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  • Taurine deficiency in sperm causes male infertility - Science Daily, 5/11/18 - "The researchers keyed in on one telling clue, an unusual "kink" in the tail of the sperm. Sperm cells in CDO-deficient mice were nearly twice as likely to have a wrongly-angled tail when placed in an environment like that of a uterus. Strikingly, the defect disappeared when the sperm were supplied with extra taurine. These observations led the authors to conclude that, by controlling osmosis, taurine helped to maintain the right shape of sperm during fertilization" - See taurine at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidants and amino acids could play role in the treatment of psychosis - Science Daily, 3/22/18 - "certain nutrient supplements, used alongside standard treatment, may improve mental health in young people with psychosis more than standard treatment alone ... 4 grams of Taurine per day reduced psychotic symptoms within just 12 weeks ... Certain antioxidant supplements, such as n-acetyl cysteine and vitamin C, may also be effective -- particularly for patients with high levels of 'oxidative stress' ... Studies on omega-3 supplements showed that although these appear to improve brain health in young people with psychosis, the evidence for actually reducing psychotic symptoms is conflicting" - See taurine at Amazon.com.
  • Taurine lends hand to repair cells damaged in multiple sclerosis - Science Daily, 12/8/17 - "taurine helps spark a process called remyelination, which is crucial to repairing the nerve cells damaged in multiple sclerosis" - See taurine at Amazon.com.
  • Nutrient found in dark meat of poultry, some seafood, may have cardiovascular benefits - Science Daily, 3/1/12 - "funded by the American Heart Association ... The comparison revealed serum taurine was not protective of CHD overall. However, among women with high cholesterol, those with high levels of serum taurine were 60 percent less likely to develop or die from CHD in the study, compared to women with lower serum taurine levels. If future studies are able to replicate the findings, taurine supplementation or dietary recommendations may one day be considered for women with high cholesterol at risk for CHD"
  • Taurine: Key To The Visual Toxicity Of An Anti-epileptic Drug For Children? - Science Daily, 2/17/09 - "Vigabatrin (Sabril), first intention molecule for the treatment of epilepsy in children, in many cases produces secondary effects that lead to an irreversible loss of vision ... vigabatrin provokes a marked decrease in the blood level in an amino acid, taurine, resulting in a degeneration of the retina cells induced by light. The researchers therefore suggest that exposure to light should be reduced and a taurine-rich diet introduced in order to curb immediately these secondary effects in children undergoing treatment"
  • Topping Off Energy with Taurine? - Dr. Weil, 5/30/03
  • Can Taurine Be A Potent Antioxidant Drug In The Future? - Science Daily, 9/19/08 - "Taurine is a potent antioxidant with hepatoprotective effects. Organelle based changes in hepatocytes after taurine treatment in experimental liver fibrosis were searched systematically and organelle injury scores decreased were found to decrease significantly"
  • Taurine reverses damage done by smoking and protects against heart disease - Life Extension Magazine, 3/03
  • Vitamin C, Fish, And A Gout Drug Target Artery Damage From Smoking - Intelihealth, 1/7/03 - "vitamin C and taurine, an amino acid in fish, reversed abnormal blood vessel response associated with cigarette smoking - a discovery that may provide insight into how smoking contributes to "hardening of the arteries,""
  • Taurine Helps Correct Iron-Deficiency Anemia - New Hope Natural Media, 12/19/02 - "Half of the women were also given taurine (1,000 mg per day), while the others received a placebo ... the group receiving taurine had a significantly greater increase in blood count than did the placebo group. The advantage of taurine over placebo was equivalent to the production of more than three-quarters of a pint of additional blood"


  • Does Single or Combined Caffeine and Taurine Supplementation Improve Athletic and Cognitive Performance without Affecting Fatigue Level in Elite Boxers? A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study - Nutrients 2022 Oct 20 - "co-ingestion of CAF*TAU, improved peak (W/kg), average (W), minimum (W) power, time to reach (s), and RPE performances compared to the PLA group significantly (p < 0.05). Similarly, it was determined that a single dose of TAU, created a significant difference (p < 0.05) in peak power (W/kg), and average and minimum power (W) values compared to the CAF group. According to the balance and agility tests performed after the Wingate test, co-ingestion of CAF*TAU revealed a significant difference (p < 0.05) compared to the PLA group. In terms of cognitive performance, co-ingestion of CAF*TAU significantly improved the neutral reaction time (ms) compared to the TAU, CAF and PLA groups. As a result, elite male boxers performed better in terms of agility, balance and cognitive function when they consumed a combination of 6 mg/kg CAF and 3 g TAU. It has been determined that the combined use of these supplements is more effective than their single use" - See taurine at Amazon.com.
  • Taurine and N-acetylcysteine treatments prevent memory impairment and metabolite profile alterations in the hippocampus of high-fat diet-fed female mice - Nutr Neurosci 2022 Oct 12 - "Obesity constitutes a risk factor for cognitive impairment. In rodent models, long-term exposure to obesogenic diets leads to hippocampal taurine accumulation. Since taurine has putative cyto-protective effects, hippocampal taurine accumulation in obese and diabetic models might constitute a counteracting response to metabolic stress ... We tested the hypothesis that treatment with taurine or with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which provides cysteine for the synthesis of taurine and glutathione, prevent high-fat diet (HFD)-associated hippocampal alterations and memory impairment ... NAC and taurine can prevent memory impairment, while only NAC prevents alterations of metabolite concentrations in HFD-exposed female mice" - See Ttaurine at Amazon.com and n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • The effect of taurine supplementation on delirium post liver transplantation: A randomized controlled trial - Clin Nutr 2022 Aug 7 - "Delirium is a prevalent complication of liver transplantation (LT). It may enhance the risk of morbidity and mortality. Taurine is considered to have antioxidant and neuroprotective activities ... Delirium rate within the first month was 23.08% and was significantly lower in taurine group (9.46%) compared with placebo (35.36%, P = 0.012). Length of ITU stay was significantly higher among delirious patients (P = 0.015) in this analysis ... Conclusion: we reached to the result that taurine can prevent post-LT delirium, dramatically" - See taurine at Amazon.com.
  • Taurine promotes estrogen synthesis by regulating microRNA-7a2 in mice ovarian granulosa cells - Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2022 Aug 6 - "These results suggest that taurine promotes E2 synthesis through p38/miR-7a/Glg1/Cyp19a1 signaling pathway, which is crucial to understand the function and mechanism of taurine on estrogen synthesis"
  • Taurine Alleviates Trimethylamine N-Oxide-Induced Atherosclerosis by Regulating Bile Acid Metabolism in ApoE -/- Mice - J Agric Food Chem 2022 Apr 29 - "Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) widely exists in seafood and is associated with the atherosclerosis progress, but dietary seafood reduced the cardiovascular risk. This intimates that there may be some ingredients in seafood to offset the cardiovascular risk caused by TMAO. Taurine is a marker ingredient in seafood ... These results indicate that taurine alleviated TMAO-induced atherosclerosis via regulating bile acid metabolism"
  • Taurine ameliorates cytotoxic effects of Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on Leydig cells - Andrologia 2021 Jun 24 - "It has been revealed that di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) has toxic impacts on the male reproductive system. Taurine (TAU) is an amino acid with antioxidant property and beneficial impacts on the male reproductive system ... DEHP could significantly decrease the cell viability percentage, reduce testosterone level, increase apoptosis, elevate Bax/ Bcl-2 ratio and enhance caspase-3 and -9 activity in the TM3 cells. Additionally, DEHP significantly elevated malondialdehyde contents and reactive oxygen species levels. It also augmented superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in the Leydig cells. Co-treatment of DEHP with TAU increased viability and testosterone level, while oxidative stress and apoptosis significantly reduced. TAU could decrease Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 and -9 activity in the DEHP-intoxicated cells. Our results have clearly shown that TAU protects TM3 cells against oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by DEHP"
  • The effects of Taurine supplementation on inflammatory markers and clinical outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury: a double-blind randomized controlled trial - Nutr J 2021 Jun 8 - "Traumatic brain injury is a public health concern and is the main cause of death among various types of trauma. The inflammatory conditions due to TBI are associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes. Taurine has been reported to have immune-modulatory effects ... According to the results of the present study, taurine supplementation can reduce the IL-6 levels as one of the important inflammatory markers in these patients; and enhances the clinical outcomes too" - See taurine at Amazon.com.
  • Taurine supplementation associated with exercise increases mitochondrial activity and fatty acid oxidation gene expression in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of obese women - Clin Nutr 2020 Oct 5 - "A randomized and double-blind trial was developed with 24 obese women (BMI 33.1 ± 2.9 kg/m2, 32.9 ± 6.3 y) randomized into three groups: Taurine supplementation group (Tau, n = 8); Exercise group (Ex, n = 8); Taurine supplementation + exercise group (TauEx, n = 8). The intervention was composed of 3 g of taurine or placebo supplementation and exercise training for eight weeks ... Taurine supplementation associated with exercise improved lipid metabolism through the modulation of genes related to mitochondrial activity and fatty acid oxidation, suggesting a browning effect in the scWAT of obese women"
  • The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Taurine on Cardiovascular Disease - Nutrients 2020 Sep 17 - "Taurine exerts anti-inflammatory effects that improve diabetes and has shown benefits to the cardiovascular system, possibly by inhibition of the renin angiotensin system"
  • Taurine treatment of retinal degeneration and cardiomyopathy in a consanguineous family with SLC6A6 taurine transporter deficiency - Hum Mol Genet. 2019 Dec 31 - "In a consanguineous Pakistani family with two affected individuals, a homozygous variant Gly399Val in the eighth transmembrane domain of the taurine transporter SLC6A6 was identified resulting in a hypomorph transporting capacity of ~15% compared with normal. Three-dimensional modeling of this variant has indicated that it likely causes displacement of the Tyr138 (TM3) side chain, important for transport of taurine. The affected individuals presented with rapidly progressive childhood retinal degeneration, cardiomyopathy and almost undetectable plasma taurine levels. Oral taurine supplementation of 100 mg/kg/day resulted in maintenance of normal blood taurine levels. Following approval by the ethics committee, a long-term supplementation treatment was introduced. Remarkably, after 24-months, the cardiomyopathy was corrected in both affected siblings, and in the 6-years-old, the retinal degeneration was arrested, and the vision was clinically improved. Similar therapeutic approaches could be employed in Mendelian phenotypes caused by the dysfunction of the hundreds of other molecular transporters" - [Nutra USA]
  • Taurine: A Regulator of Cellular Redox-Homeostasis and Skeletal Muscle Function - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018 Sep 13 - "Taurine affects mitochondrial bioenergetics and taurine deficient mice exhibit an impaired exercise performance. Moreover, some studies demonstrate that taurine enhances the glycogen repletion in the post-exercise recovery phase. In the case of taurine deficiency, many studies observed a phenotype known in muscle senescence and skeletal muscle disorders. Overall, taurine plays an important role in cellular redox homeostasis and skeletal muscle function"
  • Adjunctive nutrients in first-episode psychosis: A systematic review of efficacy, tolerability and neurobiological mechanisms - Early Interv Psychiatry. 2018 Mar 21 - ""first-episode psychosis" (FEP) ... Eleven studies with a total of 451 patients with FEP (from 8 independent randomized controlled trials) were eligible for inclusion. Six studies examined omega-3 fatty acids, with inconsistent effects on psychiatric symptoms. However, mechanistic studies found significant improvements in hippocampal neuronal health and brain glutathione. Antioxidants "n-acetyl cysteine" (n = 1) and vitamin C (n = 2) also improved oxidative status in FEP, which was associated with reduced psychiatric symptoms. No benefits were found for vitamin E (n = 1). Finally, one study trialling the amino acid taurine, showed significant improvements in positive symptoms and psychosocial functioning" - [Nutra USA] - See n-acetyl cysteine, vitamin C and taurine at Amazon.com.
  • Taurine and magnesium supplementation enhances the function of endothelial progenitor cells through antioxidation in healthy men and spontaneously hypertensive rats - Hypertens Res. 2016 Jul 14 - "Endothelial damage is repaired by endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which are pivotal in preventing cardiovascular diseases and prolonging lifespan ... Taurine and Mg supplementation increased EPC colony formation in healthy men and improved impaired EPC function in SHRs through antioxidation, indicating that the dietary intake of taurine and Mg may prolong lifespan by preventing the progression of cardiovascular diseases" - See Magtein at Amazon.com and taurine at Amazon.com.
  • The role of taurine in improving neural stem cells proliferation and differentiation - Nutr Neurosci. 2016 Feb 23 - "Taurine plays an important role in brain development, including neuronal proliferation, stem cell proliferation, and differentiation, via several mechanisms. Taurine can be directly used in clinical applications to improve brain development because it has no toxic effects on humans"
  • Taurine Supplementation Lowers Blood Pressure and Improves Vascular Function in Prehypertension: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study - Hypertension. 2016 Jan 18 - "We randomly assigned 120 eligible prehypertensive individuals to receive either taurine supplementation (1.6 g per day) or a placebo for 12 weeks. Taurine supplementation significantly decreased the clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BPs, especially in those with high-normal BP. Mean clinic systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 7.2/2.6 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 4.7/1.3 mm Hg. Mean ambulatory systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 3.8/0.3 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 3.5/0.6 mm Hg. In addition, taurine supplementation significantly improved endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation and increased plasma H2S and taurine concentrations"
  • Increasing taurine intake and taurine synthesis improves skeletal muscle function in the mdx mouse model for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy - J Physiol. 2015 Dec 12 - "Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease for which there is no widely available cure ... Increasing the taurine content of mdx muscle improved both in vivo and ex vivo muscle strength and function, potentially via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of taurine ... These data support continued research into the use of taurine as a therapeutic intervention for DMD, and suggest that increasing dietary taurine is the better strategy for increasing taurine content and decreasing severity of dystropathology"
  • The role of taurine in the pathogenesis of obesity - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2015 Mar 19 - "Ingestion of taurine has been shown to alleviate metabolic diseases such as hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension, and obesity in animal models. A global epidemiological survey showed that 24-h urinary taurine excretion, as a marker of dietary taurine intake, was inversely associated with body mass index, blood pressure, and plasma cholesterol in humans"
  • Antidepressant dose of taurine increases mRNA expression of GABAA receptor α2 subunit and BDNF in the hippocampus of diabetic rats - Behav Brain Res. 2015 Jan 19 - "Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder associated with higher risk for depression. Diabetic rats present depressive-like behaviors and taurine, one of the most abundant free amino acids in the brain, reverses this depressive behaviors ... Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that diabetic rats presented lower α2 GABAA subunit and BDNF mRNA expression than non-diabetic rats and taurine increased both parameters in these sick rats. Taurine also reversed the lower brain weight and improved the short-term memory in diabetic rats. Thus, the taurine antidepressant effect may be explained by interference with the GABA system, in line to its neuroprotective effect showed here by preventing brain weight loss and improving memory in diabetic rats"
  • Taurine attenuates amyloid β 1-42-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by activating of SIRT1 in SK-N-SH cells - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 Apr 12 - "Amyloid β (Aβ) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) ... Taurine, a naturally occurring β-amino acid in the brain, has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective properties ... Our results suggest that taurine prevents Aβ1-42-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by activation of SIRT1. This study implies that taurine is a prospective additive for AD patients"
  • Taurine improves obesity-induced inflammatory responses and modulates the unbalanced phenotype of adipose tissue macrophages - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013 Aug 12 - "It is increasingly accepted that chronic inflammation is a feature of obesity. Obesity-induced inflammation triggers enhanced recruitment of macrophages into the adipose tissue. Depending on their phenotype, macrophages can be designated either as pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages or anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages ... Our findings indicate that taurine treatment attenuates the infiltration of adipose tissue by macrophages and modulates the phenotype of macrophages, which suggest that taurine is a valuable food constituent with a potential to attenuate chronic inflammation in adipose tissue and improve obesity-related insulin resistance"
  • Taurine supplementation restored the changes in pancreatic islet mitochondria in the fetal protein-malnourished rat - Br J Nutr. 2011 May 31:1-9 - "Intra-uterine growth retardation has been linked to the development of type 2 diabetes in later life. Mitochondrial changes have been suggested as a link between fetal malnutrition and adult insulin resistance. Taurine has been implicated in this process ... Male offspring of rats fed a control diet, a low-protein diet or a low-protein diet supplemented with taurine during pregnancy and lactation were weaned onto the control diet. In each group, at 20 weeks of age, intravenous glucose tolerance tests, euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp studies, morphometric analysis of the pancreatic islets and ultra-structural analysis of the mitochondria of the β-cells were performed. The expressions of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) I and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II were also measured. Fetal protein-malnourished rats showed decreased pancreatic islet mass and reduced insulin-secretory responses to a glucose load. These rats also showed reduced mitochondrial DNA-encoded COX I gene expression in the islets. Electron microscopic examination showed abnormal mitochondrial shapes in the β-cells of fetal protein-malnourished rats. Taurine supplementation to the low-protein diet restored all these changes. Our findings indicate that a maternal protein-restriction diet causes long-lasting mitochondrial changes that may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes later in life. The lack of taurine may be a key causative factor for these dysfunctional mitochondrial changes"
  • Protective effect of taurine on diabetic rat endothelial dysfunction - Biomed Res. 2011;32(3):187-93 - "Although taurine treatment failed to decrease serum glucose levels, the increased serum malondialdehyde levels in diabetic rats were significantly decreased after taurine treatment. Norepinephrine-induced hyper-contractility as well as acetylcholine-induced, endothelium-dependent hypo-relaxation in diabetes were significantly prevented after taurine treatment. The differences in the expressions of muscarinic M(3) receptor mRNAs were statistically non-significant between groups. Moreover, diabetes-induced up-regulation of eNOS mRNAs was slightly prevented after taurine treatment. These data suggest that taurine acts beneficially against the diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction. Its potential action as a radical scavenger ameliorates the vascular disorders in diabetes"
  • Taurine Prevents Hypertension and Increases Exercise Capacity in Rats With Fructose-Induced Hypertension - Am J Hypertens. 2011 Feb 3 - "Five groups of 15 Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated and designated as control, high fructose-fed (fructose), high fructose-fed plus exercise (FE), high fructose-fed plus 2% taurine supplement (FT) and high fructose-fed plus 2% taurine supplement and exercise (FET) groups ... Noninvasive SBP differed significantly (P < 0.001) from week 3, both noninvasive and invasive ABP increased significantly (P < 0.001), and exercise capacity significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in the fructose group compared with the control group. The individual effects of swimming and taurine supplementation were incapable of preventing the development of hypertension and SBP significantly (P < 0.001) increased in the FE and FT groups; exercise capacity in those groups remained similar to control. The combined effects of exercise and taurine alleviated hypertension and significantly increased exercise capacity in the FET group. Insulin resistance increased significantly and plasma nitric oxide (NO) decreased significantly in the F, FE, and FT groups. Both parameters remained similar to control values in the FET group with an increasing antioxidant activity. Conclusion Taurine supplementation in combination with exercise prevents hypertension and increases exercise capacity by possibly antioxidation and maintaining NO concentrations"
  • Preventive Effects of Taurine on Development of Hepatic Steatosis Induced by a High-Fat/Cholesterol Dietary Habit - J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Dec 2 - "Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is also called hepatic steatosis and has become an emergent liver disease in developed and developing nations ... taurine (Tau) ... Tau shows preventive effects on the development of hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat/cholesterol dietary habit"
  • Taurine prevents free fatty acid-induced hepatic insulin resistance in association with inhibiting JNK1 activation and improving insulin signaling in vivo - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010 Sep 18 - "intralipid plus heparin (IH) ... Taurine co-infusion with IH prevented the rise in 8-isoprostaglandin and MDA, inhibited the activation of JNK1, and improved insulin signaling and insulin resistance in liver. The present study has demonstrated that taurine, as an antioxidant, prevented hepatic oxidative stress and ameliorated hepatic insulin resistance. And this effect may be associated with the inhibition of JNK1 activation and the improvement of insulin signaling. This study suggests the therapeutic value of taurine in protecting from hepatic insulin resistance caused by elevated FFAs"
  • Beneficial Effects of Taurine on Cardiac Abnormality in NZB/W F1 Mice Fed with a High-Cholesterol Diet J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Aug 14 - "Improved cardiac histopathological changes were observed in left ventricle tissues from the cholesterol/taurine group as compared to the control or cholesterol group. Significant reductions of TUNEL-positive cells, Fas death receptor-related components, mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis, cardiac fibrosis, and fibrotic signaling components were detected in the left ventricle tissues from the cholesterol/taurine group as compared to the control or cholesterol group. Additionally, cardiac IGR1R survival signaling components were significantly increased in the left ventricle tissues from the cholesterol/taurine group as compared to the control or cholesterol group. These findings revealed the protective effects of taurine against the cardiac abnormalities in NZB/W F1 mice and may suggest the potential for clinical application of taurine in treatment of CVD in SLE" - See taurine at Amazon.com.
  • Taurine reduces the secretion of apolipoprotein B100 and lipids in HepG2 cells - Lipids Health Dis. 2008 Oct 17;7(1):38 - "Higher concentrations of serum lipids and apolipoprotein B100 (apoB) are major individual risk factors of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease ... The results demonstrated that an addition of taurine to the culture media reduces triacylglycerol (TG)-mass in the cells and the medium. Similarly, cellular cholesterol-mass was decreased. Taurine inhibited the incorporation of [14C] oleate into cellular and medium TG, suggesting the inhibition of TG synthesis. In addition, taurine reduced the synthesis of cellular cholesterol ester and its secretion, suggesting the inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase activity. Furthermore, taurine reduced the secretion of apoB, which is a major protein component of very low-density lipoprotein ... This is a first report to demonstrate that taurine inhibits the secretion of apoB from HepG2 cells"