hyperhomocysteinemia"
  • Women Unaware of Folic Acid Benefits - WebMD, 6/4/02 - "only 31% of women between the ages of 18 and 45 take a folic acid supplement every day, despite the fact that the vitamin has been shown to dramatically reduce the risk of serious birth defects ... In fact, only 10% of women realize that the B vitamin folic acid must be taken prior to pregnancy to prevent birth defects of the brain and spine known as neural tube defects ... it takes about a month for the vitamin to provide the maximum benefit"
  • Low Vitamin B Status Prevalent In Alzheimer Patients - Doctor's Guide, 6/4/02 - "low vitamin B6 status is prevalent in patients with AD"
  • Vitamins Fight Alzheimer's - WebMD, 5/28/02 - "There's new evidence that a substance found in blood can cause the type of brain and blood vessel deterioration that leads to dementia. But those same studies also show that taking certain vitamins can lower levels of this substance -- homocysteine -- and ward off the damage, possibly preventing Alzheimer's disease ... This is exciting information, because homocysteine levels can be reduced by taking the vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid"
  • Homocysteine Levels Higher, Serum Vitamin B12 Lower In Vegetarians - Doctor's Guide, 5/27/02 - "Vegetarians have considerably higher levels of total plasma homocysteine, greater prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia and lower levels of serum vitamin B12 than do non-vegetarians"
  • Serum Folate And Estradiol Levels Interact In Alzheimer's Disease - Doctor's Guide, 5/13/02 - "a high ratio of estradiol to total estrogens is linked with AD. At the same time, in women with a high ratio, the severity of dementia is lower in those with high serum folate levels ... If this association is causal, then supplementation with folic acid may have a role in future studies of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in Alzheimer's disease (AD)"
  • Homocysteine, B Vitamins Associated With Cognitive Function In The Elderly - Doctor's Guide, 5/10/02
  • Adjunct Folinic Acid For Depressed Patients With Inadequate SSRI Response - Doctor's Guide, 5/8/02 - "Investigators report that patient folate levels rose. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HAM-D-17) scores among 16 patients who completed the study decreased"
  • Foods Rich In Folate May Reduce Risk Of Stroke - Intelihealth, 5/3/02
  • Folate Fights Stroke and Heart Disease - WebMD, 5/2/02 - "people who consumed at least 300 mcg of folate every day had a 20% lower risk of stroke and a 13% lower risk of cardiovascular disease than those consuming less than 136 mcg of folate per day ... Folate is also thought to offset risk of cardiovascular disease, by reducing levels of homocysteine in the blood. Homocysteine is linked with higher risk of atherosclerosis because it damages arteries, but vitamins B-6 and B-12, as well as folic acid, have been found to prevent that damage from occurring"
  • Foods Rich In Folate May Reduce Risk Of Stroke - Intelihealth, 5/2/02
  • Nutrition Affects Thinking in Elderly - WebMD, 4/25/02 - "In this study of healthy elderly people, higher concentrations of folic acid and vitamin B-12 were associated with increased memory and thinking ability"
  • Supplements Boost Sperm Count - WebMD, 3/20/02 - "Researchers found that the men with fertility problems who took 5 mg of folic acid a day and 66 mg of zinc sulfate a day for 26 weeks had a 74% increase in total normal sperm count"
  • Folic Acid May Help Prevent Alzheimer's - WebMD, 3/1/02
  • Folic Acid Possibly A Key Factor In Alzheimer's Disease Prevention - Intelihealth, 3/1/02
  • In Praise of Folic Acid - Time Magazine, 2/25/02 - "folic acid plays a crucial role in the development of just about every cell in the body ... subjects who had high levels of a particular amino acid called homocysteine in their blood were twice as likely to develop Alzheimer's as those who didn't. The finding is important because one of the easiest ways to lower homocysteine levels is to get plenty of folic acid ... There is no risk of overdose, although high levels of folic acid can mask the signs of pernicious anemia in people who have developed the disorder" - The way I understand it, taking vitamin B12 with the folic acid will avoid that problem. - Ben
  • New Alzheimer's Risk Factor Identified - WebMD, 2/13/02 - "High blood levels of a substance called homocysteine have been linked to an increased risk for both heart attack and stroke. Now, new research finds it to be a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and other age-related dementias ... It is known that B-vitamins like folic acid, B-6, and B-12 lower homocysteine levels"
  • Mix B-12 and Folic Acid for Heart Health - WebMD, 1/18/02 - "Folic acid alone reduces the level of a potentially harmful amino acid in the blood, called "homocysteine." When elevated, homocysteine has been shown to raise the risk of heart disease and stroke. In fact, some heart experts consider homocysteine to be a very important risk factor ... But adding vitamin B-12 to the mix "is likely to be much more effective in lowering homocysteine concentrations,""
  • Vitamin B12 Plus Folic Acid Significantly Reduces Homocysteine Levels - Doctor's Guide, 1/17/02 - "This finding suggests that a fortification policy based on folic acid and vitamin B12, rather than folic acid alone, is likely to be much more effective in lowering homocysteine concentrations"
  • Folic Acid [deficiency] Linked to Parkinson's Disease - WebMD, 1/17/02 - "The latest research shows that mice on a low-folic-acid diet are much more likely to get Parkinson's disease than mice on a normal diet ... The researchers were able to finger homocysteine as the likely culprit behind the loss of brain cells"
  • Pregnancy Vitamins Cut Leukemia in Kids - WebMD, 12/6/01 - "Moms who used both folic acid and iron supplements in pregnancy were 60% less likely to have a child develop leukemia"
  • Folic acid and vitamin B12 save lives and money - Life Extension Magazine, 11/01 - "supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B12 would result in a tremendous increase in health and longevity of the American population at a low cost, while saving 24 billion dollars in healthcare costs over the coming decade ... folic acid could lower homocysteine by 25%; the addition of vitamin B12 led to a further 7% drop"
  • The Wizard is Oz - Life Extension Magazine, 11/01 - "Best-selling author and nutritional guru to the rich and famous, Oz Garcia is singing the praises of the Life Extension Foundation and its products in his newest book, The Healthy High Tech Body, published in September 2001 ... Supplements at the top of Garcia's list of recommendations ... DHA ... NADH ... Alpah Lipoic Acid ... Acetyl-L-Carnitine ... An expanded list of his recommendations includes lycopene, gamma tocopherol, vinpocetine, SAMe, folic acid, carnosine, glutathione, DMAE, Huperzine A, probiotics, MSM, secretagogues, arginine pyroglutamate, IP-6, bioflavonoid formulas and grape skin/seed extracts"
  • Folate Cost-Effective For Prevention Of Coronary Artery Reblockage - Intelihealth, 11/29/01 - "The vitamin therapy included a combination of folic acid (also known as folate or vitamin B9), vitamin B12, and vitamin B6. Patients who received the vitamins had significantly lower levels of homocysteine, and lower rates of restenosis and cardiac complications"
  • High Dose Oral Folic Acid Acutely Improves Endothelial Function in Coronary Artery Disease - Doctor's Guide, 11/14/01 - "Although high-dose folic acid (5 mg daily) improves endothelial function in CAD patients, it is controversial as to whether this improvement is due to homocysteine lowering or other direct actions of folic acid"
  • Can a Mix of Chromium and Biotin Help Diabetics Control Blood Sugar? - WebMD, 10/15/01
  • Memory vitamins - Life Extension Magazine, 9/01 - "Folate and vitamin B12 work together to enhance cognition"
  • Folic Acid Doesn't Increase Miscarriage Risk - WebMD, 9/6/01
  • Pharmaceutical Drugs Deplete Folic Acid - Nutrition Science News, 9/01
  • Many Women Still Don't Take Folic Acid Before Conception - WebMD, 9/5/01
  • Folic Acid/Vitamin B12 Show Potential as Heart Disease Treatments - Doctor's Guide, 8/22/01
  • Battling Heart Disease with B Vitamins - Life Extension Magazine, 8/01 - "Studies to date have shown that folic acid alone may reduce heart disease risk by as much as 30% to 40%, primarily through its ability to lower homocysteine. In fact, folic acid has been deemed the mainstay of treatment for hyperhomocysteinaemia (elevated homocysteine).(5) However, folic acid works best when teamed up with vitamin B12, which enhances the benefits of folic acid supplementation"
  • Could Nicotinamide And Vitamin E Have Synergistic Effect And Reduce Insulin Usage? - Doctor's Guide, 7/11/01 - "The combination of nicotinamide and vitamin E might have a synergistic effect in lowering daily insulin usage among newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetics"
  • Alzheimer's Disease May Be Linked to Deficiencies in Vitamin B12 or Folate - Doctor's Guide, 5/8/01
  • Folic Acid May Reduce Age-Related Memory Problems - WebMD, 4/27/01 - "High homocysteine levels were independently associated with poor performance on the memory tests, as were low levels of the vitamin folic acid. Folic acid, or folate, has been shown to significantly lower homocysteine levels ... a cocktail of three vitamin supplements -- folic acid, B12, and B6 -- can dramatically lower homocysteine levels, even in those who get the recommended levels of the vitamins in their diets ... Homocysteine levels naturally increase as you age ... Jacobsen, 62, recommends taking 400-800 mcg of folic acid every day and 25-100 mg of vitamin B6. He says it is not clear if B12 supplementation is beneficial in younger people, but it does appear to benefit those over 50. He takes 500 mcg of B12 each day"
  • Decreased Memory After Age 60 Linked To High Homocysteine Levels - Doctor's Guide, 4/26/01 - "High circulating levels of homocysteine, especially with increasing age, have been associated with cognitive impairment. In recent studies, Alzheimer disease and dementia after multiple strokes have been linked to extremely high serum homocysteine concentrations ... The folate status of the participants was an important consideration because folate has been shown to significantly modify homocysteine levels"
  • Multivitamin With Folic Acid May Reduce Homocysteine More Than With Folic Acid Alone - Doctor's Guide, 4/20/01 - "the supplement containing 800 micrograms of folic acid reduced homocysteine levels by nearly 50 percent while the supplement containing 160 micrograms of folic acid had no significant effect above placebo"
  • Pre-conception Advice on Folic Acid Supplementation Recommended - Doctor's Guide, 4/16/01 - "Only about one-quarter of pregnant women currently begin folic acid supplementation early enough to reduce the risk of neural tube defects"
  • Synthetic Folate Trumps Food Form - Nutrition Science News, 3/01 -"folic acid may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease via its ability to reduce homocysteine, an undesirable blood protein. It also prevents birth defects, which a new finding says may be attributed, in part, to folic acid's ability to reduce circulating homocysteine levels ... natural folic acid does not match up to synthetic"
  • Drugs That Deplete- Nutrients That Heal - Life Extension Magazine, 7/00 - "Another sad case of drug-induced nutrient deficiency involves the depletion of folic acid (also known as folate and folacin) by a myriad of commonly used drugs. These include aspirin and other salicylates, ibuprofen, indomethacin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatories. Celebrex unfortunately also depletes folic acid. Methotrexate, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and various cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma, is notorious for depleting folic acid. Likewise, the use of corticosteroids, barbiturates such as phenobarbitol, sulfa drugs such as Bactrim, certain antibiotics, diuretics and oral contraceptives can cause a deficiency of folic acid. The widely used anticonvulsive drug Dilantin (phenytoin) and related drugs also deplete folic acid."

Abstracts:

  • New Treatments For Blotchy Skin - ABC News, 3/24/14 - "Niacinimide ... This is an ingredient used in some “cosmeceuticals,” particularly in moisturizers. Halder says it prevents small melanin particles (what turns your skin brown) from moving from the bottom layer to the top layer of the skin. It is a form of vitamin B3 that blocks the pigment pockets from moving to the skin’s surface ... Ellagic Acid ... The name sounds scary, but it is actually derived from strawberries, cherries and pomegranates" - Note:  It seems like you could raise the good cholesterol at the same time by taking niacin:
    • What Is the Difference Between Niacin & Niacinamide? - LiveStrong.com - "Your body can convert niacin into niacinamide ... Niacin and niacinamide have identical function when used as vitamins ... their pharmacologic properties differ. For example, high doses of niacin can cause skin flushing. Niacinamide, however, does not have the same vasodialating, or blood-vessel widening, effects, that niacin has, so it does not lead to skin flushing" - Note:  You'll find contradictory information on the Internet but niacinamide will not raise HDL and niacin will.  See niacin at Amazon.com.
  • Nicotinamide and neurocognitive function - Nutr Neurosci. 2014 Feb 21 - "A literature review was conducted on the effects of nicotinamide and its derivatives as a preventive and therapeutic agent for disorders of neurocognitive function. Specific conditions examined include age-related cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and ischaemic and traumatic brain injury ... nicotinamide may be beneficial in preserving and enhancing neurocognitive function ... Nicotinamide is non-toxic, inexpensive and widely available, and interventional studies in humans, using supplemental doses of nicotinamide, are now warranted" - See nicotinamide at Amazon.com.  It’s just one more nutrient to add to the arsenal that may have a synergistic effect to delay or help prevent Alzheimer’s or dementia.
    • What Is the Difference Between Niacin & Niacinamide? - LiveStrong.com - "Your body can convert niacin into niacinamide ... Niacin and niacinamide have identical function when used as vitamins ... their pharmacologic properties differ. For example, high doses of niacin can cause skin flushing. Niacinamide, however, does not have the same vasodialating, or blood-vessel widening, effects, that niacin has, so it does not lead to skin flushing" - Note:  You'll find contradictory information on the Internet but niacinamide will not raise HDL and niacin will.  See niacin at Amazon.com.
  • Neuroenhancement with vitamin B12-underestimated neurological significance - Nutrients. 2013 Dec 12;5(12):5031-45 - "A Vitamin B12 deficiency expresses itself by a wide variety of neurological manifestations such as paraesthesias, skin numbness, coordination disorders and reduced nerve conduction velocity. In elderly people, a latent Vitamin B12 deficiency can be associated with a progressive brain atrophy. Moderately elevated concentrations of homocysteine (>10 µmol/L) have been associated with an increased risk of dementia, notably Alzheimer's disease, in many cross-sectional and prospective studies. Raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine is also associated with both regional and whole brain atrophy, not only in Alzheimer's disease but also in healthy elderly people. Clinician awareness should be raised to accurately diagnose and treat early Vitamin B12 deficiency to prevent irreversible structural brain damage" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Folate intake and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2013 Dec 16 - "a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies published between 1996 and June 2013 on the relationship between folate intake and bladder cancer ... A significantly decreased risk with bladder cancer was observed in overall folate intake group (RE = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.96) and subgroup of case-control studies (RE = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.57-0.89), but not in cohort studies (RE = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.81-1.10) when comparing the highest with the lowest category of folate intake" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Methylcobalamin promotes proliferation and migration and inhibits apoptosis of C2C12 cells via the Erk1/2 signaling pathway - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Dec 13 - "Methylcobalamin (MeCbl) is a vitamin B12 analog that has some positive effects on peripheral nervous disorders ... Our results suggest that MeCbl has beneficial effects on the muscle in vitro. MeCbl administration may provide a novel therapeutic approach for muscle injury or degenerating muscle after denervation"
  • Low vitamin B12 levels increase risk of fractures in older men - Science Daily, 12/10/13 - "the Gothenburg researchers studied 1,000 Swedish men, MrOS Sweden, with an average age of 75, and used various methods to analyze the blood concentrations of the B vitamins B12 and folate, which are found in our food naturally ... the risk of suffering a fracture six years later was higher among men who had low B12 levels at the beginning of the study than men with normal B12 levels. In the quartile with the lowest B12 content, the risk was elevated by approximately 70 percent compared with the others. The risk increase pertained primarily to fractures in the lumbar region, where the risk increase was up to 120 percent"
  • Longitudinal relationship of diet and oxidative stress with depressive symptoms in patients with metabolic syndrome after following a weight loss treatment: The RESMENA project - Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov 22 - "based on volunteers (n = 55) with metabolic syndrome (age 50 ± 1 y.o.; 38M/17F) ... Participants followed two hypocaloric diets (control diet and RESMENA diet) with the same energy restriction (-30% TCV) for six months ... A higher intake of folate and a decline in malondialdehyde plasma levels during a weight loss intervention, were related to improvements in manifestations of depression" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Intakes of Dietary Folate and Other B Vitamins Are Associated with Risks of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma, Barrett's Esophagus, and Reflux Esophagitis - J Nutr. 2013 Oct 16 - "Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) may develop through a process involving inflammation [reflux esophagitis (RE)] leading to metaplasia [Barrett's esophagus (BE)] and carcinoma ... EAC risk decreased with increasing folate intake (OR highest vs. lowest = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.31-1.00; P-trend < 0.01). Similar trends were found for BE (P-trend < 0.01) and RE (P-trend = 0.01). Vitamin B-6 intake was significantly inversely related to risks of all 3 lesions. Riboflavin intake was inversely associated with RE. Vitamin B-12 intake was positively associated with EAC. For EAC, there was a borderline significant interaction between folate intake and smoking (P-interaction = 0.053); compared with nonsmokers with high (≥median) folate intake, current smokers with low intakes (<median) had an 8-fold increased risk (OR: 8.15, 95% CI: 3.61-18.40). The same group had increased BE risk (OR: 2.93"
  • Thiamine deficiency leads to reduced nitric oxide production and vascular dysfunction in rats - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Oct 5 - "Thiamine deficiency is a condition that is known to cause damage to the nervous and cardiovascular systems because it interferes with cellular metabolism. It is well known that the control of vascular function is highly dependent on the production of nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthases ... Thiamine deficiency modulates eNOS-dependent NO production, leading to a decreased vasorelaxation and an increased contractile response in the rat aorta"
  • Relationship between metformin use, vitamin B12 deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes - Endocr J. 2013 Sep 8 - "Metformin-induced B12 lowering in diabetes was associated with elevation of homocysteine, and hyperhomocysteinemia was independently related to retinopathy" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Increased Risk of Cognitive Impairment in Patients With Diabetes Is Associated With Metformin - Diabetes Care. 2013 Sep 5 - "Metformin use was associated with impaired cognitive performance. Vitamin B12 and calcium supplements may alleviate metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency and were associated with better cognitive outcomes" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Association between low-dose folic acid supplementation and blood lipids concentrations in male and female subjects with atherosclerosis risk factors - Med Sci Monit. 2013 Sep 4;19:733-9 - "Folic acid (FA) is one of the B complex vitamins. It is thought that FA deficiency promotes atherosclerosis formation in arterial endothelium. FA, acting through reducing homocysteine (Hcy) levels, may contribute to decreased cholesterol (Ch) synthesis ... enrolled 124 Caucasian individuals (60 M, ages 20-39; and 64 F, ages 19-39) with atherosclerosis risk factors ... participants were asked to take FA at a low dose of 0.4 mg/24 h for 12 weeks ... FA levels increased in females (6.3 vs. 12.5 ng/dL; p=0.001) and males (6.4 vs. 11.4 ng/dL; p=0.001) and Hcy levels decreased (10.6 vs. 8.3 µmol/L; p=0.001 and 11.5 vs. 9.3; p=0.001, respectively). A significant reduction in mean concentration of total cholesterol in females (203.4 vs. 193.1 mg/dL; p=0.001) and in males (209.5 vs. 201.9; p=0.002) was observed. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels decreased in females and in males (107.4 vs. 99.9 mg/dL; p=0.001 and 121.5 vs. 115.1; p=0.002, respectively). The apoAI concentrations increased in smoking women and in men with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (p=0.032 and p=0.024, respectively)" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • A Decreased Micronucleus Frequency in Human Lymphocytes after Folate and Vitamin B12 Intervention: a Preliminary Study in a Yunnan Population - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2012 Dec 1;82(6):374-382 - "Micronucleus (MN) is a validated biomarker for DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and is a reflection of the changes of human nutritional status. Folate (FA) and vitamin B12 are one-carbon metabolism-related micronutrients, which play important roles in maintaining genomic stability ... Dietary supplement intake of FA and B12 based on MTHFR genotypes could protect the genome from damage and benefit genome health" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com and vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Serum folate and prostate-specific antigen in the United States - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 May 24 - "Using data from the 2007 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 3,293 men aged 40 years and older with serum PSA and folate measures were studied ... OR associated with fifth to first quintile of folate level = 0.42 ... Results of this study suggest that higher folate status may be protective against elevated PSA levels among men without diagnosed prostate cancer" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Preventing Alzheimer's disease-related gray matter atrophy by B-vitamin treatment - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 May 20 - "Is it possible to prevent atrophy of key brain regions related to cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD)? One approach is to modify nongenetic risk factors, for instance by lowering elevated plasma homocysteine using B vitamins. In an initial, randomized controlled study on elderly subjects with increased dementia risk (mild cognitive impairment according to 2004 Petersen criteria), we showed that high-dose B-vitamin treatment (folic acid 0.8 mg, vitamin B6 20 mg, vitamin B12 0.5 mg) slowed shrinkage of the whole brain volume over 2 y. Here, we go further by demonstrating that B-vitamin treatment reduces, by as much as seven fold, the cerebral atrophy in those gray matter (GM) regions specifically vulnerable to the AD process, including the medial temporal lobe ... B vitamins lower homocysteine, which directly leads to a decrease in GM atrophy, thereby slowing cognitive decline" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com and vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of serum folate status on total folate and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in human skin - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 May 15 - "Total folate (by using a microbiological assay) and 5-MTHF (by using high-pressure liquid chromatography) were measured in fasting serum and fresh skin obtained at surgery by using a recovery validated extraction method ... The high proportion of 5-MTHF in the epidermis, which is further emphasized in subjects with a lower (10-20-nM) serum folate status, points to a special role for this form of folate in skin, perhaps as a protectant from ultraviolet-induced photosensitization reactions. 5-MTHF may also maintain methylation reactions that influence the proliferative activity. These results may help to individualize the treatment of psoriasis patients with methotrexate and folate" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Autism and Folic Acid in Pregnancy - Medscape, 5/7/13 - "The investigators concluded that maternal use of folic acid from 4 weeks before conception through 8 weeks after conception was associated with a lower odds of the offspring being diagnosed with ASD" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Homocysteine, folate, vitamin B-12, and 10-y incidence of age-related macular degeneration - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 May 1 - "Serum folate, vitamin B-12, and tHcy were determined from blood samples drawn in 1997-1999 from cohort members aged ≥55 y. AMD was assessed in 1760 survivors from retinal photographs taken in 2002-2004 and 2007-2009. Total intakes of folate and vitamin B-12 were assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire ... Elevated serum tHcy and folate and vitamin B-12 deficiencies predicted increased risk of incident AMD, which suggests a potential role for vitamin B-12 and folate in reducing AMD risk" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com and vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Mixed Dietary Supplements on Total Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations (tHcy): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2012 Aug 1;82(4):260-266 - "Two-hundred and thirty-six hospitalized, acutely ill older patients, who were part of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, were assigned to receive a daily oral nutritional supplement drink containing 1.3 mg of vitamin B2, 1.4 mg of vitamin B6, 1.5 μg of B12, 200 μg of folic acid, or a placebo, for 6 weeks ... A mixed nutrient supplement containing physiological amounts of B vitamins significantly reduced plasma tHcy concentrations in older patients recovering from acute illness"
  • Micronutrient intake and risk of prostate cancer in a cohort of middle-aged, Danish men - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Mar 22 - "This study evaluates associations between intake of vitamin C, E, folate, and beta-carotene and prostate cancer risk ... Danish prospective cohort study of 26,856 men aged 50-64 years ... Supplemental folic acid was inversely associated with prostate cancer risk, notably on a continuous scale [HR 0.88 (95 % CI 0.79-0.98) per 100 μg increase/day]. The risk reduction was largely confined to non-aggressive tumors [HR 0.71 (0.55-0.93) per 100 μg increase/day]. No influence on prostate cancer risk was observed for dietary folate or for the other studied micronutrients, regardless of source"
  • Serum Folate but Not Vitamin B-12 Concentrations Are Positively Associated with Cognitive Test Scores in Children Aged 6-16 Years - J Nutr. 2013 Feb 6 - "Serum folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured, along with performance, on the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised ... serum concentrations of folate were associated with higher reading and block design scores after adjusting for various covariates. For example, compared with the lowest quartile of folate, children in the highest quartile scored 3.28 points or 0.19 SD units higher on the reading test (P < 0.05). Vitamin B-12 was not associated with any of the test scores. In the largest study to date, higher folate concentrations were associated with better reading and block design scores"
  • Folate deficiency is associated with oxidative stress, increased blood pressure, and insulin resistance in spontaneously hypertensive rats - Am J Hypertens. 2013 Jan;26(1):135-40 - "we analyzed the role of folate deficiency in pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) ... Folate deficiency also increased systolic blood pressure by approximately 15mm Hg ... These findings demonstrate that the SHR model is susceptible to the adverse metabolic and hemodynamic effects of low dietary intake of folate. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that folate deficiency can promote oxidative stress and multiple features of the metabolic syndrome that are associated with increased risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of folic acid supplementation on overall and site-specific cancer incidence during the randomised trials: meta-analyses of data on 50 000 individuals - Lancet. 2013 Jan 24 - "Folic acid supplementation does not substantially increase or decrease incidence of site-specific cancer during the first 5 years of treatment. Fortification of flour and other cereal products involves doses of folic acid that are, on average, an order of magnitude smaller than the doses used in these trials"
  • Folic acid supplementation and cancer risk: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Int J Cancer. 2013 Jan 22 - "Our findings indicate that folic acid supplementation has no significant effect on total cancer incidence, colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, or hematological malignancy, but reduces the risk of melanoma"
  • B vitamin intakes and incidence of colorectal cancer: results from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study cohort - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Dec 19 - "Women's Health Initiative Observational Study ... Vitamin B-6 and riboflavin intakes from diet and supplements were associated with a decreased risk of CRC in postmenopausal women. Associations of B vitamin intake were particularly strong for regional disease and among women drinkers who consumed alcohol infrequently. Our study provides new evidence that the increased folate intake during the early postfortification period may have been associated with a transient increase in CRC risk"
  • Dietary folate and folate vitamers and the risk of prostate cancer in The Netherlands Cohort Study - Cancer Causes Control. 2012 Oct 30 - "Dietary folate was not associated with prostate cancer risk, nor with the risk of advanced prostate cancer, among men in the NLCS cohort"
  • Conversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Dementia: Influence of Folic Acid and Vitamin B12 Use in the VITA Cohort - J Nutr Health Aging. 2012;16(8):687-94 - "Increased serum homocysteine and low folate levels are associated with a higher rate of conversion to dementia ... The self-reported combined use of folic acid and vitamin B12 for more than one year was associated with a lower conversion rate to dementia. Serum levels of homocysteine and vitamin B12 as measured at baseline or at five years were not associated with conversion. Higher folate levels at baseline in females predicted a lower conversion rate to dementia. The assessment of brain morphological parameters by magnetic resonance imaging revealed higher serum folate at baseline, predicting lower medial temporal lobe atrophy and higher levels of homocysteine at baseline, predicting moderate/severe global brain atrophy at five years. Users of vitamin B12 or folate, independent of time and pattern of use, had lower grades of periventricular hyperintensities and lower grades of deep white matter lesions as compared to non-users" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com and vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary and Supplemental Folate and the Risk of Left- and Right-Sided Colorectal Cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2012 Oct 4 - "Epidemiological evidence suggests that folate may lower the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) although studies have been inconsistent and some have indicated differences in the effects of naturally occurring dietary folate and the synthetic form of this vitamin, folic acid. Most studies to date have considered CRC as a single disease; however, cancers that develop on the left and right sides of the colorectum display important phenotypic differences, suggesting they may also have different risk factors. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Western Australia to examine the relationship between intake of both natural dietary folate and supplements containing folic acid and the risk of left- and right-sided CRC ... There was no association between natural dietary folate intake and risk of either left-or right-sided CRC. Supplement use similarly had no significant effect on right-sided CRC. However, long-term supplement users (4+ yr) were at lower risk of left-sided CRC than those who had not taken supplements (OR = 0.65, 95% CI, 0.50-0.86) and there was a significant trend in risk reduction as duration of use increased" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Marginal Vitamin B-6 Deficiency Decreases Plasma (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA Concentrations in Healthy Men and Women - J Nutr. 2012 Sep 5 - "Healthy participants (n = 23) received a 2-d, controlled, vitamin B-6-adequate diet followed by a 28-d, vitamin B-6-restricted diet to induce a marginal deficiency ... Plasma total arachidonic acid, EPA, and DHA concentrations decreased from (mean +/- SD) 548 +/- 96 to 490 +/- 94 μmol/L, 37 +/- 13 to 32 +/- 13 μmol/L, and 121 +/- 28 to 109 +/- 28 μmol/L [positive false discovery rate (pFDR) adjusted P < 0.05], respectively. The total (n-6):(n-3) PUFA ratio in plasma exhibited a minor increase from 15.4 +/- 2.8 to 16.6 +/- 3.1 (pFDR adjusted P < 0.05). These data indicate that short-term vitamin B-6 restriction decreases plasma (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA concentrations and tends to increase the plasma (n-6):(n-3) PUFA ratio. Such changes in blood lipids may be associated with the elevated risk of cardiovascular disease in vitamin B-6 insufficiency"
  • Maternal use of Folic Acid and Other Supplements and Risk of Childhood Brain Tumors - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012 Aug 31 - "childhood brain tumors (CBT) ... The odds ratios (ORs) for any maternal use of folic acid, use of folic acid without iron or vitamins B6, B12, C or A, and any vitamin use before pregnancy, were: 0.68 (95% CI 0.46, 1.00), 0.55 (95% CI 0.32, 0.93) and 0.68 (95% CI 0.46, 1.01) respectively ... These results suggest that folic acid supplements before and possibly during pregnancy may protect against CBT. Such associations are biologically plausible through established mechanisms. Impact This study provides evidence of a specific protective effect of prenatal folic acid supplementation against the risk of CBT that is not attributable to the actions of the other micronutrients investigated" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B-12 supplementation improves arterial function in vegetarians with subnormal vitamin B-12 status - J Nutr Health Aging. 2012;16(6):569-73 - "Vegetarians are more vascular-healthy but those with subnormal vitamin B-12 status have impaired arterial endothelial function and increased intima-media thickness ... Vitamin B-12 (500µg/day) or identical placebo were given for 12 weeks with 10 weeks of placebo-washout before crossover (n=43), and then open label vitamin B-12 for additional 24 weeks ... After vitamin B-12 supplementation but not placebo, significant improvement of brachial FMD (6.3+/-1.8% to 6.9+/-1.9%; p<0.0001) and in carotid IMT (0.69+/-0.09mm to 0.67+/-0.09 mm, p<0.05) were found, with further improvement in FMD (to 7.4+/-1.7%; p<0.0001) and IMT (to 0.65+/-0.09mm; p<0.001) after 24 weeks open label vitamin B-12" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Folic acid may reduce some childhood cancers - Science Daily, 5/21/12 - "Wilms' tumor, a type of kidney cancer, and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), a type of brain cancer ... Wilms' tumor rates increased from 1986 to 1997 and decreased thereafter, which is an interesting finding since the downward change in the trend coincides exactly with folic acid fortification ... PNET rates increased from 1986 to 1993 and decreased thereafter. This change in the trend does not coincide exactly with folic acid fortification, but does coincide nicely with the 1992 recommendation for women of childbearing age to consume 400 micrograms of folic acid daily ... Here, we are showing that folic acid fortification does not appear to be increasing rates of childhood cancers, which is good news"
  • A Case-Control Nutrigenomic Study on the Synergistic Activity of Folate and Vitamin B12 in Cervical Cancer Progression - Nutr Cancer. 2012 Apr 20 - "methylene tetrahydrofolatereductase (MTHFR) gene ... Serum folate, vitamin B12 (chemiluminescence assay), and homocysteine (EIA) along with genetic polymorphisms of MTHFR gene (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism) were analyzed for 136 control subjects, 92 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) subjects, and 94 invasive cervical cancer cases (ICC). Statistically significant associations between MTHFR polymorphisms, serum homocysteine, and folate levels with cervical carcinogenesis were not evident, but we found that these parameters acted as effect modifiers of serum vitamin B12. The risk estimates observed for B12 became prominent only when there was a deficiency in serum folate levels [LSIL-odds ratio (OR): 14.9 (95% CI: 2.65 to 84.4); ICC-OR = 8.72 (95% CI = 1.55 to 48.8)] or when MTHFR A1298C polymorphic variant was present [LSIL-OR = 9.8 (95% CI = 2.61 to 36.7); ICC-OR = 10.0 (95%CI = 2.5 to 39.3)]. The statistical significance of this effect modification was further studied using an interaction model, where only folate was observed to have an influence on B12 levels as suggested by the odds ratio of 7.11 (95% CI = 0.45 to 111.9) obtained for ICC group, implicating a synergistic role of these 2 vitamins in invasive cervical cancer"
  • Folate intake and incidence of hypertension among American young adults: a 20-y follow-up study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Apr 4 - "Laboratory studies suggest that folate intake may decrease blood pressure (BP) through increasing nitric oxide synthesis in endothelial cells and/or reducing plasma homocysteine concentrations ... participants in the highest quintile of total folate intake had a significantly lower incidence of hypertension (HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.62; P-trend < 0.01) than did those in the lowest quintile. The multivariable HRs for the same comparison were 0.33 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.51; P-trend < 0.01) in whites and 0.54 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.75; P-trend < 0.01) in African Americans (P-interaction = 0.047)" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of high doses of folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy on child neurodevelopment at 18 months of age: the mother-child cohort 'Rhea' study in Crete, Greece - Public Health Nutr. 2012 Feb 8:1-9 - "Sixty-eight per cent of the study participants reported high doses of supplemental folic acid use (5 mg/d), while 24 % reported excessive doses of folic acid (>5 mg/d) in early pregnancy. Compared with non-users, daily intake of 5 mg supplemental folic acid was associated with a 5-unit increase on the scale of receptive communication and a 3.5-unit increase on the scale of expressive communication. Doses of folic acid supplementation higher than 5 mg/d were not associated with additional increase in the neurodevelopmental scales"
  • Effect of folic acid supplementation on the progression of carotid intima-media thickness: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Atherosclerosis. 2011 Dec 9 - "Our analysis showed that folic acid supplementation significantly reduces the progression of CIMT (WMD: -0.04mm; 95%CI: -0.07, -0.02; P<0.001), particularly in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD) (WMD: -0.16mm; 95%CI: -0.26, -0.07; P=0.0006) or high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk (WMD: -0.05mm; 95%CI: -0.11, 0.00; P=0.06) but not in subjects who were generally healthy with only elevated homocysteine concentrations (WMD:0.00mm; 95%CI: -0.01, 0.01; P=0.35). Furthermore, meta-regression analysis of the data showed that the baseline CIMT levels (P=0.011) and the percent reduction of homocysteine (P<0.001) were positively related to the effect size. Consistently, a greater beneficial effect was seen in those trials with baseline CIMT levels ≥0.8mm (WMD: -0.14mm; 95%CI: -0.19, -0.08; P<0.0001), and a reduction in the homocysteine concentration ≥30% (WMD: -0.22mm; 95%CI: -0.38, -0.06; P=0.009)" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Oral folic acid and vitamin B-12 supplementation to prevent cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms--the Beyond Ageing Project: a randomized controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec 14 - "FA + vitamin B-12 improved the TICS-M total (P = 0.032; effect size d = 0.17), TICS-M immediate (P = 0.046; d = 0.15), and TICS-M delayed recall (P = 0.013; effect size d = 0.18) scores at 24 mo in comparison with placebo. No significant changes were evident in orientation, attention, semantic memory, processing speed, or informant reports ... Long-term supplementation of daily oral 400 μg FA + 100 μg vitamin B-12 promotes improvement in cognitive functioning after 24 mo, particularly in immediate and delayed memory performance"
  • Effect of folic acid intervention on ALT concentration in hypertensives without known hepatic disease: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Nov 16 - "A total of 480 participants with mild or moderate essential hypertension and without known hepatic disease were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: (1) enalapril only (10 mg, control group); (2) enalapril-FA tablet (10 mg enalapril combined with 0.4 mg of FA, low FA group); and (3) enalapril-FA tablet (10 mg enalapril combined with 0.8 mg of FA, high FA group), once daily for 8 weeks ... This report included 455 participants in the final analysis according to the principle of intention to treat. We found a significant reduction in ALT level in the high FA group (median (25th percentile, 75th percentile), -0.6 (-6.9, 2.0)IU/l, P=0.0008). Compared with the control group, the high FA group showed a significantly greater ALT-lowering response in men (median ALT ratio (ALT at week 8 to ALT at baseline; 25th percentile, 75th percentile): 0.93 (0.67, 1.06) vs 1.00 (0.91, 1.21), P=0.032), and in participants with elevated ALT (ALT>40 IU/l) at baseline. There was no difference in ALT lowering between the control and the low FA group"
  • Prediction of all-cause mortality by B group vitamin status in the elderly - Clin Nutr. 2011 Nov 7 - "Survivors had higher vitamin B-1 and niacin intakes and pyridoxal-phosphate and folate concentrations. Controlled for confounders, and relative to the lowest tertile of vitamin B-1 or B-6 intakes, the hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for tertile 3 were 0.74 (0.58-0.95) and 0.74 (0.57-0.97); both p for trend values were <0.05. Further adjustment for dietary diversity led to insignificant findings. For pyridoxal-phosphate, compared to those with deficiency levels, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for adequacy was 0.52 (0.38-0.71) with p for trend <0.0001 and unchanged with dietary diversity adjustment ... Higher vitamin B-1 and B-6 intakes and plasma pyridoxal-phosphate were associated with lower risk of mortality up to 10 years and could be achieved by increased dietary diversity"
  • Vitamin B12, cognition, and brain MRI measures: A cross-sectional examination - Neurology. 2011 Sep 27;77(13):1276-82 - "Concentrations of all vitamin B12-related markers, but not serum vitamin B12 itself, were associated with global cognitive function and with total brain volume. Methylmalonate levels were associated with poorer episodic memory and perceptual speed, and cystathionine and 2-methylcitrate with poorer episodic and semantic memory. Homocysteine concentrations were associated with decreased total brain volume. The homocysteine-global cognition effect was modified and no longer statistically significant with adjustment for white matter volume or cerebral infarcts. The methylmalonate-global cognition effect was modified and no longer significant with adjustment for total brain volume ... Methylmalonate, a specific marker of B12 deficiency, may affect cognition by reducing total brain volume whereas the effect of homocysteine (nonspecific to vitamin B12 deficiency) on cognitive performance may be mediated through increased white matter hyperintensity and cerebral infarcts. Vitamin B12 status may affect the brain through multiple mechanisms"
  • Folate, vitamin B(6) , vitamin B(12) , methionine and alcohol intake in relation to ovarian cancer risk - Int J Cancer. 2011 Sep 22 - "Folate, methionine, vitamin B(6) , and vitamin B(12) may influence carcinogenesis due to their roles in the one-carbon metabolism pathway which is critical for DNA synthesis, methylation, and repair. Low intake of these nutrients has been associated with an increased risk of breast, colon, and endometrial cancers ... We observed an inverse association between dietary vitamin B(6) (covariate-adjusted OR=0.76, 95% CI 0.64-0.92; p(trend) =0.002) and methionine intake (covariate-adjusted OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.60-0.87; p(trend) <0.001) and ovarian cancer risk comparing the highest to lowest quartile. The association with dietary vitamin B(6) was strongest for serous borderline (covariate-adjusted OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.32-0.77; p(trend) =0.001) and serous invasive (covariate-adjusted OR=0.74, 95% CI=0.58-0.94; p(trend) =0.012) subtypes. Overall, we observed no significant association between folate and ovarian cancer risk. One-carbon metabolism related nutrients, especially vitamin B(6) and methionine, may lower ovarian cancer risk"
  • Folate and risk of coronary heart disease: A meta-analysis of prospective studies - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Sep 14 - "Data were independently abstracted by 2 investigators using a standardized protocol. Study-specific risk estimates were combined by using a random effects model. A total of 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis: 7 studies on dietary folate intake and 8 studies on blood folate levels. For dietary intake, the summary relative risk (RR) indicated a significant association between the highest folate intake and reduced risk of CHD (summary RR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.80). Furthermore, an increase in folate intake of 200 ug/day was associated with a 12% decrease in the risk of developing CHD (summary RR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.94). For blood folate levels, we also found a borderline inverse association of highest blood folate levels on CHD risk (summary RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.02); our dose-response analysis indicated that an increment in blood folate levels of 5 mmol/l was associated with an 8% decrease in the risk of developing CHD (summary RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.00)"
  • A multi-nutrient supplement reduced markers of inflammation and improved physical performance in active individuals of middle to older age: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study - Nutr J. 2011 Sep 7;10(1):90 - "While exercise acts to combat inflammation and aging, the ability to exercise may itself be compromised by inflammation and inflammation's impact on muscle recovery and joint inflammation. A number of nutritional supplements have been shown to reduce inflammation and improve recovery. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the effect of a multi-nutrient supplement containing branched chain amino acids, taurine, anti-inflammatory plant extracts, and B vitamins on inflammatory status, endothelial function, physical function, and mood in middle-aged individuals ...Thirty-one healthy and active men (N=16, mean age 56+/-6.0 yrs) and women (N=15, mean age=52+/-7.5 yrs) participated in this investigation. Subjects completed one 28 day cycle of placebo supplementation and one 28 day cycle of multi-nutrient supplementation (separated by a one week washout period) in a balanced, randomized, double-blind, cross-over design ... IL-6 significantly decreased in both men (from 1.2 +/- 0.2 to 0.7+/-0.4 pg * mL-1) and women (from 1.16+/-0.04 to 0.7+/-0.4 pg * mL-1). Perceived energy also improved for both men (placebo: 1.8 +/- 0.7; supplement: 3.7+/-0.8 AUC) and women (placebo: 1.2 +/- 0.7; supplement: 2.8+/-0.8 AUC). Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (from 108.9+/-38.6 to 55.5+/-22.2 ug * mL-1), Creatine Kinase (from 96+/-34 to 67+/-23 IU * L-1), general pain, and joint pain decreased in men only, while anxiety and balance (from 0.52+/-0.13 to 0.45+/-0.12 cm) improved in women only. Men showed increased performance in vertical jump power (from 2642+/-244 to 3134+/-282 W) and grip strength (from 42.1+/-5.9 to 48.5+/-4.9 kg)" - See taurine at Amazon.com and BCAA products at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine intake and the risk of breast cancer by oestrogen and progesterone receptor status - Br J Nutr. 2011 May 16:1-8 - "Dietary intake information was assessed using a validated FFQ administered through a face-to-face interview ... A significant inverse association was found between dietary folate and vitamin B6 intake and breast cancer risk. The adjusted OR of the highest v. the lowest quartile were 0.32 (95 % CI 0.21, 0.49; Ptrend < 0.001) for dietary folate and 0.46 (95 % CI 0.30, 0.69; Ptrend < 0.001) for vitamin B6. No associations were observed for vitamin B12 and methionine intake. A significant inverse association between dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk was observed in all subtypes of ER and PR status. These findings suggest that dietary folate and vitamin B6 intakes were inversely associated with breast cancer risk. The inverse association did not differ by ER and/or PR status"
  • B vitamin status, dietary intake and length of stay in a sample of elderly rehabilitation patients - J Nutr Health Aging. 2011;15(6):485-9 - "The age was 80 +/- 8 year (mean +/- SD), BMI 26.4 +/- 6.8 kg/m2 and MNA score 22 +/- 3 indicating some risk of malnutrition. Deficiencies of vitamins B6, B12 and folate were found in 30, 22 and 5 subjects respectively. Length of stay was positively correlated with age and MMA (Spearman's correlation 0.4, p<0.01 and 0.28, p<0.05 respectively) and negatively correlated with albumin, vitamin B6 and MNA score (Spearman's correlation -0.35, -0.33 and -0.29, p<0.05). After adjustment for age and sex, ln vitamin B6 and ln MMA concentrations were significant in predicting ln LOS (p=0.006 and p=0.014 respectively). Conclusion: The study indicates a high risk of vitamin B deficiencies in the elderly and suggests that deficiencies of vitamins B6 and B12 are associated with length of stay. This is concerning as B vitamin status is rarely fully assessed"
  • Folic acid and prevention of colorectal adenomas: A combined analysis of randomized clinical trials - Int J Cancer. 2010 Dec 17 - "Observational data suggest that lower folate status is associated with an increased risk of colorectal neoplasia, implying that folate may be useful as a chemopreventive agent. We conducted a combined analysis of three large randomized trials of folic acid supplementation for the prevention of metachronous adenomas in patients with an adenoma history. Participants included 2,632 men and women with a history of adenomas randomized to either 0.5 or 1.0 mg/day of folic acid or placebo, and who had a follow-up endoscopy 6 to 42 months after randomization ... The RR comparing folic acid vs. placebo was 0.98 (95% CI=0.82-1.17) for all adenomas and 1.06 (95% CI=0.81-1.39) for advanced lesions. Folic acid was associated with a non-significant decreased risk of any adenoma among subjects in the lowest quartile of baseline plasma folate (≤11 nmol/L) and no effect among individuals in the highest quartile (>29 nmol/L, p for trend = 0.17). There was a non-significant trend of decreasing risk of any adenoma associated with folic acid supplements with increasing alcohol intake. During the early follow-up reported here, more deaths occurred in the placebo group than in the folic acid group (1.7% vs. 0.5%, p=.002)"
  • Age-related hearing loss, vitamin B12, and folate in the elderly - Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010 Dec;143(6):826-30 - "Spearman's correlation revealed that low folate (correlation coefficient = -0.27, P = 0.01) and cyanocobalamin (correlation coefficient = -0.35, P = 0.02) were significantly associated with increasing hearing threshold in the high frequencies. After adjusting for age, serum folate (correlation coefficient = -0.01, P = 0.01) was significant, while vitamin B12 (correlation coefficient = -0.01, P = 0.74) was not" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • B-complex vitamins may help slow progression of dementia - Science Daily, 10/27/10 - "Large doses of B-complex vitamins could reduce the rate of brain shrinkage by half in elderly people with memory problems and slow the progression of dementia ... patients who already exhibit signs of dementia and test positive for high levels of homocysteine are more likely to respond well to the large doses of B vitamins. Homocysteine is an amino acid in the blood, and high blood levels are linked to an increased risk of developing Alzheimer disease"
  • Homocysteine and holotranscobalamin and the risk of Alzheimer disease: A longitudinal study - Neurology. 2010 Oct 19;75(16):1408-14 - "homocysteine (tHcy) and holotranscobalamin (holoTC), the active fraction of vitamin B12 ... The odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for AD were 1.16 (1.04-1.31) per increase of 1 μmol/L of tHcy at baseline and 0.980 (0.965-0.995) for each increase of 1 pmol/L baseline holoTC ... This study suggests that both tHcy and holoTC may be involved in the development of AD. The tHcy-AD link may be partly explained by serum holoTC. The role of holoTC in AD should be further investigated"
  • Plasma vitamins B2, B6, B12, and related genetic variants as predictors of colorectal cancer risk - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Sep 2 - "Relative risks (RRs) ... Adjusted RRs comparing the highest to lowest quintile (95% confidence interval, Ptrend) were: 0.71 (0.56-0.91, 0.02) for vitamin B2, 0.68 (0.53-0.87, <0.001) for vitamin B6, and 1.02 (0.80-1.29, 0.19) for vitamin B12. The associations for vitamin B6 were stronger in males who consumed >/=30g alcohol/day. The polymorphisms were not associated with CRC ... CONCLUSIONS: Results from this large European cohort study show that higher plasma concentrations of vitamins B2 and B6 are associated with a lower CRC risk"
  • Folic acid supplementation may cure hot flushes in postmenopausal women: a prospective cohort study - Gynecol Endocrinol. 2010 Mar 16 - "To examine the effect of folic acid supplementation on the occurrence of hot flushes and the plasma level of 3-methoxy 4-hydroxy phenyl glycol (MHPG, the main metabolite of brain norepinephrine) ... The number of women who reported improvement in hot flushes was significantly higher in the treatment group. On comparing the mean plasma levels of MHPG before and after treatment, a significant lowering was found in the treatment group (mean % change =-24.1 +/- 17.9, p < 0.001) when compared with the placebo-control group (mean % change =-5.59 +/- 16.4, p = 0.10). In the treatment group, there was a significant negative correlation between improvement in hot flushes and the plasma level of MHPG (r =-0.453, p = 0.03)" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B6 and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies - JAMA. 2010 Mar 17;303(11):1077-83 - "Omitting 1 study that contributed substantially to the heterogeneity among studies of vitamin B(6) intake yielded a pooled RR of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.69-0.92). The risk of colorectal cancer decreased by 49% for every 100-pmol/mL increase (approximately 2 SDs) in blood PLP levels (RR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.38-0.69)"
  • Folate intake associated with lung function, breathlessness and the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(1):103-9 - "The COPD patients had significantly lower habitual intake of folate (mean 231, SD 90 mug/day) than control subjects (mean 261, SD 110 mug/day), p<0.001. Lung function measures were found to be positively associated with dietary folate level. Reductions in prevalence of COPD and especially breathlessness were observed, the respective adjusted odds ratio (OR) being 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35 to 1.58) and 0.43 (95% CI 0.21 to 0.91) for the highest versus lowest quartile of folate intake. The corresponding tests for linear trend were also significant (p<0.05). In conclusion, an inverse association was evident between dietary folate intake and the prevalence of breathlessness for Japanese adults, together with a significant dose-response relationship for the COPD risk. Moreover, increased folate intake might be beneficial to lung function"
  • Serum folate and homocysteine and depressive symptoms among Japanese men and women - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jan 20 - "The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of depressive symptoms for the lowest to highest quartiles of serum folate were 1.00 (reference), 0.53 (0.27-1.03), 0.33 (0.16-0.68) and 0.51 (0.25-1.03), respectively" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Protective effect of periconceptional folic acid supplements on the risk of congenital heart defects: a registry-based case-control study in the northern Netherlands - Eur Heart J. 2009 Dec 1 - "Our results support the hypothesis that additional periconceptional folic acid use reduces CHD risk in infants. Use of periconceptional folic acid supplements was related to approximately 20% reduction in the prevalence of any CHD. Given the relatively high prevalence of CHD worldwide, our findings are important for public health"
  • Effects of metformin with or without supplementation with folate on homocysteine levels and vascular endothelium of women with polycystic ovary syndrome - Diabetes Care. 2009 Nov 23 - "Metformin exerts a slight but significant deleterious effect on serum Hcy levels in patients with PCOS, and supplementation with folate is useful to increase the beneficial effect of metformin on the vascular endothelium"
  • Folate intake and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study - Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(5):617-28 - "Folate deficiency has been implicated in the carcinogenesis of several tumor types ... Dietary folate intake was inversely associated with overall risk of prostate cancer as compared to clinic controls (P for a linear trend = 0.003). When stratified by disease severity, dietary folate and folate from natural sources were associated with reduced risk of high-grade cancer as compared to both clinic controls (P for a linear trend = 0.0009 and 0.02, respectively) and biopsy negative controls (P for a linear trend = 0.03 and 0.05, respectively) ... These analyses support an inverse association between dietary folate intake and prostate cancer risk and primarily risk of high-grade prostate cancer"
  • Impact of Homocysteine-Lowering Vitamin Therapy on Long-Term Outcome of Patients With Coronary Artery Disease - Am J Cardiol. 2009 Sep 15;104(6):745-749 - "Folic acid >/=400 mug/day with or without additional B vitamins was administered at the attending physicians' discretion ... Treatment was associated with significantly lower all-cause mortality in patients with homocysteine levels >15 mumol/L (4% vs 32%, p <0.001) but not in patients with lower levels (5% vs 7%, p >0.05)" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Folate may improve artery function and heart health - Nutra USA, 9/4/09
  • Folate intake and the risk of colorectal cancer in a Korean population - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun 24 - "Cases were more frequently found to have a family history of CRC among first-degree relatives, to consume more alcohol, to be more likely current smokers and less likely to participate in vigorous physical activity than the controls. In the overall data for men and women combined, multivariate ORs (95% confidence interval (CI), P for trend) comparing the highest vs the lowest quartile of dietary folate intake were: 0.47 (0.32-0.69, < 0.001) for CRC, 0.42 (0.26-0.69, < 0.001) for colon cancer and 0.48 (0.28-0.81, 0.007) for rectal cancer. An inverse association was also found in women with dietary folate intake: 0.36 (0.20-0.64, < 0.001) for CRC, 0.34 (0.16-0.70, 0.001) for colon cancer and 0.30 (0.12-0.74, 0.026) for rectal cancer, but not in men. In addition, the total folate intake of women was strongly associated with a reduced risk of rectal cancer (OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.17-0.88; P for trend=0.04). ... We found a statistically significant relationship between higher dietary folate intake and reduced risk of CRC, colon cancer and rectal cancer in women. A significant association is indicated between higher total folate intake and reduced risk of rectal cancer in women"
  • Prospective study of plasma vitamin B6 and risk of colorectal cancer in men - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Apr;18(4):1197-202 - "plasma PLP levels were significantly inversely associated with risk of colorectal cancer; compared with men in the lowest quartile, those with PLP in quartiles 2 to 4 had relative risks (95% confidence interval) of 0.92 (0.55-1.56), 0.42 (0.23-0.75), and 0.49 (0.26-0.92; P(trend) = 0.01), respectively"
  • Prospective Study of Plasma Vitamin B6 and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Men - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Mar 31 - "plasma PLP levels were significantly inversely associated with risk of colorectal cancer; compared with men in the lowest quartile, those with PLP in quartiles 2 to 4 had relative risks (95% confidence interval) of 0.92 (0.55-1.56), 0.42 (0.23-0.75), and 0.49 (0.26-0.92; Ptrend = 0.01), respectively. In conclusion, vitamin B6 may protect against colorectal cancer independent of other one-carbon metabolites and inflammatory biomarkers"
  • Selenium, folate, and colon cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(2):165-78 - "High levels of serum selenium and reported folate jointly were associated with a substantially reduced risk of colon cancer"
  • Vitamin B(12) may be more effective than nortriptyline in improving painful diabetic neuropathy - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2009 Feb 12:1-6 - "In conclusion, vitamin B(12) is more effective than nortriptyline for the treatment of symptomatic painful diabetic neuropathy" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • High-Dose B Vitamin Supplementation and Progression of Subclinical Atherosclerosis. A Randomized Controlled Trial - Stroke. 2008 Dec 31 - "high-dose B vitamin supplementation (5 mg folic acid+0.4 mg vitamin B12+50 mg vitamin B6) or matching placebo for 3.1 years ... High-dose B vitamin supplementation significantly reduces progression of early-stage subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid artery intima media thickness) in well-nourished healthy B vitamin "replete" individuals at low risk for cardiovascular disease with a fasting tHcy >/=9.1 micromol/L"
  • Cobalamin deficiency: Neurological aspects in 27 cases - Rev Neurol (Paris). 2008 Dec 2 - "Combined medullar sclerosis, together with peripheral sensory neuropathies, is the most common neurological manifestation observed in cobalamin deficiency. Biermer's disease is the predominant cause ... cobalamin (B12 vitamin) ... Dysautonomia revealed cobalamin deficiency in three patients with a good and fast response to the cobalamin therapy in all cases ... Outcome was very good in 46% of patients after vitamin replacement, particularly if treatment was started rapidly" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Efficacy of a Vitamin/Nutriceutical Formulation for Early-stage Alzheimer's Disease: A 1-Year, Open-Label Pilot Study With an 16-Month Caregiver Extension - Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2008 Dec 1 - "We examined the efficacy of a vitamin/nutriceutical formulation (folate, vitamin B6, alpha-tocopherol, S-adenosyl methionine, N-acetyl cysteine, and acetyl-L-carnitine) in a 12-month, open-label trial with 14 community-dwelling individuals with early-stage Alzheimer's disease. Participants improved in the Dementia Rating Scale and Clock-drawing tests (Clox 1 and 2). Family caregivers reported improvement in multiple domains of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and maintenance of performance in the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Sustained performance was reported by caregivers for those participants who continued in an 16-month extension. Performance on the NPI was equivalent to published findings at 3 to 6 months for donepezil and exceeded that of galantamine and their historical placebos. Participants demonstrated superior performance for more than 12 months in NPI and ADL versus those receiving naproxen and rofecoxib or their placebo group. This formulation holds promise for treatment of early-stage Alzheimer's disease prior to and/or as a supplement for pharmacological approaches"
  • Raised homocysteine and low folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations predict cognitive decline in community-dwelling older Japanese adults - Clin Nutr. 2008 Oct 1 - "Reduced folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations were independently associated with cognitive decline"
  • Vitamin B12 status and rate of brain volume loss in community-dwelling elderly - Neurology. 2008 Sep 9;71(11):826-32 - "Linear regression analysis showed that associations with vitamin B(12) and holoTC remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, creatinine, education, initial brain volume, cognitive test scores, systolic blood pressure, ApoE epsilon4 status, tHcy, and folate. Using the upper (for the vitamins) or lower tertile (for the metabolites) as reference in logistic regression analysis and adjusting for the above covariates, vitamin B(12) in the bottom tertile (<308 pmol/L) was associated with increased rate of brain volume loss (odds ratio 6.17 ... Low vitamin B(12) status should be further investigated as a modifiable cause of brain atrophy and of likely subsequent cognitive impairment in the elderly" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Does Folic Acid Supplementation Prevent or Promote Colorectal Cancer? Results from Model-Based Predictions - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Jun 6 - "Changes in colorectal cancer risk in response to folic acid supplementation are likely a complex function of treatment start, duration, and effect on cell proliferation and mutations rates. Predicted colorectal cancer incidence rates under supplementation are mostly higher than rates without folic acid supplementation unless supplementation is initiated early in life (before age 20 years). To the extent to which this model predicts reality, it indicates that the effect on cancer risk when starting folic acid supplementation late in life is small, yet mostly detrimental"
  • Effect of Coenzyme Q(10), Riboflavin and Niacin on Tamoxifen treated postmenopausal breast cancer women with special reference to blood chemistry profiles - Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008 Apr 22 - "Tamoxifen (TAM) ... TAM also has estrogenic activity on liver and endometrium causing severe oxidative stress with various biochemical derangements. Coenzyme Q(10), Riboflavin and Niacin (CoRN) are well-known potent antioxidants and protective agents against many diseases including cancer ... A statistically significant alteration in various blood chemistry parameters, such as serum total bilirubin (S. BIL), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT), uric acid (UA), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), lecithin: cholesterol acyl transferases (LCAT), potassium, calcium and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in sole TAM-treated group, was favorably reverted back to near normal levels on combinatorial therapy with CoRN" - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com.
  • Folate and MTHFR: risk of adenoma recurrence in the Polyp Prevention Trial - Cancer Causes Control. 2008 Mar 6 - "Low dietary folate intake has been associated with colorectal cancer risk and adenoma recurrence. A C/T transition at position 677 in the gene encoding methlylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T) has been reported to interact with folate intake to modulate colorectal adenoma recurrence or cancer risk ... In general, no statistically significant associations were found between quartile of folate intake (dietary or total) and adenoma recurrence ... No significant interaction was noted for total folate and MTHFR genotype, though an increased risk of recurrence noted for the MTHFR CT genotype was statistically significant only for those individuals with below median intake of total folate"
  • Is folic acid good for everyone? - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Mar;87(3):517-33 - "Folate has a dual effect on cancer, protecting against cancer initiation but facilitating progression and growth of preneoplastic cells and subclinical cancers"
  • Hepatoprotective effect of vitamin b(12) on dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury - Biol Pharm Bull. 2008 Feb;31(2):309-11 - "Vitamin B(12) decreased the blood levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and clearly inhibited the overaccumulation of collagen fibrils ... vitamin B(12) could be an effective hepatoprotective agent" - Note:  Aspartate aminotransferase is the AST reading on blood tests and alanine aminotransferase is the ALT.
  • Effects of folic acid and N-acetylcysteine on plasma homocysteine levels and endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease - Acta Cardiol. 2007 Dec;62(6):579-85 - "either folic acid 5 mg or NAC 600 mg or placebo daily for eight weeks ... endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) ... Folic acid and NAC therapies decreased plasma homocysteine (from 21.7 +/- 8.7 micromol/l to 12.5 +/- 2.5 micromol/l, P < 0.001; from 20.9 +/- 7.6 micromol/l to 15.6 +/- 4.3 micromol/l, P = 0.03, respectively), and increased EDD (6.7 +/- 6.1% P = 0.002, 4.4 +/- 2.6% P < 0.001, respectively) compared with placebo. There was no significant difference in improving EDD between the folic acid and the NAC group"
  • Dietary vitamin b6 intake and the risk of colorectal cancer - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Jan;17(1):171-82 - "Moderately strong inverse and dose-dependent associations in the whole sample were found between CRC risk and the intake of dietary and total vitamin B6 in all three models [model III: odds ratio (OR), 0.77; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.61-0.98; P for trend = 0.03; OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.69-1.07; P for trend = 0.12]. In addition, meta-analyses of published studies showed inverse associations between vitamin B6 and CRC (combined relative risk, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.96; test for overall effect P = 0.01; combined odds ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.60-0.75; test for overall effect P < 0.00001)"
  • Folic acid supplementation in early second trimester and the risk of preeclampsia - Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jan;198(1):45.e1-7 - "Supplementation of multivitamins containing folic acid was associated with increased serum folate (on average 10.51 micromol/L), decreased plasma homocysteine (on average 0.39 micromol/L), and reduced risk of preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.75)" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B6 treatment for tardive dyskinesia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study - J Clin Psychiatry. 2007 Nov;68(11):1648-54 - "The mean decrease in ESRS clinical global impression scores from baseline to endpoint was 2.4 points in patients treated with vitamin B(6) and 0.2 points in patients treated with placebo (p < .0001). The mean decrease in the parkinsonism subscale score was 18.5 points and 1.4 points, respectively (p < .00001), and the mean decrease in the dyskinesia subscale score was 5.2 points and -0.8 points, respectively ... Vitamin B(6) appears to be effective in reducing symptoms of TD. The specific mechanisms by which vitamin B(6) attenuates symptoms of TD are not clear"
  • Association of folate intake with the occurrence of depressive episodes in middle-aged French men and women - Br J Nutr. 2007 Dec 6;:1-5 - "the risk of experiencing recurrent depressive episodes (two or more) during the follow-up was strongly reduced in men with high folate intake (OR 0.25 (95 % CI 0.06, 0.98) for the highest tertile v. the lowest" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1384-91 - "concentrations of holoTC (a marker of reduced vitamin B-12 status), tHcy, and MMA predicted cognitive decline, but folate did not. A doubling in holoTC concentrations (from 50 to 100 pmol/L) was associated with a 30% slower rate of cognitive decline (-0.137 to -0.083), whereas a doubling in tHcy (from 10 to 20 mumol/L) or MMA (from 0.25 to 0.50 mumol/L) was associated with >50% more rapid cognitive decline (-0.090 to -0.169) and (-0.104 to -0.169), respectively" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1384-91 - "Low vitamin B-12 status was associated with more rapid cognitive decline"
  • Homocysteine, vitamins, and vascular disease prevention - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1563S-8S - "Dietary deficiency of vitamin B-6 and folic acid and absorptive deficiency of vitamin B-12, which result from traditional food processing or abnormal absorption of B vitamins, are important factors in causing elevations in blood homocysteine. Numerous clinical and epidemiologic studies have established elevated blood homocysteine as a potent independent risk factor for vascular disease in the general population. Dietary improvement, providing abundant vitamin B-6, folic acid, and cobalamin, may prevent vascular disease by lowering blood homocysteine. The dramatic decline in cardiovascular mortality in the United States since 1950 may possibly be attributable in part to voluntary fortification of the food supply with vitamin B-6 and folic acid. Fortification of the US food supply with folic acid in 1998, as mandated by the US Food and Drug Administration, was associated with a further decline in mortality from vascular disease, presumably because of increased blood folate and decreased blood homocysteine in the population"
  • Low vitamin B6 and folic acid levels are associated with retinal vein occlusion independently of homocysteine levels - Atherosclerosis. 2007 Oct 16 - "Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is one of the most common retinal vascular disorders ... Blood levels of vitamin B6, folate and Hcy, but not of vitamin B12, were found to be significantly different in patients as compared to healthy subjects. At the univariate analysis, the lowest tertile of vitamin B6 [odds ratio (OR) 4.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.58-6.31; P<0.0001)] and folate (OR 6.13; 95% CI 3.85-9.76, P<0.0001), and the highest tertile of Hcy (OR 8.08; 95% CI 5.05-12.92, P<0.0001) were found to be significantly associated with RVO. Moreover, at multivariate analysis, after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, Hcy, and circulating levels of vitamins, respectively, the lowest tertile of vitamin B6 (OR 3.29; 95% CI 1.89-5.70, P<0.0001) and folate (OR 5.41; 95% CI 3.08-9.51, P<0.0001) and the highest tertile of Hcy (OR 2.58; 95% CI 1.12-5.94, P<0.0001) maintained their significant association with RVO"
  • Augmenting antidepressants with folate: a clinical perspective - J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68 Suppl 10:4-7 - "Folate in particular has been found to further reduce symptoms in patients with depression when used in conjunction with an antidepressant, and because folate is a water-soluble B vitamin, its safety and tolerability are well established. This strategy would typically be used in patients with low plasma or red blood cell folate levels. Folate augmentation may be used (1) to enhance the efficacy of antidepressants in nonresponders, (2) to enable those who partially respond to antidepressant monotherapy to achieve remission, and (3) to alleviate residual symptoms during antidepressant treatment" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • The role of folate in depression and dementia - J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68 Suppl 10:28-33 - "folate deficiencies may be caused by improper absorption and utilization, often due to genetic polymorphisms. Individuals, therefore, can have insufficient levels or lack needed forms of folate, despite adequate intake. Supplementation with the active form of folate, methyltetrahydrofolate, which is more readily absorbed, may be effective in the prevention and treatment of both depression and dementia" - folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • B Vitamin Plasma Levels and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack in a German Cohort - Stroke. 2007 Sep 20 - "Our data suggest that low vitamin B12 plasma levels, particularly in combination with low folate levels, increase the risk of cerebral ischemia. This effect may be mediated at least partly through elevations of homocysteine levels"
  • Prevalence of and risk factors for vitamin B(12) deficiency in patients with Crohn's disease - Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2007 Sep 20 - "Vitamin B(12) abnormalities are common in patients with CD and patients with a prior ileal or ileocolonic resection are at particular risk" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Review of the role of hyperhomocysteinemia and B-vitamin deficiency in neurological and psychiatric disorders - Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2007 Sep;75(9):e1-e18 - "Elevated concentration of total homocysteine (Hcy) in plasma (> 12 micromol/l) is a risk factor for several diseases of the central nervous system. Epidemiological studies have shown a dose-dependent relationship between concentrations of Hcy and the risk for neurodegenerative diseases. Hcy is a marker for B-vitamin deficiency (folate, B (12), B (6)). Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) causes hypomethylation which is an important mechanism that links Hcy to dementia ... Current evidence suggests that Hcy-lowering treatment has a positive effect for the secondary and primary prevention of stroke. HHcy is very common in patients with Parkinson disease particularly those who receive L-dopa treatment. Furthermore, a positive association has been reported between HHcy and multiple sclerosis. Moreover, HHcy and vitamin B deficiency are reported to have a causal role in depression, and epilepsy. In addition several anti-epileptic drugs cause secondary HHcy. Therefore, sufficient intakes of the vitamins are recommended for patients who have already developed neuropsychiatric diseases. Vitamin B deficiency should be suspected in children with development disorders, failure to thrive and unexplained neurological manifestations. Elderly people are also an important at-risk group where vitamin B deficiency and HHcy have been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Treatment with folate, B (12), and B (6) can improve cerebral function. Preventive vitamin B supplementation and sufficient intake seem very important for secondary and primary prevention of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially in subjects with a low intake or status of the vitamins"
  • Plasma folate concentration and cognitive performance: Rotterdam Scan Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep;86(3):728-34 - "After multivariate adjustment, the mean change in test score per 1-SD increase in plasma folate was 0.05 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.09) for global cognitive function, 0.08 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.13) for psychomotor speed, and 0.02 (95% CI: -0.04, 0.07) for memory function ... The odds ratio relating a 1-SD increase in plasma folate to the presence compared with the absence of severe white matter lesions was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.94), whereas no relation was seen between folate status and hippocampal or amygdalar volume" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of dietary B vitamins on BMD and risk of fracture in elderly men and women: The Rotterdam Study - one. 2007 Aug 17 - "As compared to the three lowest quartiles, individuals in the highest quartile of age- and energy-adjusted dietary pyridoxine intake had a decreased risk of non-vertebral fractures (HR=0.77, 95% CI=0.65-0.92, p=0.005) and of fragility fractures (HR=0.55"
  • Folate: in vitro and in vivo effects on VLDL and LDL oxidation - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2007 Jan;77(1):66-72 - "folic acid supplementation reduced tHcy and protected both VLDL and LDL against oxidation. These findings provide further support for the use of folic acid supplements to aid in the prevention of atherosclerosis"
  • High folate intake is associated with lower breast cancer incidence in postmenopausal women in the Malmo Diet and Cancer cohort - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Aug;86(2):434-43 - "Compared with the lowest quintile, the incidence of invasive breast cancer was reduced in the highest quintile of dietary folate intake (HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.90; P for trend = 0.02); total folate intake, including supplements (HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.91; P for trend = 0.006); and dietary folate equivalents (HR: 0.59" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Efficacy of folic acid supplementation in stroke prevention: a meta-analysis - Lancet. 2007 Jun 2;369(9576):1876-82 - "Folic acid supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stroke by 18%"
  • Correlations between folate, B12, homocysteine levels, and radiological markers of neuropathology in elderly post-stroke patients - J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Jun;26(3):272-8 - "folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia are prevalent in elderly post-stroke patients. These two conditions are strongly and independently associated with the development of brain atrophy"
  • Blood folate levels and risk of liver damage and hepatocellular carcinoma in a prospective high-risk cohort - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Jun;16(6):1279-82 - "When comparing persons in the lowest quartile RBC folate to persons in all other quartiles, the analysis found that higher RBC folate levels were associated with reduced risk of hepatocarcinogenesis (odds ratio, 0.33" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of folic acid and vitamin B complex on serum C-reactive protein and albumin levels in stable hemodialysis patients - Curr Med Res Opin. 2007 Jun 29 - "Folic acid and vitamin B complex co-administration effectively lowers tHcy and hs-CRP levels and increases albumin levels in stable hemodialysis subjects, underscoring their potential benefit to attenuate the state of inflammation and possibly improve the nutritional status in patients on hemodialysis"
  • Low Intake of Vitamin B-6 Is Associated with Increased Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Japanese Men - J Nutr. 2007 Jul;137(7):1808-1814 - "We observed a significant inverse association between vitamin B-6 intake and colorectal cancer in men. Compared with the lowest quartile, the multivariate hazard ratio (95% [CI]) in the highest quartile of intake was 0.69"
  • Effect of folic Acid on endothelial function following acute myocardial infarction - Am J Cardiol. 2007 Feb 15;99(4):476-81 - "6-week treatment with high-dose folic acid improves endothelial function in post-AMI patients, independent from homocysteine status. Folic acid can be recommended to improve postinfarction endothelial dysfunction in patients with normo- and hyperhomocysteinemia"
  • Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults in the FACIT trial: a randomised, double blind, controlled trial - Lancet. 2007 Jan 20;369(9557):208-16 - "Folic acid supplementation for 3 years significantly improved domains of cognitive function that tend to decline with age"
  • Vitamin B6 supplementation increases immune responses in critically ill patients - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Oct;60(10):1207-13 - "T-lymphocyte and T-helper cell numbers and the percentage of T-suppressor cell significantly increased on day 14 in the B6 -50 group. Total lymphocyte count, T-helper and T-suppressor cell numbers, the percentage of T-lymphocyte cells and T-suppressors significantly increased in the B6 -100 group at the 14th day"
  • B-vitamins reduce plasma levels of beta amyloid - Neurobiol Aging. 2006 Nov 17 - "Elevated plasma homocysteine (tHcy) is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and thus B vitamins may have a role in the prevention of AD. The objective of this study was to determine if tHcy lowering vitamins decrease the circulating levels of A-beta protein 1-40 (Abeta40). We randomized 299 older men to treatment with 2mg of folate, plus 25mg of B6 and 400mug of B12, or placebo. After 2 years of treatment the mean (S.E.) increase of Abeta40 was 7.0pg/ml (8.4) in the vitamin group (4.9%), and 26.8pg/ml (7.7) (18.5%) in the placebo group. We conclude that B vitamins may decrease the plasma level of Abeta40 and have a role in the prevention of AD"
  • High- but not low-dose folic acid improves endothelial function in coronary artery disease - Eur J Clin Invest. 2006 Dec;36(12):850-9 - "Both 400 microg day(-1) and 5 mg day(-1) FA significantly increased plasma folate and decreased plasma Hcy. The FMD improved significantly after 6 weeks' treatment of 5 mg day(-1) FA but did not correlate with the reduction in Hcy. There was no change in FMD in either the 400 microg FA or placebo group"
  • Folic acid improves endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes--an effect independent of homocysteine-lowering - Vasc Med. 2006 May;11(2):101-9 - "2 weeks of folic acid supplementation can improve endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetics independent of homocysteine-lowering" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Folate and vitamin b6 rapidly normalize endothelial dysfunction in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus - Pediatrics. 2006 Jul;118(1):242-53 - "High-dose folate and vitamin B(6) normalized endothelial dysfunction in children with type 1 diabetes. This effect was maintained over 8 weeks, with no additional benefit from combination treatment"
  • Loss of vision as a presenting sign of cobalamin deficiency: An eye-opener - Eur J Intern Med. 2006 Jul;17(4):292-4 - "We describe a patient who presented with loss of vision that turned out to be caused by cobalamin deficiency. Both her vision and her visual field improved upon supplementation of cobalamin. It is, therefore, important to consider cobalamin deficiency as a treatable cause of loss of vision" - Note:  Cobalamin is vitamin B12.
  • Older Adults May Need B12 Dose More Than 200 Times the RDA to Normalize Mild Vitamin Deficiency - Medscape, 5/26/06 - "As both methylmalonyl-coenzyme A (MMA) and homocysteine are metabolized by vitamin B12, elevated levels of these compounds in the plasma can reflect vitamin deficiency ... One analysis yielded 500 μg of vitamin B12 as the minimum dose necessary to produce the greatest effect on MMA levels. There was little additional benefit in using daily doses of vitamin B12 of more than 500 μg"
  • Effect of nicotinamide on newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic children - Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2006 Jun;27(6):724-7 - "even low doses of oral NA given to children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes may reduce insulin requirements and prolong the honeymoon period"
  • Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials - Fam Pract. 2006 Apr 3 - "The evidence derived from these limited studies suggests that 2000 microg doses of oral vitamin B12 daily and 1000 microg doses initially daily and thereafter weekly and then monthly may be as effective as intramuscular administration in obtaining short-term haematological and neurological responses in vitamin B12-deficient patients"
  • Folic acid supplementation for 3 wk reduces pulse pressure and large artery stiffness independent of MTHFR genotype - Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jul;82(1):26-31 - "5 mg folic acid/d ... Folic acid reduced brachial pulse pressure by 4.7 ... Folic acid is a safe and effective supplement that targets large artery stiffness and may prevent isolated systolic hypertension" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Reducing toxicity of methotrexate with folic acid - Z Rheumatol. 2005 Jun;64(5):353-8 - "Folate supplementation should, therefore, be routinely prescribed to every patient taking low-dose methotrexate" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B12, homocysteine and carotid plaque in the era of folic acid fortification of enriched cereal grain products - CMAJ. 2005 Jun 7;172(12):1569-73 - "Vitamin B12 deficiency is surprisingly common among patients with vascular disease, and, in the setting of folic acid fortification, low serum vitamin B12 levels are a major determinant of elevated homocysteine levels and increased carotid plaque area"
  • Oral Cyanocobalamin Supplementation in Older People With Vitamin B12 Deficiency  - Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:1167-1172 - "The lowest dose of oral cyanocobalamin required to normalize mild vitamin B12 deficiency is more than 200 times greater than the recommended dietary allowance, which is approximately 3 µg daily"
  • Folate and brain function in the elderly - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2004 Nov;7(6):659-664 - "folate status does predict response to antidepressant treatment in older individuals. Cognitive decline and some forms of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, are associated with lower folate levels. Supplementation with folic acid can provide cognitive benefits in some circumstances"
  • Vitamin B6 level is associated with symptoms of depression - Psychother Psychosom. 2004 Nov-Dec;73(6):340-3 - "A low plasma level of PLP was significantly associated with the depression score"
  • Folate treatment and insulin resistance -  Eur J Endocrinol. 2004 Oct;151(4):483-9 - "Folate and B12 treatment improved insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction, along with decreasing homocysteine levels, in patients with the metabolic syndrome, suggesting that folic acid had several beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors"
  • Folate for depressive disorders - J Psychopharmacol. 2004 Jun;18(2):251-6 - "adding folate reduced Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores on average by a further 2.65 points ... The remaining study found no statistically significant difference when folate alone was compared with trazodone"  - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) deficiency in elderly patients - CMAJ. 2004 Aug 3;171(3):251-259 - "VITAMIN B(12) OR COBALAMIN DEFICIENCY occurs frequently (> 20%) among elderly people, but it is often unrecognized because the clinical manifestations are subtle; they are also potentially serious, particularly from a neuropsychiatric and hematological perspective"
  • Role of vitamins in the risk, prevention, and treatment of breast cancer - Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Feb;16(1):19-25 - "High intake of folate or adequate circulating levels of folate may reduce the risk of breast cancer. Adequate folate levels may be particularly important for women who are at higher risk of breast cancer because of high alcohol consumption. The inverse association between vitamin D and risk of breast cancer needs to be evaluated in more studies" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • High vitamin B12 level and good treatment outcome may be associated in major depressive disorder - BMC Psychiatry. 2003 Nov 27 - "Higher vitamin B12 levels significantly associated with a better outcome" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Folate and Depressive Symptoms Are Associated in Middle-Aged Finnish Men -J Nutr. 2003 Oct;133(10):3233-3236 - "The participants were grouped into thirds according to their dietary folate intake. Those in the lowest third of energy-adjusted folate intake had a higher risk of being depressed [odds ratio (OR) 1.67, 95% CI = 1.19-2.35, P = 0.003] than those in the highest folate intake third ... There were no associations between the intake of cobalamin, pyridoxine or riboflavin, and depression. These results indicate that nutrition may have a role in the prevention of depression" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Early response to oral cobalamin therapy in older patients with vitamin B12 deficiency - Ann Med Interne (Paris) 2003 Mar;154(2):91-5 - "Our findings suggest that cyanocobalamin given orally during one week may be an effective treatment for cobalamin deficiency related to food-cobalamin malabsorption and nutritional deficiency and may avoid painful intra-muscular injections in older patients"
  • Oral vitamin B12 can change our practice - Postgrad Med J 2003 Apr;79(930):218-9 - "Forty patients previously maintained on vitamin B12 injections were given 1000 micro g of oral cyanocobalamin daily for up to 18 months. All the patients maintained satisfactory serum B12 levels"
  • Low Vitamin B6 but Not Homocyst(e)ine Is Associated With Increased Risk of Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack in the Era of Folic Acid Grain Fortification - Stroke 2003 May 8 - "Low B6 but not tHcy was strongly associated with cerebrovascular disease in this postfortification, folate-replete sample"
  • Folic acid and reduction of plasma homocysteine concentrations in older adults: a dose-response study - Am. Journ. of Clin. Nutri., 5/03 - "In older adults, daily supplementation with folic acid effectively lowers plasma homocysteine concentrations, and a daily dose of ~ 400 µg is the minimum dose required for adequate homocysteine reduction" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Interrelationship of homocysteine-cobalamin-folate indices in human subjects of various ages: can hyper-homocyteinemia be relieved with B-12 supplementation? - Mo Med 2003 Mar-Apr;100(2):155-8 - "Thirty-nine of the subjects who had hyperhomocysteinemia were daily given 100 mcg B-12 for three months ... B-12 supplementation is effective in alleviating hyperhomocysteinemia"
  • Depression and Folate Status in the US Population - Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 2003;72:80-87 - "Low folate status was found to be most characteristic of recently recovered subjects, and a large proportion of such subjects were folate deficient. Conclusions: Low folate status was detectable in depressed members of the general US population. Folate supplementation may be indicated during the year following a depressive episode"
  • Plasma vitamin C, cholesterol and homocysteine are associated with grey matter volume determined by MRI in non-demented old people - Neurosci Lett 2003 May 8;341(3):173-6 - "We found that lower grey matter volume was associated with lower plasma vitamin C and higher homocysteine, cholesterol and LDL. Lower blood cell folate was also associated with lower grey matter volume ... These data are consistent with the putative benefits of dietary vitamin C and folate intake and the role of cholesterol in age related neurodegeneration"
  • Clinical manifestations of the mouth revealing Vitamin B12 deficiency before the onset of anemia - Ann Dermatol Venereol 2003 Feb;130(2):191-4 - "Vitamin B12 deficiency revealed by stomatodynia, glossitis and erosions in the mouth ... the majority of cases of Vitamin B12 deficiency reported in the literature were only discovered several months or years after their onset, or were treated for other causes. Vitamin B12 deficiency leads to severe neuropathies. The neurological damage is reversible when replacement therapy is initiated early. Since the oral signs appear before the modification in the systemic markers of deficiency, it is crucial that these signs be recognized and diagnosed before the occurrence of severe after effects" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Increased dietary micronutrients decrease serum homocysteine concentrations in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease - Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Nov;70(5):881-7
  • Prolonged treatment with slow release nicotinic acid in patients with type II hyperlipidemia - Pol Arch Med Wewn. 1997 Nov;98(11):391-9
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