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Home > Health Conditions > Schizophrenia


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  • Researchers find link between cannabis use disorder and schizophrenia - NBC7, 5/9/23 - "According to researchers, 30% of schizophrenia cases involving men ages 21-30 could be prevented by averting cannabis use disorder. The researchers say both cannabis use disorder and schizophrenia can be treated but can "profoundly impact people’s lives." ... The researchers added that those with cannabis use disorder cannot stop using cannabis despite the effects it has on their life ... The National Institute of Health says common symptoms of schizophrenia include hallucinations, delusions, thought disorder and movement disorder"
  • Supplement treats schizophrenia in mice, restores healthy 'dance' and structure of neurons - Science Daily, 4/20/21 - "The supplement betaine was first isolated from sugar beets and is often associated with sweetness or umami flavor. Healthy levels of betaine come from both external food sources and internal synthesis in the body. Betaine supplements are already used clinically to treat the metabolic disease homocystinuria ... By protecting CRMP2 from damage, betaine treatment allows kif3b mutant neurons to build proper structures. With a structurally sound skeleton to navigate, the remaining functional KIF3B protein can shuttle cargo around the cell. Other test tube experiments revealed that KIF3B and CRMP2 can bind together, but their exact relationship remains unclear ... We know that the amount of betaine decreases in schizophrenia patients' brains, so this study strongly suggests betaine could be therapeutic for at least some kinds of schizophrenia" - See betaine anhydrous (TMG) at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids during adolescence prevent schizophrenia-related behavioural deficits: Neurophysiological evidences from the prenatal viral infection with PolyI:C - Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 Mar 15 - "The likely involvement of inflammation and oxidative stress (IOS) in mental disease has led to advocate anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory drugs as therapeutic strategies in the treatment of schizophrenia. Since omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3) show anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective properties, we aim to evaluate whether ω-3 treatment during adolescence in the maternal immune stimulation (MIS) animal model of schizophrenia could prevent the brain and behavioural deficits described in adulthood ... prepulse inhibition test (PPI) ... MIS-offspring showed a PPI deficit compared with VH-offspring and ω-3 treatment prevented this deficit. Also, ω-3 reduced the brain metabolism in the deep mesencephalic area and prevented the volumetric abnormalities in the hippocampus but not in the ventricles in MIS-offspring. Besides, ω-3 reduced the expression of iNOS and Keap1 and increased the activity/concentration of HO1, NQO1 and GPX. Our study demonstrates that administration of ω-3 during adolescence prevents PPI behavioural deficits and hippocampal volumetric abnormalities, and partially counteracts IOS deficits via iNOS and Nrf2-ARE pathways in the MIS model" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary supplement may help with schizophrenia - Science Daily, 9/9/19 - "Sarcosine represents a very logical treatment and the small number of clinical trials so far do seem to show that it can be helpful. It certainly seems to be safe and some patients report feeling better on it ... Sarcosine naturally occurs in foods such as egg yolks, turkey and legumes, and can be bought as a dietary supplement, sometimes promoted as a 'brain health supplement', with various claims being made that are not all backed up by adequate evidence ... The only risk identified so far seems to be that some people taking sarcosine to treat schizophrenia who are also on antidepressants may experience hypomania (disinhibition and euphoria)" - See sarcosine at Amazon.com.
  • Boosting amino acid derivative may be a treatment for schizophrenia - Science Daily, 6/26/19 - "Betaine comes from a normal diet but is also synthesized in the body where it contributes to metabolism in various ways, including as an anti-inflammatory agent. Levels of betaine (glycine betaine or trimethylglycine) in the blood plasma of patients with schizophrenia has previously been found to be low, which suggested it is a possible therapeutic target ... In the new study, mice missing the Chdh gene, which is involved in making betaine, showed depressive behaviors and greatly reduced betaine levels in both the brain and blood. Betaine levels in the brain recovered when the it was given to the mice as a supplement in drinking water, demonstrating that betaine can pass through the blood-brain barrier" - See trimethylglycine at Amazon.com.
  • Broccoli sprout compound may restore brain chemistry imbalance linked to schizophrenia - Science Daily, 5/8/19 - "It's possible that future studies could show sulforaphane to be a safe supplement to give people at risk of developing schizophrenia as a way to prevent, delay or blunt the onset of symptoms ... The researchers used MRS again to monitor three brain regions for glutathione levels in the healthy volunteers before and after taking sulforaphane. They found that after seven days, there was about a 30% increase in average glutathione levels in the subjects' brains. For example, in the hippocampus, glutathione levels rose an average of 0.27 millimolar from a baseline of 1.1 millimolar after seven days of taking sulforaphane" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Link between neonatal vitamin D deficiency and schizophrenia confirmed - Science Daily, 12/6/18 - "newborns with vitamin D deficiency had a 44 per cent increased risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia as adults compared to those with normal vitamin D levels" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Low Folate, Vitamin D Implicated in First-Episode Psychosis - Medscape, 12/22/17 - "levels of vitamin C, D, and folate "should be assessed in young people being treated for psychosis, and if deficient, clinicians should recommend dietary improvement or perhaps even supplementation if diet alone cannot resolve the deficits."
  • B vitamins reduce schizophrenia symptoms, study finds - Science Daily, 2/16/17 - "A review of worldwide studies has found that add-on treatment with high-dose b-vitamins -- including B6, B8 and B12 -- can significantly reduce symptoms of schizophrenia more than standard treatments alone ... B-vitamin interventions which used higher dosages or combined several vitamins were consistently effective for reducing psychiatric symptoms, whereas those which used lower doses were ineffective"
  • Omega-3 Treatment Shows Long-term Psychosis Prevention - Medscape, 8/20/15 - "Adolescents and young adults considered to be at high risk for psychosis show significant reductions in progression to psychotic disorder 7 years after a brief, 12-week intervention of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) compared with a group receiving placebo ... the cumulative conversion rate to psychosis was 9.8% in the omega-3 PUFA group, compared with 40% in the placebo group ... The proportion of patients who reported being prescribed antipsychotic medication at the time of long-term follow-up was 29.4% in the omega-3 PUFA group, compared with 54.3% in the placebo group ... Among those in the placebo group, 82.9% met the criteria for at least one DSM-IV Axis I disorder during the long-term follow-up period, compared with 52.9% in the omega-3 PUFA group" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3s May Protect Against Schizophrenia - WebMD, 8/11/15 - "Omega-3 supplements may help keep young people with a high risk of schizophrenia from getting the condition ... 9.8% of the group given omega-3 supplements (4 of 41) developed psychosis, an episode where you lose touch with reality. It's a symptom of different illnesses, including schizophrenia ... 40% of the group given a fake placebo supplement (16 out of 40) developed psychosis ... The group not given omega-3s also developed psychosis more quickly and had a higher overall risk of getting other psychiatric disorders" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D deficiency raises risk of schizophrenia diagnosis - Science Daily, 7/22/14 - "The meta-analysis found that people with schizophrenia had significantly lower levels of vitamin D in the blood compared to the control groups. The average difference in vitamin D levels between schizophrenic patients and control participants was -5.91 ng/ml. People with vitamin D deficiency were 2.16 times more likely to have schizophrenia than those with sufficient vitamin D in their bloodstreams. In addition, 65 percent of the participants who had schizophrenia also were vitamin D deficient" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Linked to Onset of Psychosis - Medscape, 11/1/13 - "A study of almost 140 participants in the United Kingdom showed that those who were presenting to a psychiatric in-patient facility with an FEP had significantly lower levels of vitamin D than did their age-matched, healthy peers ... What surprised us was the degree of difference between the patients and their matched controls, with patients being nearly 3 times as likely to have full-blown vitamin D deficiency ... The study is published in the November issue of Schizophrenia Research"
  • Pyrroloquinoline quinone prevents MK-801-induced stereotypical behavior and cognitive deficits in mice - Behav Brain Res. 2013 Oct 19 - "Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), an essential nutrient, antioxidant, redox modulator, and nerve growth factor, prevents cognitive deficits associated with oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration ... PQQ administration significantly attenuated MK-801-induced increases in stereotypical behavior and ataxia, suggesting a protective role of PQQ against MK-801-induced neuronal dysfunction and psychiatric disorders" - See pyrroloquinoline at iHerb.
  • Amino acid offers potential therapeutic alternative in psychiatric disorders - Science Daily, 10/8/13 - "drug discovery is at a near standstill for treating psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and common forms of autism ... According to Professor Berk, there is now an incontrovertible evidence base that these disorders share inflammation and oxidative stress as part of their disease physiology ... The amino acid, NAC, seems to have multiple effects on all these pathways: it boosts glutathione, which is the body’s major antioxidant defence; has anti-inflammatory properties; enhances levels of nerve cell growth proteins and the growth of new neurons; and reduces cell death pathways. It also appears to reduce dysfunction of mitochondria ... NAC reduces the core symptoms of schizophrenia including negative symptoms such as improved apathy, social interaction and motivation. It also appears to reduce depression in people with bipolar disorder and at this meeting ... there is intriguing evidence that it reduces cravings in a number of addictions including cocaine, cannabis and cigarette smoking" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Metformin for Weight Loss and Metabolic Control in Overweight Outpatients With Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder - Am J Psychiatry. 2013 Jul 12 - "Metformin was titrated up to 1,000 mg twice daily, as tolerated ... Mean change in body weight was -3.0 kg (95% CI=-4.0 to -2.0) for the metformin group and -1.0 kg (95% CI=-2.0 to 0.0) for the placebo group, with a between-group difference of -2.0 kg (95% CI=-3.4 to -0.6). Metformin also demonstrated a significant between-group advantage for BMI (-0.7; 95% CI=-1.1 to -0.2), triglyceride level (-20.2 mg/dL; 95% CI=-39.2 to -1.3), and hemoglobin A1c level (-0.07%; 95% CI=-0.14 to -0.004). Metformin-associated side effects were mostly gastrointestinal and generally transient, and they rarely led to treatment discontinuation" - Note: 3 kg is 6.6 pounds.  See metformin at The Antiaging Store.
  • Oxytocin Makes Schizophrenia Patients More Socially Savvy - Medscape, 4/29/13 - "oxytocin, delivered as an intranasal spray, significantly improved the ability of patients with schizophrenia to tell when people were being sarcastic or lying ... oxytocin significantly improved the ability of the schizophrenia patients to interpret paralinguistic cues and to understand the different mental states" - See Oxy Pro (Oxytocin) Nasal Spray at International Anti-aging Systems.
  • Neuron loss in schizophrenia and depression could be prevented, study suggests - Science Daily, 3/13/13 - "It now appears that parvalbumin neurons are particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress, a factor that may emerge commonly in development, particularly in the context of psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, where compromised mitochondrial function plays a role. Parvalbumin neurons may be protected from this effect by N-acetylcysteine, also known as Mucomyst, a medication commonly prescribed to protect the liver against the toxic effects of acetaminophen (Tylenol) overdose ... This study raises the possibility that GABA neuronal deficits in psychiatric disorder may be preventable using a drug, N-acetylcysteine, which is quite safe to administer to humans" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Folate and vitamin B12 reduce disabling schizophrenia symptoms in some patients - Science Daily, 3/6/13 - "The symptoms of schizophrenia are complex, and antipsychotic medications provide no relief for some of the most disabling parts of the illness. These include negative symptoms, which can be particularly devastating ... Among all 140 participants in the study protocol, those receiving folate and vitamin B12 showed improvement in negative symptoms, but the degree of improvement was not statistically significant compared with the placebo group. But when the analysis accounted for the variants in the genes of interest, intake of the two nutrients did provide significant improvement in negative symptoms, chiefly reflecting the effects of specific variants in MTHFR and in a gene called FOLH1 ... Those with the low-functioning FOLH1 variant started the trial with substantially lower folate levels, suggesting a problem with folate absorption. Although supplementation enabled their blood folate levels to eventually catch up with those of participants with the high-functioning variant, it was probably too late to produce symptom improvement during the 16-week trial period ... For participants who did show a benefit, it took the full 16 weeks of treatment for that benefit to appear"
  • Metformin for Treatment of Antipsychotic-Induced Amenorrhea and Weight Gain in Women With First-Episode Schizophrenia: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study - Am J Psychiatry. 2012 Jun 15 - "A total of 76 patients completed the 6-month trial. Significantly more patients in the metformin group (N=28, 66.7%) than in placebo group (N=2, 4.8%) resumed their menstruation. Among patients treated with metformin, BMI decreased by a mean of 0.93 and the insulin resistance index by 2.04. In contrast, patients who received placebo had a mean increase in BMI of 0.85. The prolactin, LH, and testosterone levels and LH/FSH ratio decreased significantly in the metformin group at months 2, 4, and 6, but these levels did not change in the placebo group ... Metformin was effective in reversing antipsychotic-induced adverse events, including restoration of menstruation, promotion of weight loss, and improvement in insulin resistance in female patients with schizophrenia" - See metformin at The Antiaging Store.
  • Low Vitamin D: A Contributor to Mental Disorders in Children? - Medscape, 6/2/11 - "Children with severe mental health disorders, including psychosis, have twice the rate of vitamin D insufficiency as mentally healthy children ... 21% of children with severe psychiatric symptoms requiring residential care had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels lower than 20 ng/mL (the American Academy of Pediatrics [AAP] minimum recommended level) compared with 14% of children who were participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III), a population-based study designed to assess the health and nutritional status of children and adults in the United States" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • L-lysine may help schizophrenia sufferers cope - Science Daily, 4/17/11 - "patients who received L-lysine alongside their normal medication found some reduction in the severity of their symptoms" - See l-lysine at Amazon.com.
  • N-acetylcysteine in psychiatry: current therapeutic evidence and potential mechanisms of action - J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2010 Nov 1;35(6):100057 - "This review outlines the current literature regarding the use of NAC in disorders including addiction, compulsive and grooming disorders, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. N-acetylcysteine has shown promising results in populations with these disorders, including those in whom treatment efficacy has previously been limited. The therapeutic potential of this acetylated amino acid is beginning to emerge in the field of psychiatric research" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • 'Love Hormone' could help treat severe mental illness - MSNBC, 12.3.10 - "A small study published Oct. 1 in the journal Biological Psychiatry found that patients with schizophreniawho took oxytocin for three weeks along with their regular antipsychotic medication improved in their symptoms and hallucinated less than those who took a placebo with their antipsychotic ... Oxytocin is also being tested in clinical trials as a treatment for depression, borderline personality disorder and alcohol withdrawal ... One hypothesis is that oxytocin dampens the activity of the brain's fear center, the amygdala, thereby easing stress and anxiety ... Because of oxytocin's proposed blunting effects on the amygdala's activity, scientists have also hypothesized it would help those with PTSD ... oxytocin's trust effect could help those with schizophrenia, making them less paranoid ... researchers are investigating oxytocin's potential benefit for a number of other ailments, including headaches, constipation and skin damage" - See oxytocin 6x5iu tablets at International Antiaging Systems.
  • Fish Oil to Fend Off Psychosis: New Evidence - Medscape, 10/28/10 - "the intake of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids was associated with a decreased relative risk for psychotic-like symptoms ... Two of 41 (4.9%) of those receiving the active agent transitioned to psychosis, compared to 11 of 40 (27.5%) in the placebo group, which represented a statistically significant difference. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids also reduced the severity of positive, negative, and general symptoms, and improved functioning compared to the placebo condition ... the concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in red blood cells were negatively correlated with hostility scores (the higher the level of those omega-3 fatty acids, the lower the severity of hostility) ... On the other hand, the concentration of arachidonic acid was positively correlated with hostility scores. This and related studies may have clinical implications in terms of either dietary modifications that could be beneficial to people with schizophrenia, or the use of specific polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements among such patients" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Fish oil may reduce the risk of psychotic disorders in high-risk individuals - Science Daily, 2/1/10 - "For 12 weeks, 41 individuals were assigned to take daily fish oil capsules containing 1.2 grams of omega-three polyunsaturated fatty acids and 40 were assigned to take placebo; a total of 76 (93.8 percent) completed the intervention. By the end of the study, two (4.9 percent) in the omega-3 group and 11 (27.5 percent) in the placebo group had transitioned to psychotic disorder. The difference between progression to psychosis was 22.6 percent ... Polyunsaturated fatty acids also significantly reduced symptoms and improved functioning compared with placebo" - [WebMD] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Long-Chain {omega}-3 Fatty Acids for Indicated Prevention of Psychotic Disorders: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial - Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010 Feb;67(2):146-54 - "The difference between the groups in the cumulative risk of progression to full-threshold psychosis was 22.6% ... Long-chain omega-3 PUFAs reduce the risk of progression to psychotic disorder and may offer a safe and efficacious strategy for indicated prevention in young people with subthreshold psychotic states" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at iHerb.
  • New study links DHA type of omega-3 to better nervous-system function - Science Daily, 12/16/09 - "The omega-3 essential fatty acids commonly found in fatty fish and algae help animals avoid sensory overload ... The finding connects low omega-3s to the information-processing problems found in people with schizophrenia; bipolar, obsessive-compulsive, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders; Huntington's disease; and other afflictions of the nervous system" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Improvement of aggressive behavior and quality of life impairment following S-Adenosyl-Methionine (SAM-e) augmentation in schizophrenia - Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008 Sep 26 - "Eighteen patients with chronic schizophrenia were randomly assigned to receive either SAM-e (800 mg) or placebo for 8 weeks in double-blind fashion. Results indicated some reduction in aggressive behavior and improved quality of life following SAM-e administration. Female patients showed improvement of depressive symptoms" - See SAM-e at Amazon.com.
  • Ginseng May Help Treat Schizophrenia - WebMD, 5/8/08 - "In a small study, patients had fewer negative symptoms -- such as lack of motivation and a severe reduction in emotional expression known as "flat affect" -- when they took Panax ginseng than when they took a placebo ... patients were 50% less likely to have flat affect when taking the higher, 200-milligram dose of ginseng than when taking placebo" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • N-acetyl Cysteine May Aid in Treatment of Schizophrenia - Doctor's Guide, 10/16/07 - "The study showed that NAC improves certain symptoms of schizophrenia, and therefore implicated glutathione deficiency in the pathogenesis" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Do You Need Drugs for a Mental Disorder? - Dr. Weil, 1/8/04
  • Fatty Acids and Antioxidants Useful for Schizophrenia - Healthwell Exchange Daily News, 10/16/03
  • Vitamin B6 add-on therapy in treatment of schizophrenic patients with psychotic symptoms and movement disorders - Harefuah. 2003 Sep;142(8-9):592-6, 647 - "The authors suggest that vitamin B6 may be efficient as the treatment for tardive dyskinesia and parkinsonism induced by neuroleptic agents"
  • Supplementation with a combination of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants (vitamins E and C) improves the outcome of schizophrenia - Schizophr Res. 2003 Aug 1;62(3):195-204 - "We report the supplementation with a mixture of EPA/DHA (180:120 mg) and antioxidants (vitamin E/C, 400 IU:500 mg) orally morning and evening to schizophrenic patients (N=33) for 4 months ... there was significant reduction in psychopathology based on reduction in individual total scores for brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), general psychopathology-PANSS and increase in Henrich's Quality of Life (QOL) Scale" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • DHEA Beneficial for People with Schizophrenia - New Hope Natural Media, 4/24/03
  • Dehydroepiandrosterone Augmentation in the Management of Negative, Depressive, and Anxiety Symptoms in Schizophrenia - Archives of General Psychiatry, 2/03 - "Results indicated significant improvement in negative symptoms (P<.001), as well as in depressive (P<.05) and anxiety (P<.001) symptoms in individuals receiving DHEA. This effect was especially noted in women"
  • Supplementation with Fatty Acids Helps Schizophrenic Patients - New Hope Natural Media, 11/14/02
  • EPA Useful Add-on Therapy in Schizophrenia - Medscape, 9/9/02 - "After 12 weeks of treatment, the EPA group had significantly greater reduction of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total scores and of dyskinesia scores than the placebo group ... We regard these results as remarkable, considering the refractory nature of schizophrenia in the subjects" - See TwinLab Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega 3: Implications in human health and disease - PowerPak (39 page CME course for Registered Dietitians), exp. 8/1/03 - "In 20 schizophrenic patients, a 6-week trial of 10 g of fish oil per day resulted in a 17% improvement in the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), and a 40% improvement in the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS)" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Polyunsaturated Fats and Neurological Disorders - Nutrition Science News, 9/00

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