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Home > Anti-aging Research > Hesperidin


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  • Citrus extracts show energy burning potential, without side effects: Study - Nutra USA, 5/17/11 - "consumption of 100 mg hesperidin, 50 mg p-synephrine (from bitter orange), and 600 mg naringin increased the resting metabolic rate by about 18 percent ... If one assumes that the product was taken twice a day for one year, the theoretical increase in calorie consumption would amount to over 31 pounds ... None of the treatment groups exhibited changes in heart rate or blood pressure relative to the control group, nor there were no differences in self-reported ratings of 10 symptoms between the treatment groups and the control group ... the thermogenic effect of p-synephrine may be increased by naringin and hesperidin via an enhancement in the production of the expression of adiponectin, a hormone released from fat cells, which plays an important role in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and energy" - [Abstract]
  • Orange juice flavanone may benefit heart health: Study - Nutra USA, 12/17/10 - "The researchers reported that blood pressure was significantly lowered after 4 weeks consumption of orange juice or a hesperidin rich drink when compared to a placebo drink" - [Abstract]
  • Daily Glass of Orange Juice Is Heart Smart - WebMD, 7/20/09 - "An antioxidant in orange juice called hesperidin improves blood vessel function and helps lower a person’s risk of heart disease ... An antioxidant in orange juice called hesperidin improves blood vessel function and helps lower a person’s risk of heart disease"
  • Citrus flavanones show neuroprotection potential - Nutra USA, 1/21/08 - "These results first demonstrate that the citrus flavanones hesperidin, hesperetin, and neohesperidin, even at physiological concentrations, have neuroprotective effects against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells ... These dietary antioxidants are potential candidates for use in the intervention for neurodegenerative diseases ... One such disease that is mentioned Alzheimer's disease" - [Abstract]
  • Citrus extracts get cholesterol-lowering boost - Nutra USA, 3/26/07
  • Men's Fitness: Boost your good cholesterol sky-high: want to live longer? Try raising this cholesterol with our 10 strategies - findarticles.com, 2/02 - "In a Canadian study, drinking a few glasses of orange juice every day for four weeks increased participants' HDL by 21 percent, possibly due to a flavonoid called hesperidin that appears extremely HDL-friendly"
  • High Levels of HDL Cholesterol Can Save Your Life - ABC News, 11/3/00 - "So how much HDL is enough? Current guidelines say 35 milligrams per deciliter of blood (mg/dl) is normal, but most cardiologists would prefer you to have an HDL count that’s twice that. “The higher the better,” says Gaziano. “Once you get over 60 mg/dl, it’s a strong positive factor in avoiding heart disease.” ... this will increase your HDL by 21 percent (or 10 to 20 points) within 4 weeks. “We’re not sure, but this effect may be due to a flavonoid in orange juice called hesperidin"
  • Herbal Treatment for Varicose Veins - Nutrition Science News, 7/00


  • Rutin and Hesperidin Alleviate Paclitaxel-Induced Nephrocardiotoxicity in Wistar Rats via Suppressing the Oxidative Stress and Enhancing the Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2023 Feb 22 - "Paclitaxel is a primary chemotherapy agent that displays antitumor activity against a variety of solid tumors. However, the clinical effectiveness of the drug is hampered by its nephrotoxic and cardiotoxic side effects ... In paclitaxel-treated rats, the treatment of rutin and hesperidin decreased the elevated serum levels of creatinine, urea, and uric acid, indicating a recovery of kidney functions. The cardiac dysfunction in paclitaxel-treated rats that got rutin and hesperidin treatment also diminished, as shown by a substantial reduction in elevated CK-MB and LDH activity ... Thus, paclitaxel likely induces toxicity in the kidney and the heart by producing oxidative stress. The treatments likely countered renal and cardiac dysfunction and histopathological changes by suppressing oxidative stress and augmenting the antioxidant defenses. Rutin and hesperidin combination was most efficacious in rescuing renal and cardiac function as well as histological integrity in paclitaxel-administered rats" - See rutin at Amazon.com and hesperidin at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Hesperidin Supplementation on Liver Metabolomics and Gut Microbiota in a High-Fat Diet-Induced NAFLD Mice Model - J Agric Food Chem 2022 Sep 1 - "After 16 weeks of intervention, the mice in the HFD+HES group showed a lower final body weight and liver weight and improved serum lipid profiles when compared with the HFD group. Alleviation of liver dysfunction induced by HFD was observed in HES-fed mice, and the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism was also altered. Moreover, HES changed the composition of the intestinal microbiota and enriched specific genera such as Bacteroidota. Liver metabolomics analysis indicated that HES enhanced the abundance of metabolites in arginine-related as well as mitochondrial oxidation-related pathways, and these metabolites were predicted to be positively correlated with the gut genera enriched by HES. Together, these results indicate that HFD-fed mice supplemented with HES showed a markedly regulated hepatic metabolism concurrent with shifts in specific gut bacteria"
  • Investigation of the effect of hesperidin on some reproductive parameters in testicular toxicity induced by Bisphenol A - Andrologia 2022 Aug 19 - "Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the chemicals that cause dysfunction and infertility in testicles. Therefore, it is crucial to develop effective treatments against this damage. In this study, the effects of Hesperidin (HESP), a flavonoid in testicular toxicity induced by BPA in rats, on oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, histological damage, spermatogenesis, steroidogenic enzymes and reproductive hormones were investigated ... Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the chemicals that cause dysfunction and infertility in testicles. Therefore, it is crucial to develop effective treatments against this damage. In this study, the effects of Hesperidin (HESP), a flavonoid in testicular toxicity induced by BPA in rats, on oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, histological damage, spermatogenesis, steroidogenic enzymes and reproductive hormones were investigated"
  • Hesperetin, a Promising Treatment Option for Diabetes and Related Complications: A Literature Review - J Agric Food Chem 2022 Jul 8 - "The morbidity and mortality of diabetes have increased dramatically in recent decades. Novel strategies for treating diabetes and its complications with minimal side effects are in urgent need. New monomeric molecules extracted from herbal medicine, which is a form of alternative medicine, are being sought as drug candidates for the treatment of diabetes and its complications. Hesperetin (Hst), a citrus flavonoid, is of increasing interest in scientific studies recently due to its properties in combating diabetes and its complications, whereas existing studies are scattered and unsystematic"
  • Neuroprotective Effects of Hesperidin and Naringin in SK-N-AS Cell as an In Vitro Model for Alzheimer's Disease - J Am Nutr Assoc 2022 Jul 1 - "Hesperidin and naringin are flavonoids that are found in citrus fruits. Our aim was to create an in vitro model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of hesperidin and naringin in SK-N-AS and AD model cells ... Hesperidin and naringin can be potentially used as neuroprotective agents. Naringin may be more effective than hesperidin in the accumulation of β-amyloid and tau proteins" - See hesperidin at Amazon.com and naringin at Amazon.com.
  • Hesperidin protects against cisplatin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice by regulating the p62-Keap1-Nrf2 pathway - Food Funct 2022 Mar 24 - "Hesperidin (HES) is an abundant and economical dietary bioflavonoid, and it has several pharmacological properties such as antioxidant activity and powerful cardiac protection ... HES treatment reduced CP-induced cardiac pathologic damage and leakage of the myocardial markers cardiac troponin I (cTnI), creatine kinase (CK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). HES treatment reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), which is an oxidative product, and increased antioxidant marker levels including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH). HES also reduced the CP-induced release of the inflammatory factors tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 ... These findings suggest that HES may be a promising protective agent against CP cardiotoxicity in future anticancer clinical practice"
  • Hesperidin suppresses ERS-induced inflammation in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - Aging (Albany NY) 2022 Feb 10 - "HSP significantly decreased the weight gain, hepatic steatosis but not serum lipid profile and suppressed the serum levels of inflammatory factors in HFD-fed rats. It was revealed by bioinformatics analysis that the inflammatory response and IRE1α activation were enriched signaling pathways in NAFLD. The expression of ERS-related biomarkers, GRP94, ATF6, ATF4, p-PERK and p- IRE1α, was significantly suppressed by HSP in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, the inflammatory markers, including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, were also decreased by HSP in vivo and in vitro. Immunofluorescence staining exposed that the expression of GRP94 and p-PERK was decreased by HSP in vitro"
  • Effect of the consumption of hesperidin in orange juice on the transcriptomic profile of subjects with elevated blood pressure and stage 1 hypertension: A randomized controlled trial (CITRUS study) - Clin Nutr 2021 Dec;40(12) - "Hesperidin exerts cardiovascular beneficial effects, but its mechanisms of action remain undefined. In a previous study we demonstrated that a single dose and a 12-week treatment of hesperidin decreased systolic blood pressure ... OJ (containing 345 mg of hesperidin; n = 15) or EOJ (containing 600 mg of hesperidin; n = 11) ... A single dose consumption of EOJ could protect from insulin resistance. Moreover, EOJ decrease the expression of proinflammatory genes after 12-week treatment providing a possible mechanism of action on inflammation pathway"
  • Hesperidin Inhibits UVB-Induced VEGF Production and Angiogenesis via the Inhibition of PI3K/Akt Pathway in HR-1 Hairless Mice - Biol Pharm Bull 2021;44(10):1492-1498 - "Hesperidin is a citrus flavanone glycoside with potent anti-inflammatory effects that interferes with UVB-stimulated angiogenesis in skin ... We found hesperidin treatment inhibited skin neovascularization skin induced by repetitive UVB light exposure. Exposure to UVB radiation induces the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), and MMP-9, but we found all of these were inhibited by treatment with hesperidin ... Because it affects the mediators of angiogenesis, our data suggest hesperidin has an anti-angiogenic effect on the pathologic skin neovascularization induced by UVB light. Thus, hesperidin may prove useful in the treatment of skin injuries caused by UVB light exposure"
  • 8 weeks of 2S-Hesperidin supplementation improves muscle mass and reduces fat in amateur competitive cyclists: randomized controlled trial - Food & Function, Apr 21 - "A double-blind, parallel and randomized trial, was carried out with 40 amateur cyclists that were divided in two groups, one taking 2S-hesperidin (500 mg d−1, n = 20) and another taking placebo (500 mg d−1 microcellulose, n = 20) for 8 weeks. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and anthropometric measurements were used to assess the effect of both treatments on body composition. In addition, the resting metabolic rate was measured. In comparison to placebo, DXA analysis showed a decrease in percentage body fat (%BF) (−10.4%; p = 0.035) and lower limb fat mass (−10.5%; p = 0.029) in favour of 2S-hesperidin. After evaluation of anthropometric data, a decrease in %BF (−3.7%; p = 0.006), total body fat (−3.0%; p = 0.047), ∑ of 8 skinfolds (−6.1%; p = 0.008) was observed in 2S-hesperidin group, but not in placebo. Additionally, there was an increase in muscle mass percentage (1.0%; p = <0.001) and total muscle mass (1.7%; p = 0.011) after ingestion of 2S-hesperidin, with no changes in placebo. Chronic intake of 2S-hesperidin decreased fat mass in amateur cyclists, evaluated through different body composition measurement methodologies (DXA and anthropometry). In addition, 2S-hesperidin supplementation showed a promoting effect on muscle development" - [Nutra USA]
  • Effect of Hesperidin against Induced Colon Cancer in Rats: Impact of Smad4 and Activin A Signaling Pathway - Nutr Cancer 2021 Apr 5 - "This study demonstrated the chemopreventive effect of Hsd against CRC by modulating Smad4 and activin A signaling in vivo. Further studies are needed to demonstrate its clinical value and explore its possible role in advanced malignancy"
  • Glucosyl Hesperidin Has an Anti-diabetic Effect in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice - Biol Pharm Bull 2021;44(3):422-430 - "Glucosyl hesperidin (GH) is a water-soluble derivative of hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid. GH has various pharmacological effects, such as hypolipidemic and hypouricemic effects, and may therefore be a useful supplement or drug. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of long- and short-term intake of GH on hyperglycemia and macrophage infiltration into the adipose tissue of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Long-term (11-week) consumption of GH tended to reduce body weight and the fasting blood glucose concentration of the HFD-fed mice, and ameliorated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, according to glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Additionally, although GH did not affect fat pad weight, it reduced HFD-induced macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue. Short-term (2-week) consumption of GH did not affect the HFD-induced increases in body weight or fasting blood glucose, and it did not ameliorate glucose intolerance or insulin resistance. However, short-term intake did reduce the HFD-induced macrophage infiltration and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) expression in adipose tissue. Furthermore, hesperetin, which is an aglycone of GH, inhibited MCP-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, 3T3-L1 adipocytes co-cultured with RAW264 macrophages, and tumor necrosis factor-α-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The present findings suggest that daily consumption of GH may have preventive and/or therapeutic effects on obesity-related diseases, such as diabetes mellitus"
  • Effects of 8 Weeks of 2S-Hesperidin Supplementation on Performance in Amateur Cyclists - Nutrients 2020, 12(12) - "2S-Hesperidin is a flavanone (flavonoid) found in high concentrations in citrus fruits. It has an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, improving performance in animals ... A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was carried out between late September and December 2018. Forty amateur cyclists were randomized into two groups: one taking 500 mg/day 2S-hesperidin and the other taking 500 mg/day placebo (microcellulose) for eight weeks ... Supplementation with an orange extract (2S-hesperdin) 500 mg/day improves estimated FTP and maximum power performance in amateur cyclists" - [Nutra USA]
  • Influence of Hesperidin on Systemic Immunity of Rats Following an Intensive Training and Exhausting Exercise Nutrients. 2020 May 1 - "Intensive training and exhausting exercise can disrupt innate and acquired immunity. The flavanone hesperidin has shown immunomodulatory properties in physiological and some pathological conditions, and positive effects on exercise-induced oxidative stress ... female Wistar rats were randomized into an intensive training group or a sedentary group. Intensive training was induced by running in a treadmill 5 days per week (including two exhausting tests) for five weeks. Throughout the training period, 200 mg/kg of hesperidin or vehicle was administered by oral gavage three times per week. At the end, blood, thymus, spleen and macrophages were collected before, immediately after and 24 h after an additional final exhaustion test. Hesperidin supplementation enhanced natural killer cell cytotoxicity and the proportion of phagocytic monocytes, attenuated the secretion of cytokines by stimulated macrophages, prevented the leukocytosis induced by exhaustion and increased the proportion of T helper cells in the thymus, blood and spleen. These results suggest that hesperidin can prevent exhausting exercise-induced immune alterations" - See hesperidin at Amazon.com and hesperidin at iHerb.
  • Acute Effects of Hesperidin in Oxidant/Antioxidant State Markers and Performance in Amateur Cyclists - Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1898 - "significant differences in average power (+2.27%, p = 0.023), maximum speed (+3.23%, p = 0.043) and total energy (∑ 4 sprint test) (+2.64%, p = 0.028) between Cardiose® and placebo were found in the best data of the repeated sprint test ... Our findings showed improvements in anaerobic performance after Cardiose® intake, but not in placebo, suggesting the potential benefits of using Cardiose® in sports with a high anaerobic component" - [Nutra USA]
  • Benefits of Hesperidin for Cutaneous Functions - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019 Apr 2;2019:2676307 - "Hesperidin is a bioflavonoid, with high concentration in citrus fruits. In addition to its well-known benefits for cardiovascular function, type II diabetes, and anti-inflammation, recent studies have demonstrated multiple benefits of hesperidin for cutaneous functions, including wound healing, UV protection, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiskin cancer, and skin lightening. In addition, hesperidin enhances epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis in both normal young and aged skin. The mechanisms by which hesperidin benefits cutaneous functions are attributable to its antioxidant properties, inhibition of MAPK-dependent signaling pathways, and stimulation of epidermal proliferation, differentiation, and lipid production. Because of its low cost, wide availability, and superior safety, hesperidin could prove useful for the management of a variety of cutaneous conditions"
  • Hesperidin Protects Against Intestinal Inflammation By Restoring Intestinal Barrier Function and Up Regulating Treg Cells - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2019 Feb 28 - "Hesperidin supplementation ameliorated DSS-induced colitis. Specifically, hesperidin ameliorates intestine inflammation through decreasing MDA activity and enhancing SOD and GSH activities. Hesperidin also obviously upregulation Nrf2 antioxidant pathway and increased the protein expression of HO-1 and NQO1. Additionally, hesperidin significantly reduced the levels of inflammatory factors and increased the levels of anti-inflammatory factors in the colon tissues. Further analysis showed that hesperidin could improve the expression of tight junction proteins and intestinal permeability, as well as increased the Treg population. In Caco-2 cells, we showed that hesperidin prevented TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced reduced in TEER and morphological disruption. Moreover, hesperidin also was shows decreased the epithelial permeability and suppress proinflammatory responses"
  • The citrus flavanone hesperetin preferentially inhibits slow-inactivating currents of an LQT3 syndrome Na+ channel mutation - Br J Pharmacol. 2019 Jan 16 - "lethal ventricular arrhythmias in the Long QT syndrome subtype 3 (LQT3) ... HSP preferentially inhibits the slow inactivation phase of INa , more markedly in the mutant R1623Q. HSP could be used as a template to develop drugs against lethal cardiac arrhythmias in LQT3"
  • Hesperidin Prevents Nitric Oxide Deficiency-Induced Cardiovascular Remodeling in Rats via Suppressing TGF-β1 and MMPs Protein Expression - Nutrients. 2018 Oct 19;10(10) - "n-nitro l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) ... Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with l-NAME (40 mg/kg), l-NAME plus hesperidin (15 mg/kg), hesperidin (30 mg/kg), or captopril (2.5 mg/kg) for five weeks (n = 8/group). Hesperidin or captopril significantly prevented the development of hypertension in l-NAME rats. l-NAME-induced cardiac remodeling, i.e., increases in wall thickness, cross-sectional area (CSA), and fibrosis in the left ventricular and vascular remodeling, i.e., increases in wall thickness, CSA, vascular smooth muscle cells, and collagen deposition in the aorta were attenuated by hesperidin or captopril. These were associated with reduced oxidative stress markers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), and enhancing plasma nitric oxide metabolite (NOx) in l-NAME treated groups. Furthermore, up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (TNF-R1) and TGF- β1 protein expression and the overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was suppressed in l-NAME rats treated with hesperidin or captopril. These data suggested that hesperidin had cardioprotective effects in l-NAME hypertensive rats"
  • Long-term Treatment with Hesperidin Improves Endothelium-dependent Vasodilation in Femoral Artery of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: The Involvement of NO-synthase and Kv Channels - Phytother Res. 2016 Jul 1 - "Hesperidin is the most common flavonoid found in citrus fruits and is expected to exert vasodilation action relevant to its health benefits ... The results of our experiment indicate that hesperidin might improve the endothelium-dependent vasodilation during hypertension, possibly through the enhancement of Kv channels function" - See hesperidin at Amazon.com.
  • Hesperidin ameliorates cognitive dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis against aluminium chloride induced rat model of Alzheimer's disease - Nutr Neurosci. 2016 Feb 15 - "In our lab, we have previously reported that hesperidin, a citrus bioflavonoid reversed memory loss caused by aluminium intoxication through attenuating acetylcholine esterase activity and the expression of Amyloid β biosynthesis related markers ... Results of the present study demonstrated that hesperidin could be a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of oxidative stress and apoptosis associated neurodegenerative diseases including AD"
  • Effect of Hesperidin with and without a Calcium (Calcilock®) Supplement on Bone Health in Postmenopausal Women - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Jan 11 - "Citrus fruits contain unique flavanones. One of the most abundant of the flavanones, hesperidin, has been shown to prevent bone loss in ovariectomized rats ... Calcium plus hesperidin, but not hesperidin alone, improved bone calcium retention by 5.5%"
  • Hesperidin Supplementation Modulates Inflammatory Responses Following Myocardial Infarction - J Am Coll Nutr. 2015 Mar 11:1-7 - "Hesperidin supplementation could compensate for decreased levels of adiponectin and HDL-C and increased levels of E-selectin in patients with myocardial infarction. These results support the concept that certain flavonoids in the diet can be associated with significant health benefits, including heart health"
  • Hesperidin ameliorates behavioural impairments and neuropathology of transgenic APP/PS1 mice - Behav Brain Res. 2014 Dec 12 - "Our findings suggest that hesperidin might be a potential candidate for the treatment of AD or even other neurodegenerative diseases"
  • Hesperidin protects testicular and spermatological damages induced by cisplatin in rats - Andrologia. 2014 Sep 13 - "this study clearly demonstrated that hesperidin has protective effects on cisplatin-induced reproductive system toxicity depending on its antioxidant properties. Thus, it is thought that hesperidin may be useful against cisplatin toxicity in patients with cancer in terms of reproductive system"
  • Hesperidin and naringin attenuate hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine production in high fat fed/streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats - J Diabetes Complications. 2012 Jul 16 - "Diabetes was induced by feeding rats with an HFD for 2weeks followed by an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (35mg/kg body weight). An oral dose of 50mg/kg hesperidin or naringin was daily given for 4weeks after diabetes induction ... At the end of the experimental period, blood was obtained from jugular vein and livers were rapidly excised and homogenized for biochemical assays. In the diabetic control group, levels of glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c%), MDA, NO, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly increased, while serum insulin, GSH, vitamin C, and vitamin E levels were decreased. Both hesperidin and naringin administration significantly reversed these alterations. Moreover, supplementation with either compound significantly ameliorated serum and liver MDA, NO and glutathione, and liver antioxidant enzymes"
  • Citrus Polyphenol Hesperidin Stimulates Production of Nitric Oxide in Endothelial Cells while Improving Endothelial Function and Reducing Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Feb 23 - "Hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid, and its metabolite hesperetin may have vascular actions relevant to their health benefits ... Treatment of BAEC with hesperetin acutely stimulated phosphorylation of Src, Akt, AMP kinase, and endothelial NO synthase to produce NO; this required generation of H(2)O(2). Increased adhesion of monocytes to BAEC and expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in response to TNF-α treatment was reduced by pretreatment with hesperetin. In the clinical study, when compared with placebo, hesperidin treatment increased flow-mediated dilation (10.26 +/- 1.19 vs. 7.78 +/- 0.76%; P = 0.02) and reduced concentrations of circulating inflammatory biomarkers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A protein, soluble E-selectin). Conclusions: Novel mechanisms for hesperetin action in endothelial cells inform effects of oral hesperidin treatment to improve endothelial dysfunction and reduce circulating markers of inflammation in our exploratory clinical trial. Hesperetin has vasculoprotective actions that may explain beneficial cardiovascular effects of citrus consumption"
  • Hesperidin contributes to the vascular protective effects of orange juice: a randomized crossover study in healthy volunteers - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Nov 10 - "Throughout the three 4-wk periods, volunteers consumed daily 500 mL orange juice, 500 mL control drink plus hesperidin (CDH), or 500 mL control drink plus placebo (CDP) ... Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was significantly lower after 4 wk consumption of orange juice or CDH than after consumption of CDP (P = 0.02), whereas microvascular endothelium-related reactivity was not significantly affected when measured after an overnight fast. However, both orange juice and CDH ingestion significantly improved postprandial microvascular endothelial reactivity compared with CDP (P < 0.05) when measured at the peak of plasma hesperetin concentration"
  • Neuroprotective Effects of the Citrus Flavanones against H2O2-Induced Cytotoxicity in PC12 Cells - J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Jan 12 - "the citrus flavanones hesperidin, hesperetin, and neohesperidin, even at physiological concentrations, have neuroprotective effects against H 2O 2-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. These dietary antioxidants are potential candidates for use in the intervention for neurodegenerative diseases" - See hesperidin at Amazon.com.
  • Hesperidin, a Citrus Flavonoid, Inhibits Bone Loss and Decreases Serum and Hepatic Lipids in Ovariectomized Mice - J. Nutr. 133:1892-1897, June 2003 - "These results suggest a possible role for citrus flavonoids in the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases because of their beneficial effects on bone and lipids"
  • Biological effects of hesperidin, a Citrus flavonoid. (note II): hypolipidemic activity on experimental hypercholesterolemia in rat - Farmaco. 1995 Sep;50(9):595-9 - "Hesperidin, the most important flavanone of Citrus sp., significantly increases HDL"