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sssHome > Health Conditions > Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's Disease


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  • Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the effects of probiotics in Parkinson's disease - Food Funct 2023 Mar 28 - "Oral probiotic consumption significantly improved motor symptoms, gastrointestinal dysfunction, anxiety, and depression in patients with PD. Notably, oral probiotics also reduced the use of laxatives and increased GSH levels in the serum of patients with PD" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Common Chemical Linked to Parkinson’s Disease - WebMD, 3/21/23 - "The roots of Lindberg’s disease likely lie in a 4-year period when she was exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE), a common chemical that’s found in gun cleaners, cleaning products, and many other commercial products. According to a new paper by an international team of scientists, TCE may be associated with as much as a 500% increased risk for Parkinson’s disease."
  • Zinc Deficiency Exacerbates Behavioral Impediments and Dopaminergic Neuron Degeneration in a Mouse Model of Parkinson Disease - J Nutr 2023 Jan;153(1):167-175 - "Zn deficiency aggravates movement disorders in PD mice. Our results support previous clinical observations and suggest that appropriate Zn supplementation may be beneficial for PD" - See zinc supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Curcumin Regulates Gut Microbiota and Exerts a Neuroprotective Effect in the MPTP Model of Parkinson's Disease - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 Nov 24 - "Curcumin regulates gut microbiota and exerts a neuroprotective effect in the MPTP mice model. This preliminary study demonstrates the therapeutic potential of curcumin for Parkinson's disease, providing clues for microbially targeted therapies for Parkinson's disease" - See curcumin at Amazon.com.
  • Is Copper Culpable in Parkinson's Disease? - Medscape, 7/21/22 - "Substantially more cell biology and in vivo modeling would be needed to further evaluate the connection of copper specifically to synucleinopathy"
  • Melatonin attenuates MPP +-induced apoptosis via heat shock protein in a Parkinson's disease model - Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2022 Jul 1 - "Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an essential role as molecular chaperones to prevent abnormal protein aggregation and misfolding. Moreover, they protect dopamine neurons from oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, all well-known pathomechanisms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Melatonin is a potent antioxidant that has the beneficial ability to prevent neurodegenerative diseases like PD ... Our findings revealed the protective roles of melatonin in an in vitro PD model. Melatonin can hinder the toxic effects of MPP + on dopaminergic neuronal cells via upregulation of the HSF1/HSP70 pathway" - See melatonin at Amazon.com.
  • Myricitrin - a flavonoid isolated from the Indian olive tree ( Elaeocarpus floribundus) - inhibits Monoamine oxidase in the brain and elevates striatal dopamine levels: therapeutic implications against Parkinson's disease - Food Funct 2022 Jun 1 - "Flavonoids exhibit several biological activities including inhibition of Monoamine oxidase (MAO), an enzyme that metabolizes several neurotransmitters. Thus, MAO inhibitors are well included in traditional therapeutic practices to fine-tune neuromotor behavior ... Four flavonoids from Ef leaf extract, namely, myricitrin, mearnsitrin, myricetin, and mearnsetin, are taken into consideration ... In an in vitro setup, all four compounds inhibited total MAO, whereas myricitrin exhibited some selectivity against MAO-B at 100 μM. Myricitrin and mearnsitrin exhibited no toxicity, in vitro or in vivo. However, only myricitrin inhibited MAO in the mouse brain and elevated dopamine levels. Myricitrin was able to attenuate motor incoordination in the mouse model of PD and improved dopamine levels in the striatum" - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Do older adults using statins have lower risk of developing Parkinsonism later? - Science Daily, 3/22/22 - "Out of 936 people taking statins, 418 people, or 45%, developed parkinsonism six years later, compared to 1,014 out of 1,905 people, or 53%, of those who had not been taking statins ... After controlling for age, sex and vascular risks like smoking and diabetes that could affect risk of parkinsonism, researchers found that people who had been taking statins, on average, had 16% lower risk of developing parkinsonism six years later compared to those who had not been taking statins. About 79% of people on statin therapy were taking moderate or high intensity statins. Researchers found that people taking higher intensity statins had a 7% lower risk of developing parkinsonism compared to those on low intensity statins ... those who had been using statins had, on average, 37% lower odds of having atherosclerosis compared to those who had not been using statins" - See red yeast rice at Amazon.com.
  • Dairy a Risk Factor for Parkinson's? - Medscape, 2/9/22 - "The approach uncovered a significant association between rs4988235 and Parkinson's disease, with a 70% increase in disease risk per one serving of dairy per day (odds ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.60; P = .013). Further analysis revealed that this finding was driven by men, who had a 2.5-fold increased risk of Parkinson's disease per one serving per day (OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.37-4.56; P = .003) versus women, among whom there was no significant association (OR, 1.04 ... From a clinical point of view, I suggest to limit dairy intake to a moderate amount"
  • Intake of Flavonoids and Flavonoid-Rich Foods, and Mortality Risk Among Individuals With Parkinson Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study - Neurology 2022 Jan 26 - "Although flavonoids have the potential to exert neuroprotective benefits, evidence of their role in improving survival rates among individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) remains lacking. We aimed to prospectively study the association between pre- and post-diagnosis flavonoid intakes and risk of mortality among individuals with PD identified from two large ongoing cohorts of US men and women ... Among individuals with PD, higher consumption of flavonoids, especially anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols, and flavonoid-rich food such as berries and red wine, was likely to be associated with a lower risk of mortality" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • POTENTIAL PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS BY OLIVE POLYPHENOLS AND HYDROX - Mech Ageing Dev 2022 Feb 2 - "Most chronic illnesses are caused by the biological reaction to an injury, rather than the initial injury or the injurious agent itselves as in neurodegeneration. With respect to this, notable attention is emerging on the therapeutic effects of dietary polyphenols for human health, able to counteract and neutralize oxidative stress and inflammatory processes involved in the etiopathogenesis of major neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. The acquired concept that cellular stress at low doses induces neuroprotective responses against degenerative processes is a frontier area of the neurobiological research focusing on the development of novel preventive and therapeutic interventions for neurodegenerative disorders ... In this paper we discuss the concept of cellular stress response and hormesis and its applications to the field of neuroprotection and the potential therapeutic support provided by olive polyphenols, in particular hydroxytyrosol (HT)-rich aqueous olive pulp extract (Hidrox), as a pivotal activator of Nrf2 pathway and related vitagenes, and inhibitor of Keap1-Nrf2 interaction.Olive polyphenols are considered potential pharmacological modulators of neuroinflammation by upregulation of the Keap1/Nfr2/ARE pathway thus providing a strong rationale for treating neurodegenerative disorders" - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Flavonoids may reduce mortality risk for people with Parkinson’s Disease - Science Daily, 1/26/22 - "Adding a few servings of flavonoid-rich foods to their diets a week could potentially be an easy way for people with PD to help improve their life expectancy ... Greater consumption of berries and red wine, which are rich in the flavonoid anthocyanins, was particularly associated with lower mortality ... the participants in the group of the highest 25 percent of flavonoid consumers had a 70 percent greater chance of survival than the lowest group ... The people in the highest group consumed about 673 milligrams (mg) of flavonoids each day while those in the lowest group consumed about 134 mg ... The researchers also analyzed the effects of individual flavonoids. They found that those in the top 25 percent consumers of anthocyanins -- found in red wine and berries -- had a 66 percent greater survival rate compared to those in the lowest 25 percent. Additionally, the top 25 percent consumers of flavan-3-ols -- found in apples, tea and wine -- had a 69 percent greater survival rate compared to the lowest 25 percent" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Lactobacillus plantarum DP189 Reduces α-SYN Aggravation in MPTP-Induced Parkinson's Disease Mice via Regulating Oxidative Damage, Inflammation, and Gut Microbiota Disorder - J Agric Food Chem 2022 Jan 24 - "Our results suggested that L. plantarum DP189 could delay the neurodegeneration caused by the accumulation of α-SYN in the SN of PD mice via suppressing oxidative stress, repressing proinflammatory response, and modulating gut microbiota" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • XENOHORMESIS UNDERLYES THE ANTI-AGING AND HEALTHY PROPERTIES OF OLIVE POLYPHENOLS - Mech Ageing Dev 2022 Jan 13 - "This hormetic framework is applied to the assessment of olive polyphenols with respect to their capacity to slow the onset and reduce the magnitude of a wide range of age-related disorders and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease. It is proposed that olive polyphenol-induced anti-inflammatory protective effects are mediated in large part via the activation of AMPK and the upregulation of Nrf2 pathway. Consistently, herein we also review the importance of the modulation of Nrf2-related stress responsive vitagenes by olive polyphenols, which at low concentration according to the hormesis theory activates this neuroprotective cascade to preserve brain health and its potential use in the prevention and therapy against aging and age-related cognitive disorders in humans" - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com but it could be the omega-9 or both.
  • Chlorogenic acid delays the progression of Parkinson's disease via autophagy induction in Caenorhabditis elegans - Nutr Neurosci 2021 Dec 19 - "Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a polyphenolic substance derived from various medicinal plants. Although CGA is reported to have potential anti-PD effect, the beneficial effect and the underlying mechanism remain unclear ... The present study indicates that CGA exerts neuroprotective effect in C. elegans via autophagy induction" - See chlorogenic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Urolithin A protects dopaminergic neurons in experimental models of Parkinson's disease by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis through the SIRT1/PGC-1α signaling pathway - Food Funct 2021 Dec 14 - "Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Therapeutic strategies targeting mitochondrial dysfunction hold considerable promise for the treatment of PD. Recent reports have highlighted the protective role of urolithin A (UA), a gut metabolite produced from ellagic acid-containing foods such as pomegranates, berries and walnuts, in several neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease and ischemic stroke ... Our results revealed that UA protected against 6-OHDA cytotoxicity and apoptosis in PC12 cells. Meanwhile, administration of UA to 6-OHDA lesioned mice ameliorated both motor deficits and nigral-striatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity. More important, UA treatment significantly attenuated 6-OHDA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in PC12 cells accompanied by enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that UA exerts neuroprotective effects by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis via SIRT1-PGC-1α signaling pathway. Taken together, these data provide new insights into the novel role of UA in regulating mitochondrial dysfunction and suggest that UA may have potential therapeutic applications for PD" - See urolithin a supplement at Amazon.com.
  • Chlorogenic acid delays the progression of Parkinson's disease via autophagy induction in Caenorhabditis elegans - Nutr Neurosci 2021 Dec 19 - "Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a polyphenolic substance derived from various medicinal plants. Although CGA is reported to have potential anti-PD effect, the beneficial effect and the underlying mechanism remain unclear ... ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA) ... CGA significantly reduced α-synuclein aggregation, improved motor disorders, restored lipid content, and decreased ROS and MDA contents in NL5901 nematodes. Meanwhile, CGA inhibited DA neuron-degeneration and improved food-sensing behavior in 6-OHDA-exposed BZ555 nematodes. In addition, CGA increased the number of GFP::LGG-1 foci in DA2123 nematodes and degraded p62 protein in BC12921 nematodes. Meanwhile, CGA up-regulated the expression of autophagy-related genes in NL5901 nematodes. Moreover, the anti-PD effect of CGA was closely related to autophagy induction via increasing the expression of autophagy-related genes, including unc-51, bec-1, vps-34, and lgg-1" - See chlorogenic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Fruit compound may have potential to prevent and treat Parkinson's disease - Science Daily, 7/29/21 - "the compound farnesol, found naturally in herbs, and berries and other fruits, prevents and reverses brain damage linked to Parkinson's disease in mouse studies ... The compound, used in flavorings and perfume-making, can prevent the loss of neurons that produce dopamine in the brains of mice by deactivating PARIS, a key protein involved in the disease's progression. Loss of such neurons affects movement and cognition, leading to hallmark symptoms of Parkinson's disease such as tremors, muscle rigidity, confusion and dementia ... the mice fed a farnesol-supplemented diet had twice as many healthy dopamine neurons than mice not fed the farnesol-enriched diet. The farnesol-fed mice also had approximately 55% more of the protective protein PGC-1alpha in their brains than the untreated mice"
  • Progresses in both basic research and clinical trials of NAD+ in Parkinson's disease - Mech Ageing Dev 2021 May 11 - "The decline of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels is a hallmark of aging in multiple organisms and tissues, including the human brain. Hence, agents that increase intracellular NAD + could have beneficial effects in aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Disturbances in NAD + metabolism have also been observed in Parkinson's disease (PD), supporting a link between neuronal bioenergetics failure and disease pathogenesis" - See nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamins C and E Linked to Reduced Risk for Parkinson's Disease - Medscape, 1/12/21 - "total antioxidant capacity (also known as NEAC) ... After adjusting the data for potential confounders, the researchers found that the risk for PD was 32% lower among people in the highest tertile of vitamin E intake, compared with those in the lowest tertile. Participants in the highest tertile of vitamin C intake, compared with those in the lowest tertile, also had a 32% lower risk for PD ... Furthermore, participants in the highest tertile of vitamin E and C intake had a 38% lower risk for PD compared with those in the lowest tertile. The researchers found no association, however, between dietary beta-carotene or NEAC and risk for PD" - See American Health Ester-c With Citrus Bioflavonoids 500 Mg, 240 Count and Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Probiotics Promising for Parkinson's Constipation - Medscape, 10/22/20 - "randomized 72 patients (mean age, about 70; about 65% men) to a multi-strain probiotics capsule or placebo for four weeks. Each probiotic capsule contained 10 billion colony forming units of eight different commercially-available bacterial strains: Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. reuteri, L. gasseri, L. rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, B. longum, Enterococcus faecalis, and E. faecium. The placebo group received capsules containing maltodextrin ... spontaneous bowel movements (SBMs) per week ... SBMs increased by a mean of one per week after probiotics treatment, and decreased by 0.3 per week in the placebo group. After correction for multiple comparisons, significant improvements with probiotics were also seen for secondary outcomes, including stool consistency and quality of life related to constipation. A trend for reduced laxative usage was also seen ... Satisfaction was reported by 65.6% of intervention group participants versus 21.6% in the placebo group" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • More Evidence Links Coffee Intake to Reduced Parkinson's Risk - Medscape, 10/14/20 - "levels of caffeine were lower in patients with Parkinson's disease compared to control persons, but this difference was much greater in individuals carrying a mutation in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene ... among individuals with a normal copy of the LRRK2 gene, for those with Parkinson's disease, plasma concentration of caffeine was 31% lower compared with individuals without Parkinson's ... Among people carrying LRRK2 gene mutations, for those who had Parkinson's, plasma concentration of caffeine was 76% lower than among those who did not have Parkinson's ... Carriers of the gene mutation who had Parkinson's also consumed less caffeine in their diet. The gene carriers with Parkinson's consumed 41% less caffeine per day than the people who did not have Parkinson's, both with and without the gene mutation"
  • Metformin Linked to Better Motor Function in Parkinson's - Medscape, 5/29/20 - "A small retrospective study showed that patients with PD and diabetes who took the antihyperglycemic agent performed significantly better on tests of motor and nonmotor function than their counterparts who did not ... compared with the patients not taking metformin, those taking the drug had a significantly better Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) total score (P = .04) and Benton Judgement of Line Orientation score, which assesses visuospatial function ... These patients also did significantly better on certain measures of cognitive impairment, including the Symbol Digit Modalities Test score (P = .03) and the Semantic Fluency total score (P = .003). A higher metformin cumulative dose was associated with the MDS-UPDRS rigidity score." - ReliableRxPharmacy carries metformin.
  • Fisetin Improved Rotenone-Induced Behavioral Deficits, Oxidative Changes, and Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease - J Diet Suppl. 2020 Jan 29 - "Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly the inhibition of mitochondrial complex-I. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of fisetin in the rotenone-induced rat model of PD. Rotenone was administered (2 mg/kg s.c.) for 35 days to induce PD in animals. Fisetin was administered at two doses (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg p.o.) for 25 days to the animals that were given rotenone ... Fisetin treatment improved motor function in the cylinder test and reversed the rotenone-induced changes in mitochondrial enzymes, striatal dopamine levels, antioxidant enzyme levels and histological changes. An important finding of this study was both the doses of fisetin significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced rotenone-induced behavioral and biochemical changes and the effects were found to be dose dependent. Based on the present results, we hypothesize that fisetin may improve the mitochondrial enzyme activity, thereby preventing the pathogenesis of PD" - See fisetin at Amazon.com.
  • Increased use of antibiotics may predispose to Parkinson's disease - Science Daily, 11/22/19 - "The strongest associations were found for broad spectrum antibiotics and those that act against against anaerobic bacteria and fungi. The timing of antibiotic exposure also seemed to matter ... The study suggests that excessive use of certain antibiotics can predispose to Parkinson's disease with a delay of up to 10 to 15 years. This connection may be explained by their disruptive effects on the gut microbial ecosystem" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Where does Parkinson's disease start? In the brain or gut? Or both? - Science Daily, 11/7/19 - "It may be possible to prevent the 'gut-first' type of PD through interventions targeting the gut, such as probiotics, fecal transplants, and anti-inflammatory treatments. However, these strategies might not work with respect to treating and preventing the brain-first type. Thus, a personalized treatment strategy will be required, and we need to be able to identify these subtypes of PD in the individual patient" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Relationship between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, bone density, and Parkinson's disease symptoms - Acta Neurol Scand. 2019 Aug 6 - "In patients with PD, vitamin D levels significantly correlated with falls and some non-motor symptoms. However, no associations were found between BMD and the serum 25(OH)D levels in patients with PD. Thus, vitamin D supplementation is a potential therapeutic for non-motor PD symptoms" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidant precursor molecule could improve Parkinson's - Science Daily, 7/16/19 - "This study is an important step in understanding how N-acetylcysteine might work as a potentially new avenue for managing Parkinson's patients. The NAC appears to enable dopamine neurons to recover some of their function ... Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) ... Compared to controls, the patients receiving NAC had improvements of 4-9% in dopamine transporter binding and also showed improvements in their UPDRS score of about 14%" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Oxyresveratrol exerts ATF4- and Grp78-mediated neuroprotection against endoplasmic reticulum stress in experimental Parkinson's disease - Nutr Neurosci. 2019 May 17:1-16 - "n summary, oxyresveratrol is protective against ER stress induced by two different triggers of PD. Owing to its wide range of defense mechanisms, oxyresveratrol is an ideal candidate for a multifactorial disease like PD"
  • Vitamin B12 is identified as the inhibitor of a key enzyme in hereditary Parkinson's disease - Science Daily, 4/4/19 - "Right now, specific, powerful inhibitors of the kinase activity of LRRK2 do in fact exist. Yet many of them cause undesirable side effects or produce very unclear clinical results ... AdoCbl, one of the active forms of vitamin B12, acts as an inhibitor of the kinase activity of LRRK2 in cultured cells and brain tissue. It also significantly prevents the neurotoxicity of the LRRK2 variants associated with Parkinson's in cultured cells of primary rodents, as well as in various genetically modified models used to study this disease ... So according to the study, vitamin B12 has turned out to be a new class of modulator of the kinase activity of LRRK2, which, as Iban Ubarretxena pointed out, "constitutes a huge step forward because it is a neuroprotective vitamin in animal models and has a mechanism unlike that of currently existing inhibitors. So it could be used as a basis to develop new therapies to combat hereditary Parkinson's associated with pathogenic variants of the LRRK2 enzyme."" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • The involvement of the gut in Parkinson's disease: hype or hope? - Science Daily, 2/7/19 - "The gut has emerged as one of the new frontiers in PD research," commented Patrik Brundin, MD, PhD, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI, USA, and J. William Langston, MD, Stanford Udall Center, Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA, Editors-in-Chief of the Journal of Parkinson's Disease. "We predict there will be several advances regarding the gut in the coming 20 years. Changes in the gut might be utilized to diagnose PD earlier; new therapies targeting these changes might slow disease progression, reduce constipation, and improve gut function in patients who have already been diagnosed."
  • Drinking coffee may reduce your chances of developing Alzheimer's, Parkinson's - Science Daily, 11/5/18 - "The team chose to investigate three different types of coffee -- light roast, dark roast, and decaffeinated dark roast ... The caffeinated and de-caffeinated dark roast both had identical potencies in our initial experimental tests ... Dr. Mancini then identified a group of compounds known as phenylindanes, which emerge as a result of the roasting process for coffee beans. Phenylindanes are unique in that they are the only compound investigated in the study that prevent -- or rather, inhibit -- both beta amyloid and tau, two protein fragments common in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, from clumping ... So phenylindanes are a dual-inhibitor ... As roasting leads to higher quantities of phenylindanes, dark roasted coffee appears to be more protective than light roasted coffee"
  • Calcium may play a role in the development of Parkinson's disease - Science Daily, 2/19/18 - "calcium can mediate the interaction between small membranous structures inside nerve endings, which are important for neuronal signalling in the brain, and alpha-synuclein, the protein associated with Parkinson's disease. Excess levels of either calcium or alpha-synuclein may be what starts the chain reaction that leads to the death of brain cells"
  • Pre-clinical study suggests Parkinson's could start in gut endocrine cells - Science Daily, 6/15/17 - "Recent research on Parkinson's disease has focused on the gut-brain connection, examining patients' gut bacteria, and even how severing the vagus nerve connecting the stomach and brain might protect some people from the debilitating disease ... Rather than using hormones to communicate indirectly with the nervous system, these gut endocrine cells physically connect to nerves, providing a pathway to communicate with the brain ... This suggests they are able to communicate directly with the nervous system and brain" - Note:  It's another reason not to kill your gut bacteria with antibiotics and possible advantages of probiotics if you've taken antibiotics.  See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • People with forms of early-onset Parkinson's disease may benefit from boosting niacin in diet, research suggests - Science Daily, 1/10/17 - "With this extra source of NAD, the flies had far fewer faulty mitochondria than their mutant peers on a regular diet ... The vitamin also prevented the flies from losing neurons ... The results suggest that in familial Parkinson's, available NAD is critical for keeping mitochondria in shape and the disease at bay. Drugs that block NAD-consuming DNA repair already exist to treat cancer. Loading up on niacin probably can't hurt either ... This study strengthens the therapeutic potential for Vitamin B3/niacin-based dietary interventions and PARP inhibition in the treatment of Parkinson's disease" - See Life Extension Vitamin B3 Niacin 500 Mg 100 capsules at Amazon.com.
  • Inosine treatment helps recovery of motor functions after brain injury - Science Daily, 8/3/16 - "Brain injuries were created in the area controlling each monkey's favored hand. Four monkeys received inosine treatment, while four received a placebo ... While both the treated and placebo groups recovered significant function, three out of four of the treated monkeys were able to return to their pre-operative grasping methods. The placebo group developed a compensatory grasping method for retrieving food rewards unlike the original thumb-and-finger method ... Inosine has also been administered in human clinical trials for multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease and has been proven to be safe in doses up 3000 mg/day. Athletes have used inosine as a nutritional supplement for decades, and inosine supplements are widely available commercially" - See inosine at Amazon.com.
  • Quercetin, not caffeine, is a major neuroprotective component in coffee - Neurobiol Aging. 2016 Jul 5;46:113-123 - "Epidemiologic studies indicate that coffee consumption reduces the risk of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease ... quercetin reduced oxidative/nitrative damage to DNA, as well as to the lipids and proteins of SH-SY5Y cells. There was a resultant increase in [GSH]i in SH-SY5Y cells. The data indicate that quercetin is the major neuroprotective component in coffee against Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Metformin Linked to Lower Neurodegenerative Disease Risk - Medscape, 6/11/16 - "The mechanism is unclear, but metformin is known to cross the blood-brain barrier ... The adjusted incidence of developing one or more neurodegenerative diseases per 100 person-years was 2.08 for those who never used metformin, 2.47 for those using metformin less than 1 year, 1.61 for less than 2 years, 1.30 for 2 to 4 years, and 0.49 for 4 or more years ... Compared with no metformin, the hazard ratios for 2 to 4 years of metformin therapy for all neurodegenerative diseases combined was 0.623 and for 4 or more years 0.216 ... The findings were also significant for dementia specifically (0.567 at 2–4 years and 0.252 for 4+ years) and for Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases only beyond 4 years (0.038 and 0.229, respectively)" - See metformin at The Antiaging Store.
  • Associations between B Vitamins and Parkinson's Disease - Nutrients. 2015 Aug 27 - "Available data suggested that higher dietary intake of vitamin B6 was associated with a decreased risk of PD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.65" - Note:  It's hard to find a B6 supplement that isn't overkill yet most multi-vitamins don't contain enough in my opinion.  See Solgar - Vitamin B6, 25 mg, 100 tablets.
  • Diabetes drug may protect against Parkinson's disease: A type of drug used to treat diabetes may reduce the risk of developing Parkinson's disease - Science Daily, 7/21/15 - "diabetes patients taking glitazone antidiabetes drugs (either rosiglitazone or pioglitazone) had a 28% lower incidence of Parkinson's disease than people taking other treatments for diabetes who had never taken glitazones ... Glitazones are a class of drug that activate the peroxisome proliferation-activated gamma (PPARγ) receptor, which is found inside cells in many different body organs. PPARγ activation by glitazones leads to reduced insulin resistance, which has been useful for treating people with diabetes, but the receptor has many other functions that have not been studied as thoroughly in humans"
  • Associations between Vitamin D Status, Supplementation, Outdoor Work and Risk of Parkinson's Disease: A Meta-Analysis Assessment - Nutrients. 2015 Jun 15 - "Pooled data showed that subjects with deficient and insufficient vitamin D levels had increased PD risks compared with matched-controls according to the corresponding OR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.63 to 2.65, and 1.29, 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.51. Vitamin D supplementation was associated with significantly reduced risk of PD (OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.90)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Lutein protects dopaminergic neurons against MPTP-induced apoptotic death and motor dysfunction by ameliorating mitochondrial disruption and oxidative stress - Nutr Neurosci. 2015 Mar 2:NNS398 - "Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis play an important role in various neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) ... In this study, lutein significantly reversed the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons by increasing the striatal dopamine level in mice. Moreover, lutein-ameliorated MPTP induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and motor abnormalities. In addition, lutein repressed the MPTP-induced neuronal damage/apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of pro-apoptotic markers (Bax, caspases-3, 8 and 9) and enhancing anti-apoptotic marker (Bcl-2) expressions" - See lutein at Amazon.com.
  • Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 Dec 26 - "Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson's disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson's disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuron loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ" - See docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Creating pomegranate drug to stem Alzheimer's, Parkinson's - Science Daily, 8/22/14 - "The onset of Alzheimer's disease can be slowed and some of its symptoms curbed by a natural compound that is found in pomegranate. Also, the painful inflammation that accompanies illnesses such as rheumatoid arthritis and Parkinson's disease could be reduced ... punicalagin, which is a polyphenol -- a form of chemical compound -- found in pomegranate fruit, can inhibit inflammation in specialised brain cells known as micrologia. This inflammation leads to the destruction of more and more brain cells, making the condition of Alzheimer's sufferers progressively worse ... we do know that regular intake and regular consumption of pomegranate has a lot of health benefits -- including prevention of neuro-inflammation related to dementia" - See pomegranate extract at Amazon.com.
  • Nicotinamide and neurocognitive function - Nutr Neurosci. 2014 Feb 21 - "A literature review was conducted on the effects of nicotinamide and its derivatives as a preventive and therapeutic agent for disorders of neurocognitive function. Specific conditions examined include age-related cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and ischaemic and traumatic brain injury ... nicotinamide may be beneficial in preserving and enhancing neurocognitive function ... Nicotinamide is non-toxic, inexpensive and widely available, and interventional studies in humans, using supplemental doses of nicotinamide, are now warranted" - See nicotinamide at Amazon.com.  It’s just one more nutrient to add to the arsenal that may have a synergistic effect to delay or help prevent Alzheimer’s or dementia.
    • What Is the Difference Between Niacin & Niacinamide? - LiveStrong.com - "Your body can convert niacin into niacinamide ... Niacin and niacinamide have identical function when used as vitamins ... their pharmacologic properties differ. For example, high doses of niacin can cause skin flushing. Niacinamide, however, does not have the same vasodialating, or blood-vessel widening, effects, that niacin has, so it does not lead to skin flushing" - Note:  You'll find contradictory information on the Internet but niacinamide will not raise HDL and niacin will.  See niacin at Amazon.com.
  • Higher vitamin D levels associated with better cognition, mood in Parkinson's disease patients - Science Daily, 1/16/14 - "higher plasma vitamin D levels were associated with lower symptom severity, better cognition, and less depression in the entire group, but the relationships were even stronger in those who were not demented ... For the entire group, significant negative associations were found between vitamin D levels and disease severity ... Mean vitamin D3 levels were higher in those who were not demented" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Aging risk factors and Parkinson's disease: contrasting roles of common dietary constituents - Neurobiol Aging. 2013 Dec 4 - "There is evidence, which indicates that excessive carbohydrate (glucose or fructose) catabolism is a cause of mitochondrial dysfunction in PD, one consequence is increased production of methylglyoxal (MG). However, other dietary components (carnosine and certain plant extracts) not only scavenge MG but can also influence some of the biochemical events (signal transduction, stress protein synthesis, glycation, and toxin generation) associated with PD pathology. As double blind, placebo-controlled carnosine supplementation studies have revealed beneficial outcomes in humans, it is suggested that MG scavengers such as carnosine be further explored for their therapeutic potential toward PD" - See carnosine products at Amazon.com.
  • Inosine Treatment Safely Elevates Urate Levels in Parkinson's Disease Patients - Science Daily, 1/3/14 - "A clinical trial assessing the potential of the nutritional supplement inosine to treat Parkinson disease has found that the studied dosages successfully raised participants' levels of the antioxidant urate without producing serious side effects ... healthy people with naturally occurring blood levels of urate within the high normal range appear to have a reduced risk of developing Parkinson's and that the disease may progress more slowly in those with higher urate levels" - See inosine at Amazon.com.
  • Curcumin I Mediates Neuroprotective Effect Through Attenuation of Quinoprotein Formation, p-p38 MAPK Expression, and Caspase-3 Activation in 6-Hydroxydopamine Treated SH-SY5Y Cells - Phytother Res. 2013 Jul 16 - "6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) selectively enters dopaminergic neurons and undergoes auto-oxidation resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species and dopamine quinones, subsequently leading to apoptosis. This mechanism mimics the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and has been used to induce experimental Parkinsonism in both in vitro and in vivo systems ... curcumin I (diferuloylmethane) purified from Curcuma longa ... Our results clearly demonstrated that curcumin I protects neurons against oxidative damage, as shown by attenuation of p-p38 expression, caspase-3-activation, and toxic quinoprotein formation, together with the restoration of p-TH levels. This study provides evidence for the therapeutic potential of curcumin I in the chemoprevention of oxidative stress-related neurodegeneration" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol effects on astrocyte function: Relevance to neurodegenerative diseases - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012 Aug 14 - "Inflammatory molecules have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Resveratrol is an anti-fungal compound found in the skins of red grapes and other fruits and nuts. We examined the ability of resveratrol to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of inflammatory molecules from primary mouse astrocytes. Resveratrol inhibited LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO); the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), and IL-6; and the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), which play critical roles in innate immunity, by astrocytes. Resveratrol also suppressed astrocyte production of IL-12p40 and IL-23, which are known to alter the phenotype of T cells involved in adaptive immunity. Finally resveratrol inhibited astrocyte production of C-reactive protein (CRP), which plays a role in a variety of chronic inflammatory disorders. Collectively, these studies suggest that resveratrol may be an effective therapeutic agent in neurodegenerative diseases initiated or maintained by inflammatory processes" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin K2: New hope for Parkinson's patients? - Science Daily, 5/11/12 - "Fruit flies (Drosophila) are frequently used in lab experiments because of their short life spans and breeding cycles, among other things ... When the flies were given vitamin K2, the energy production in their mitochondria was restored and the insects' ability to fly improved. The researchers were also able to determine that the energy production was restored because the vitamin K2 had improved electron transport in the mitochondria. This in turn led to improved energy production ... Vitamin K2 plays a role in the energy production of defective mitochondria. Because defective mitochondria are also found in Parkinson's patients with a PINK1 or Parkin mutation, vitamin K2 potentially offers hope for a new treatment for Parkinson's" - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  • Metformin can substantially reduce the risk of Parkinson's disease in diabetes, study suggests - Science Daily, 4/16/12 - "metformin seems to be working to protect the brain against neurodegeneration which contributes to Parkinsonismin. This means it may also be considered a relevant therapy for the prevention of dementia as well ... A similar benefit would be expected from exercise and diet because that too is a way of establishing healthy energy regulation not only for the whole body, but for tissues and cells in the brain" - See metformin at The Antiaging Store.
  • Habitual intake of dietary flavonoids and risk of Parkinson disease - Neurology. 2012 Apr 10;78(15):1138-45 - "We identified 805 participants (438 men and 367 women) who developed PD during 20-22 years of follow-up. In men, after adjusting for multiple confounders, participants in the highest quintile of total flavonoids had a 40% lower PD risk than those in the lowest quintile (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.60; 95% confidence interval 0.43, 0.83; p trend = 0.001). No significant relationship was observed in women (p trend = 0.62) or in pooled analyses (p trend = 0.23). In the pooled analyses for the subclasses, intakes of anthocyanins and a rich dietary source, berries, were significantly associated with a lower PD risk (HR comparing 2 extreme intake quintiles were 0.76 for anthocyanins and 0.77 for berries, respectively; p trend < 0.02 for both)" - See Jarrow Formulas OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com.
  • Eating flavonoids protects men against Parkinson's disease, study finds - Science Daily, 4/4/12 - "This latest study is the first study in humans to show that flavonoids can protect neurons against diseases of the brain such as Parkinson's ... male participants who ate the most flavonoids were shown to be 40 per cent less likely to develop the disease than those who ate the least. No similar link was found for total flavonoid intake in women ... a sub-class of flavonoids called anthocyanins may have neuroprotective effects ... In this study the main protective effect was from higher intake of anthocyanins, which are present in berries and other fruits and vegetables including aubergines, blackcurrants and blackberries. Those who consumed the most anthocyanins had a 24 per cent reduction in risk of developing Parkinson's disease and strawberries and blueberries were the top two sources in the US diet" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Lithium profoundly prevents brain damage associated with Parkinson's disease, mouse study suggests - Science Daily, 6/24/11 - "lithium has recently been suggested to be neuroprotective in relation to several neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and has been touted for its anti-aging properties in simple animals" - See lithium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D insufficiency high among patients with early Parkinson disease - Science Daily, 3/14/11 - "Vitamin D insufficiency has been associated with a variety of clinical disorders and chronic diseases, including impaired balance, decreased muscle strength, mood and cognitive dysfunction, autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis and diabetes (types 1 and 2), and certain forms of cancer ... Vitamin D insufficiency has been reported to be more common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) than in healthy control subjects, but it is not clear whether having a chronic disease causing reduced mobility contributes to this relatively high prevalence ... At the baseline visit, most study participants (69.4 percent) had vitamin D insufficiency and more than a quarter (26.1 percent) had vitamin D deficiency" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Eating berries may lower risk of Parkinson's - Science Daily - Science Daily, 2/13/11 - "Flavonoids are found in plants and fruits and are also known collectively as vitamin P and citrin. They can also be found in berry fruits, chocolate, and citrus fruits such as grapefruit ... participants were followed for 20 to 22 years ... the top 20 percent who consumed the most flavonoids were about 40 percent less likely to develop Parkinson's disease than the bottom 20 percent of male participants who consumed the least amount of flavonoids. In women, there was no relationship between overall flavonoid consumption and developing Parkinson's disease. However, when sub-classes of flavonoids were examined, regular consumption of anthocyanins, which are mainly obtained from berries, were found to be associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease in both men and women" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com and bilberry at Amazon.com.
  • Blueberries and other purple fruits to ward off Alzheimer's, Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson's - Science Daily, 12/7/10 - "Eating purple fruits such as blueberries and drinking green tea can help ward off diseases including Alzheimer's, Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson's ... the majority of debilitating illnesses are in part caused by poorly-bound iron which causes the production of dangerous toxins that can react with the components of living systems ... These toxins, called hydroxyl radicals, cause degenerative diseases of many kinds in different parts of the body ... In order to protect the body from these dangerous varieties of poorly-bound iron, it is vital to take on nutrients, known as iron chelators, which can bind the iron tightly" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com and green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Protection from Carnosine in the Striatum of MPTP-Treated Mice - J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Oct 6 - "The preintake of carnosine significantly attenuated MPTP-induced glutathione loss, retained the activity of GPX and SOD, diminished oxidative stress, and lowered inflammatory cytokines and nitrite levels as well as suppressed iNOS activity (P < 0.05). MPTP treatment significantly suppressed GPX mRNA expression and enhanced iNOS mRNA expression (P < 0.05). Carnosine preintake significantly elevated GPX mRNA expression and declined iNOS mRNA expression (P < 0.05). Preintake of carnosine also significantly improved MPTP-induced dopamine depletion and maintained 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid levels (P < 0.05). These results suggest that carnosine could provide antioxidative and anti-inflammatory protection for the striatum against the development of Parkinson's disease" - See l-carnosine at Amazon.com.
  • Subclinical Zinc Deficiency in Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease - Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2010 Sep 14 - "Results showed a significantly lower blood zinc in patients with Alzheimer's and patients with Parkinson's than in controls. Urine zinc excretion, normalized to urine creatinine excretion, was not significantly different in either patient group compared to controls. These patients are probably zinc deficient because of nutritional inadequacy" - Note:  Zinc interferes with copper and too much zinc can cause a deficiency of copper.  See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D levels associated with Parkinson's disease risk - Science Daily, 7/12/10 - "Over a 29-year follow-up, through 2007, 50 of the participants developed Parkinson's disease. After adjusting for potentially related factors, including physical activity and body mass index, individuals in the highest quartile (one-fourth of the study population) of serum vitamin D levels had a 67 percent lower risk of developing Parkinson's disease than those in the lowest quartile of vitamin D levels" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Caffeine may slow Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, restore cognitive function, according to new evidence - Science Daily, 5/17/10 - "Key findings ... Multiple beneficial effects of caffeine to normalize brain function and prevent its degeneration ... Caffeine's neuroprotective profile and its ability to reduce amyloid-beta production ... Caffeine as a candidate disease-modifying agent for Alzheimer's disease ... Positive impact of caffeine on cognition and memory performance ... Identification of adenosine A2A receptors as the main target for neuroprotection afforded by caffeine consumption ... Confirmation of data through valuable meta-analyses presented ... Epidemiological studies corroborated by meta-analysis suggesting that caffeine may be protective against Parkinson's disease"
  • Low vitamin B6 may increase Parkinson’s disease risk - Nutra USA, 4/12/10 - "Insufficient levels of vitamin B6 may increase the risk of Parkinson’s disease by about 50 per cent" - [Abstract]
  • Caffeine Exposure and the Risk of Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies - J Alzheimers Dis. 2010 Feb 24 - "When considering only the cohort studies, the RR was 0.80 (95%CI: 0.71-90; I;{2}=8.1%). The negative association was weaker when only women were considered (RR=0.86, 95%CI: 0.73-1.02; I;{2}=12.9%). A linear relation was observed between levels of exposure to caffeine and the RR estimates: RR of 0.76 (95%CI: 0.72-0.80; I;{2}= 35.1%) per 300 mg increase in caffeine intake. This study confirm an inverse association between caffeine intake and the risk of PD, which can hardly by explained by bias or uncontrolled confounding"
  • Ibuprofen May Reduce Risk of Parkinson's - WebMD, 2/17/10 - "the pain reliever was the only one in the popular class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) studied that had any effect on risk of Parkinson's disease ... users of ibuprofen were nearly 40% less likely to develop Parkinson's disease than those who didn't take ibuprofen"
  • Green tea chemical combined with another may hold promise for treatment of brain disorders - Science Daily, 12/3/09 - "Scientists at Boston Biomedical Research Institute (BBRI) and the University of Pennsylvania have found that combining two chemicals, one of which is the green tea component EGCG, can prevent and destroy a variety of protein structures known as amyloids. Amyloids are the primary culprits in fatal brain disorders such as Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and Parkinson's diseases" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Medicinal Plant, St John's Wort, May Reduce Neuronal Degeneration Caused By Parkinson's Disease - Science Daily, 5/11/09 - "suggests that this plant with antidepressant properties has antioxidant active ingredients that could help reduce the neuronal degeneration caused by the disease" - See St. John's wort at Amazon.com.
  • Fish Oil Protects Against Diseases Like Parkinson's - Science Daily, 4/19/09 - "Dr. Nicolas Bazan, Director of the Neuroscience Center of Excellence, Boyd Professor, and Ernest C. and Yvette C. Villere Chair of Retinal Degenerative Diseases Research at LSU Health Sciences Center New Orleans, will present new research findings showing that an omega three fatty acid in the diet protects brain cells by preventing the misfolding of a protein resulting from a gene mutation in neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's and Huntington's ... the omega three fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), protects cells from this defect ... Dr. Bazan's laboratory discovered earlier that neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), a naturally-occurring molecule in the human brain that is derived from DHA also promotes brain cell survival" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • A New Approach to Parkinson's? - Dr. Weil, 3/10/09
  • Parkinson's Disease Linked to Vitamin D Insufficiency - WebMD, 10/13/08 - "Participants provided blood samples, which showed vitamin D insufficiency in 55% of the Parkinson's disease patients, compared to 41% of the Alzheimer's patients and 36% of the healthy participants" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Black tea may slash Parkinson's disease risk - Nutra USA, 2/22/08 - "Drinking at least 23 cups of black tea a month, or about three-quarters of a cup a day, may slash the risk of developing Parkinson's disease by a whopping 71 per cent ... Green tea contains between 30 and 40 per cent of water-extractable polyphenols, while black tea (green tea that has been oxidized by fermentation) contains between 3 and 10 per cent. Oolong tea is semi-fermented tea and is somewhere between green and black tea ... A key difference between black tea and green tea lies in the types and amounts of flavonoids. Green teas contain more of the simple flavonoids called catechins. But when black tea is made, the catechins undergo oxidation resulting in the generation of more complex varieties, called thearubigins and theaflavins" - [Abstract]
  • Differential Effects of Black versus Green Tea on Risk of Parkinson's Disease in the Singapore Chinese Health Study - Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Dec 20 - "Black tea, a caffeine-containing beverage, showed an inverse association with Parkinson's disease risk that was not confounded by total caffeine intake or tobacco smoking (p for trend = 0.0006; adjusted relative risk for the highest vs. lowest tertile of intake = 0.29"
  • Depletion Of One Antioxidant Linked To Parkinson's In Mice - Science Daily, 12/20/07 - "mice suffering from a depletion of the antioxidant glutathione in dopamine-producing neurons developed nerve damage and symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD) in humans"
    • Getting More Glutathione? - Dr. Weil, 8/29/02 - "To my knowledge, the only supplement that effectively raises glutathione levels in the body is N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). My colleague Kathleen Johnson, a dietician here at the Program in Integrative Medicine, tells me that other glutathione supplements are ineffective because they’re digested before they can get into the bloodstream" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Green Tea May Protect Brain Cells Against Parkinson's Disease - Science Daily, 12/13/07 - "green tea polyphenols protect dopamine neurons that increases with the amount consumed. They also show that this protective effect is mediated by inhibition of the ROS-NO pathway, a pathway that may contribute to cell death in Parkinson's" - See Jarrow green tea at iHerb.
  • Vitamin B6 treatment for tardive dyskinesia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study - J Clin Psychiatry. 2007 Nov;68(11):1648-54 - "The mean decrease in ESRS clinical global impression scores from baseline to endpoint was 2.4 points in patients treated with vitamin B(6) and 0.2 points in patients treated with placebo (p < .0001). The mean decrease in the parkinsonism subscale score was 18.5 points and 1.4 points, respectively (p < .00001), and the mean decrease in the dyskinesia subscale score was 5.2 points and -0.8 points, respectively ... Vitamin B(6) appears to be effective in reducing symptoms of TD. The specific mechanisms by which vitamin B(6) attenuates symptoms of TD are not clear"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids vs. Parkinson's? - WebMD, 11/30/07 - "Our results suggest that this DHA deficiency is a risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease, and that we would benefit from evaluating omega-3's potential for preventing this disease in humans" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids Protect Against Parkinson's, Study Says - Science Daily, 11/26/07 - "Omega-3 fatty acids protect the brain against Parkinson's disease ... omega-3 fatty acids--in particular DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), a specific type of omega-3--had replaced the omega-6 fatty acids already present in the brains of the mice that had been given omega-3 supplementation" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Prospective study of dietary pattern and risk of Parkinson disease - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1486-94 - "Dietary patterns with a high intake of fruit, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, nuts, fish, and poultry and a low intake of saturated fat and a moderate intake of alcohol may protect against PD"
  • Over-the-counter Pain Medications May Reduce Risk Of Parkinson's Disease - Science Daily, 11/5/07 - "regular users of non-aspirin NSAIDs reduced their risk of Parkinson's disease by as much as 60 percent compared to non-regular users and non-users. Women who were regular users of aspirin reduced their risk of Parkinson's disease by 40 percent, especially among those who regularly used aspirin for more than two years"
  • Migraine Patients May Benefit From Magnesium or CoQ10 - Clinical Psychiatry News, 8/07 - "Research has found that, for migraine, CoQ10 at 300 mg/day is effective, and that for Parkinson's disease 1,200 mg/day is effective"
  • Exercise May Help Prevent Parkinson's - WebMD, 4/23/07
  • Slowing Parkinson's Symptoms? - Dr. Weil, 3/28/07
  • Low LDL Cholesterol: A Risk For Parkinson's? - Dr. Weil, 3/2/07
  • Vitamin D and Parkinson's disease--a hypothesis - Mov Disord. 2007 Mar 15;22(4):461-8 - "We hypothesize, based upon several lines of evidence, that documented chronically inadequate vitamin D intake in the United States, particularly in the northern states and particularly in the elderly, is a significant factor in the pathogenesis of PD. This hypothesis implies that dietary aid for prevention and therapy for PD is possible" - See Vitamin D products at iHerb.
  • Niacin improved rigidity and bradykinesia in a Parkinson's disease patient but also caused unacceptable nightmares and skin rash--a case report - Nutr Neurosci. 2005 Oct-Dec;8(5-6):327-9
  • Exercise may slow Parkinson's downward spiral - MSNBC, 3/6/06
  • Preliminary Study Shows Creatine and Minocycline May Warrant Further Study in Parkinson's Disease - Doctor's Guide, 2/24/06 - "Both creatine and minocycline appeared to modify the disease features as measured by a decline in the clinical signs of Parkinson's disease"
  • Compounds could slow Parkinson's disease - USA Today, 2/23/06
  • Research shows exercise protects against Parkinson's - USA Today, 1/17/06 - "men who said they jogged, played basketball or did some other sweat-breaking activity at least twice a week as young adults reduced their risk of getting Parkinson's later by 60%"
  • Unsaturated Fats May Fight Parkinson's - WebMD, 7/5/05
  • Intense Physical Activity Cuts Parkinson's Risk - WebMD, 2/24/05
  • Physical Activity Linked To Protection From Parkinson's Disease - Science Daily, 2/24/05
  • Caffeine May Reduce the Risk of Parkinson's Disease in Some Women - Medscape, 11/10/04
  • Natural Prescriptions For Parkinson's Disease - Life Extension Magazine, 6/04
  • Questions and Answers About Parkinson's Disease - Dr. Murray's Natural Facts, 8/27/03
  • Pain Relievers May Prevent Parkinson's - WebMD, 8/18/03
  • Iron, Manganese Linked to Parkinson’s - Physician's Weekly, 8/18/03
  • Iron May Increase Risk of Parkinson's Disease - WebMD, 6/9/03 - "The rate of Parkinson's disease was almost double in those with the highest intake of iron and the trace mineral manganese ... To put it in perspective, a person's lifetime risk of getting Parkinson's disease is about one in 1,000, so doubling that means the risk would be two in 1,000"
  • Coenzyme Q10 for Parkinson's Disease - Clinical Psychiatry News, 5/03
  • Aspirin May Protect Against Parkinson's Disease - Doctor's Guide, 4/4/03 - "Dr. Ross hypothesized that since inflammation is thought to play a role in the neurodegenerative process leading to Parkinson's disease, anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin may help slow the progression of the disease ... The study showed that there were 17.7 cases of Parkinson's per 10,000 person-years in the patients who never took aspirin or were taking it on one occasion, compared with 6.8 cases per 10,000 person-years in the men who were taking aspirin on both assessments ... No conclusion could be drawn regarding the use of other NSAIDs and Parkinson's, he said, because too few of the men reported taking the drugs" - See aspirin at Amazon.com.
  • The First Therapy Shown To Slow Progression of Parkinson's Disease - Life Extension Magazine, 1/03
  • Coenzyme Q10 Appears To Slow Parkinson's Disease Progression - Doctor's Guide, 11/6/02
  • Dietary Intake Of Vitamin E May Reduce Risk Of Parkinson's Disease - Intelihealth, 10/22/02 - maybe the reason supplements didn't work is because most supplements only have the alpha form, which has been shown to lower the gamma.
  • Vitamin E in Foods Prevents Parkinson's Disease - WebMD, 10/21/02 - "Compared with those who ate the fewest servings of vitamin E-filled food, those who ate the most had 32% fewer cases of Parkinson's disease after 12 to 14 years" - Note:  Most vitamin E supplements are in the alpha form, which has been shown to lower the gamma.
  • Study Suggests Coenzyme Q10 Slows Functional Decline In Parkinson's Disease - Doctor's Guide, 10/15/02
  • Coenzyme Q10 May Slow Parkinson's - WebMD, 10/14/02 - "High doses of the popular supplement coenzyme Q10 helps slow the progression of Parkinson's disease in some patients by as much as half ... Their study, published in the Oct. 15 issue of Archives of Neurology, is the latest to examine the possible benefits of coenzyme Q10, a vitamin-like compound naturally produced in the body and used by cells to make energy and protect against cellular damage"
  • Effects of Coenzyme Q10 in Early Parkinson Disease: Evidence of Slowing of the Functional Decline - Arch Neurol. 2002 Oct;59(10):1541-50 - "Less disability developed in subjects assigned to coenzyme Q10 than in those assigned to placebo, and the benefit was greatest in subjects receiving the highest dosage" - See iHerb coenzyme Q10 products.
  • Expert Panel Finds SAMe Promising - WebMD, 10/10/02 - "The L-dopa medication that patients take for Parkinson's makes them unusually SAMe-deficient "because L-dopa consumes vast quantities of SAMe, like a sponge, it mops up all the SAMe in the body." - See iHerb SAMe products.
  • Green Tea Extract Polyphenol May Have A Protective Effect On Parkinson's Disease - Intelihealth, 4/17/02
  • Green Tea Protects Against Parkinson's - WebMD, 4/16/02 - "In a mouse study, the researchers found that polyphenol blocks MPP+ -- a substance that is known to kill brain cells and cause Parkinson's in mice -- from entering these brain cells ... if you want to try it and don't care for the taste of green tea, concentrated polyphenol capsules are available"
  • Vitamin C Powers Up Pills - HealthScout, 2/1/02
  • Can a Cup a Day Keep Parkinson's Away? - WebMD, 7/19/01 - "The more men drink, the lower their risk of Parkinson's; women, however, only see their risk lowered when they drink in moderation -- 1-3 cups per day ... There is some biological experimental evidence that caffeine does protect against [brain cell death]"
  • Parkinson's Defense - Nutrition Science News, 5/01
  • Study Suggests Link Between Coffee Use And Lowered Parkinson's Risk - Doctor's Guide, 11/14/00
  • Java Deters Parkinson's Disease - Nutrition Science News, 10/00
  • Does Coffee's Caffeine Protect Against Parkinson's Disease? - WebMD, 5/22/00
  • Parkinson's Patients Turn to Alternative Therapies - Doctor's Guide, 5/8/00
  • Coping With Parkinson's - Life Extension Magazine, 6/99
  • Is NADH effective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease? - Drugs Aging. 1998 Oct;13(4):263-8

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