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Home > Health Conditions > Sarcopenia


Sarcopenia - Wikipedia - "Sarcopenia (from the Greek meaning "poverty of flesh") is the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass (0.5-1% loss per year after the age of 25), quality, and strength associated with aging. Sarcopenia is a component of the frailty syndrome. It can be differentiated from cachexia in that cachexia includes malaise and is secondary to an underlying pathosis (such as cancer), whereas sarcopenia may occur in healthy people and does not necessarily include malaise"

Alternative News:

  • Astaxanthin supplementation assists sorafenib in slowing skeletal muscle atrophy in H22 tumsor-bearing mice via reversing abnormal glucose metabolism - Mol Nutr Food Res 2023 May 13 - "Cachexia, which is often marked by skeletal muscular atrophy, is one of the leading causes of death in cancer patients. Astaxanthin, a carotenoid obtained from marine organisms that can aid in the prevention and treatment of a variety of disorders ... Our findings show the significant potential of Astaxanthin as nutritional supplements for cancer patients, as well as the notion that nutritional interventions should be implemented at the initiation of cancer treatment, as instead of waiting until cachexia sets in"-- See astaxanthin at Amazon.com.
  • Ginkgolide B facilitates muscle regeneration via rejuvenating osteocalcin-mediated bone-to-muscle modulation in aged mice - J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2023 Apr 19 - "The progressive deterioration of tissue-tissue crosstalk with aging causes a striking impairment of tissue homeostasis and functionality, particularly in the musculoskeletal system. Rejuvenation of the systemic and local milieu via interventions such as heterochronic parabiosis and exercise has been reported to improve musculoskeletal homeostasis in aged organisms. We have shown that Ginkgolide B (GB), a small molecule from Ginkgo biloba, improves bone homeostasis in aged mice by restoring local and systemic communication, implying a potential for maintaining skeletal muscle homeostasis and enhancing regeneration ... GB treatment restored the bone-to-muscle endocrine axis to reverse aging-related declines in muscle regeneration and thus represents an innovative and practicable approach to managing muscle injuries. Our results revealed the critical and novel role of osteocalcin-GPRC6A-mediated bone-to-muscle communication in muscle regeneration, which provides a promising therapeutic avenue in functional muscle regeneration" - See Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.
  • Higher intake of dietary flavonols, specifically dietary quercetin, is associated with lower odds of frailty onset over 12-years of follow-up among adults in the Framingham Heart Study - Am J Clin Nutr 2023 Apr 13 - "Mean age was 58.4 years (SD ± 8.3, n=1,701; 55.5% women). Mean total flavonoid intake was 309 mg/day (SD ± 266). After 12.4 (SD ± 0.8) years, 224 (13.2%) individuals developed frailty. While total flavonoid intake was not statistically associated with frailty onset [adjusted OR-1.00; 95%CI: 0.99-1.01], each 10 mg/day of flavonols intake was linked with 20% lower odds of frailty onset [OR-0.80; 95%CI: 0.67-0.96]. Other subclasses showed no association (p-values range: 0.12-0.99), but every 10 mg/day of quercetin intake was associated with 35% lower odds of frailty onset [OR-0.65; 95%CI: 0.48-0.88]" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Can Lead to Major Muscle Loss - Medscape, 2/9/23 - "Vitamin D plays an important role in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus absorption and helps keep the brain and immune system working ... Endocrine disorders such as vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency can lead to loss of bone mineral density as well as a reduction in muscle mass, strength, and function ... Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of developing an age-associated loss of muscle strength called dynapenia, which is a major risk factor for physical incapacity later in life ... Vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk of dynapenia in older people by 78%." - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Caloric restriction delays age-related muscle atrophy by inhibiting 11β-HSD1 to promote the differentiation of muscle stem cells - Front Med (Lausanne) 2023 Jan 5 - "Calorie restriction (CR) is an important direction for the delay of sarcopenia in elderly individuals. However, the specific mechanisms of CR against aging are still unclear ... Together, our findings highlight promising sarcopenia protection with 40% CR in older ages. Furthermore, we speculated that targeting an 11β-HSD1-dependent metabolic pathway may represent a novel strategy for developing therapeutics against age-related muscle atrophy"
  • Linolenic acid ameliorates sarcopenia in C. elegans by promoting mitophagy and fighting oxidative stress - Food Funct 2023 Jan 18 - "Sarcopenia is a syndrome of age-related loss of muscle mass and strength that seriously affects human health, and there are currently no effective drugs to treat the disease. Linolenic acid as a common n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) is known to have many beneficial functions. Some studies have found that n-3 PUFA might have the potential to improve sarcopenia. In this study, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) was used as a model animal to investigate the effects of linolenic acid on C. elegans muscles. The results showed that 50 μg mL-1 linolenic acid significantly improved sarcopenia by repairing mitochondrial function by promoting mitophagy and fighting oxidative stress (p < 0.05). This included the increase of the expression of the mitophagy gene pink-1 and DAF-16/FOXO transcription factors, respectively, by linolenic acid. This study could provide some evidence for the application of n-3 PUFA in improving sarcopenia" - See linolenic acid at Amazon.com.
  • De-Training Effects Following Leucine-Enriched Whey Protein Supplementation and Resistance Training in Older Adults with Sarcopenia: A Randomized Controlled Trial with 24 Weeks of Follow-Up - J Nutr Health Aging 2022;26(11):994-1002 - "The study included older adults aged ≥ 65 years who were screened for sarcopenia at the Care Center from, a community in Hyogo, Japan. The participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: whey protein supplementation after resistance training (RT + PRO; n = 27), resistance training only (RT; n = 27), and whey protein supplementation only (PRO; n = 27) ... We demonstrated that combined intervention of RT and PRO showed long-term maintenance in treating sarcopenia than RT only at 24 weeks after de-training. Therefore, PRO intake after RT may be useful in the treatment of sarcopenia in older adults" - See leucine products at Amazon.com and whey protein at Amazon.com.
  • Impact of probiotics on muscle mass, muscle strength and lean mass: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2022 Nov 22 - "Probiotics have shown potential to counteract sarcopenia, although the extent to which they can influence domains of sarcopenia such as muscle mass and strength in humans is unclear ... Probiotic supplementation enhances both muscle mass and global muscle strength; however, no beneficial effects were observed in total lean mass. Investigating the physiological mechanisms underpinning different ageing groups and elucidating appropriate probiotic strains for optimal gains in muscle mass and strength are warranted" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Advanced glycation end products in skeletal muscle health and sarcopenia: a systematic review of observational studies - Mech Ageing Dev. 2022 Nov 8 - "Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and AGEs receptor (RAGE) may play a role in sarcopenia. This systematic review evaluated the associations between AGEs measured in tissues (skin) by autofluorescence (SAF) and/or circulation (blood, urine) and muscle health outcomes (strength, mass, function) and sarcopenia in observational studies ... Circulating AGEs were negatively associated with muscle strength and physical functioning (four studies) and predicted the risk of walking disability (one prospective study), and sarcopenia (one study) in older adults. The role of RAGE in muscle health was inconclusive ... SAF and circulating AGEs were negatively associated with muscle-related outcomes in adults aged ≥30 years in cross-sectional studies. This finding should be confirmed in well-designed prospective studies investigating sarcopenia, as AGEs represent a potentially modifiable target for intervention" - Note: AGEs were big in the early 90s. It just seems like people join the latest anti-aging bandwagon and forget about the old ones. AGE inhibitors like alt-711, deprenyl, anti-oxidants, AKG, NMN, rapamycin, senescent cells, telomeres, etc. just off the top of my head. There are a lot more areas. Too many look for that one single bullet. Lot of the current anti-aging gurus seem to be guilty of that.
  • Small-Scale Randomized Controlled Trial to Explore the Impact of β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate Plus Vitamin D3 on Skeletal Muscle Health in Middle Aged Women - Nutrients 2022 Nov 4 - "β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), a leucine metabolite, can increase skeletal muscle size and function ... intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) volume ... HMB + D decreased IMAT independent of exercise status and may prevent the loss or increase muscle size in a small cohort of sedentary middle-aged women" - See HMB at Amazon.com and vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Emerging Evidence on the Use of Probiotics and Prebiotics to Improve the Gut Microbiota of Older Adults with Frailty Syndrome: A Narrative Review - J Nutr Health Aging 2022 - "The gut microbiota can impact older adults' health, especially in patients with frailty syndrome. Understanding the association between the gut microbiota and frailty syndrome will help to explain the etiology of age-related diseases. Low-grade systemic inflammation is a factor leading to geriatric disorders, which is known as "inflammaging". Intestinal dysbiosis has a direct relationship with low-grade systemic inflammation because when the natural gut barrier is altered by age or other factors, some microorganisms or their metabolites can cross this barrier and reach the systemic circulation ... The gut microbiota participates in many metabolic processes that have an impact on the brain, muscles, and other organs. These processes integrate feedback mechanisms, comprising their respective axis with the intestine and the gut microbiota. Alterations in these associations can lead to frailty. We report a few interventions that demonstrate that prebiotics and probiotics could modulate the gut microbiota in humans" - See prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com and probiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Influence of vitamin D on sarcopenia pathophysiology: A longitudinal study in humans and basic research in knockout mice - J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2022 Oct 13 - "Vitamin D deficiency affects muscle strength and may contribute to the onset of sarcopenia" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Coffee consumption and skeletal muscle mass: WASEDA'S Health Study - Br J Nutr 2022 Sep 29 - "Compared with the lowest coffee consumption group (<1 cup/week), the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of low muscle mass prevalence were 0.62 (0.30, 1.29) for 1-3 cups/week, 0.53 (0.29, 0.96) for 4-6 cups/week or 1 cup/day, and 0.28 (0.15, 0.53) for ≥2 cups/day (P for trend <0.001). There were no significant interactions among the various covariates after Bonferroni correction. In conclusion, coffee consumption may be inversely associated with low muscle mass prevalence."
  • Ginsenoside Rd ameliorates muscle wasting by suppressing the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway - J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2022 Sep 20 - "GRd ameliorates aging- and cancer-induced muscle wasting. Our findings suggest that GRd may be a novel therapeutic agent or adjuvant for reversing muscle wasting" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Leucine intake and risk of impaired physical function and frailty in older adults - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2022 Sep 15 - "Leucine is suggested to play a central role in age-related physical decline, but the effect of dietary leucine intake on physical functioning is uncertain. We examined the prospective association between dietary leucine intake and impaired lower-extremity function (ILEF) and frailty in older adults ... Higher leucine intake was associated with reduced risk of ILEF and frailty. Dietary leucine, obtained from foods rich in high-quality protein, could be a key nutrient to prevent age-related physical function decline in older adults" - See leucine products at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidant-rich foods, antioxidant supplements, and sarcopenia in old-young adults ≥55 years old: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies and randomized controlled trials - Clin Nutr 2022 Aug 17 - "antioxidant-rich foods (A-RF) ... A-RF or antioxidant supplementation could be effective tools for sarcopenia, especially improving muscle strength and function. The best interventions according to the meta-analysis of the RCTs were supplementation of vitamin E in combination with vitamin D and protein, magnesium, tea catechins, and increasing fruit and vegetable consumption"
  • New Horizons in the Treatment of Age-Associated Obesity, Sarcopenia and Osteoporosis - Drugs Aging 2022 Jul 4 - "The rapid increase in both the lifespan and proportion of older adults in developed countries is accompanied by the dramatic growth of age-associated chronic diseases, including obesity, sarcopenia, and osteoporosis. Hence, prevention and treatment of age-associated chronic diseases has become increasingly urgent. The key to achieving this goal is a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying their pathophysiology, some aspects of which, despite extensive investigation, are still not fully understood. Aging, obesity, sarcopenia, and osteoporosis are characterized by the creation of a systemic, chronic, low-grade inflammation (SCLGI). The common mechanisms that govern the development of these chronic conditions include a failed resolution of inflammation. Physiologically, the process of inflammation resolution is provided mainly by specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) acting via cognate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Noteworthy, SPM levels and the expression of their receptors are significantly reduced in aging and the associated chronic disorders. In preclinical studies, supplementation of SPMs or their stable, small-molecule SPM mimetics and receptor agonists reveals clear beneficial effects in inflammation-related obesity and sarcopenic and osteoporotic conditions, suggesting a translational potential. Age-associated chronic disorders are also characterized by gut dysbiosis and the accumulation of senescent cells in the adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and bones. Based on these findings, we propose SCLGI resolution as a novel strategy for the prevention/treatment of age-associated obesity, sarcopenia, and osteoporosis. Our approach entails the enhancement of inflammation resolution by SPM mimetics and receptor agonists in concert with probiotics/prebiotics and compounds that eliminate senescent cells and their pro-inflammatory activity" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • n-3 PUFA dietary lipid replacement normalizes muscle mitochondrial function and oxidative stress through enhanced tissue mitophagy and protects from muscle wasting in experimental kidney disease - Metabolism 2022 Jun 21 - "Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction may cause tissue oxidative stress and consequent catabolism in chronic kidney disease (CKD), contributing to patient mortality. We investigated in 5/6-nephrectomized (Nx) rats the impact of n3-polyunsaturated fatty-acids (n3-PUFA) isocaloric partial dietary replacement on gastrocnemius muscle (Gm) mitochondrial master-regulators, ATP production, ROS generation and related muscle-catabolic derangements ... dietary n3-PUFA normalize mitochondrial master-regulators, ATP production and dynamics in experimental CKD. These effects occur directly in muscle cells and they normalize ROS production through enhanced mitophagy. Dietary n3-PUFA mitochondrial effects result in normalized catabolic derangements and protection from muscle wasting, with potential positive impact on patient survival" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of whey and soy protein supplementation on inflammatory cytokines in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis - Br J Nutr 2022 Jun 16 - "These data support that whey and soy protein supplementation elicit anti-inflammatory effects by reducing circulating IL-6 and TNF-a levels, respectively. This effect may be enhanced by soy isoflavones and may be more prominent in individuals with sarcopenia" - See whey protein at Amazon.com and Soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.
  • SGLT2 Inhibition via Empagliflozin Improves Endothelial Function and Reduces Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress: Insights From Frail Hypertensive and Diabetic Patients - Hypertension 2022 Jun 15 - "Frailty is a multidimensional condition often diagnosed in older adults with hypertension and diabetes, and both these conditions are associated with endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress ... Taken together, our data indicate that empagliflozin reduces frailty in diabetic and hypertensive patients, most likely by decreasing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in endothelial cells" - See empagliflozin inhousepharmacy.vu.
  • Resveratrol ameliorates muscle atrophy in chronic kidney disease via the axis of SIRT1/FoxO1 - Phytother Res 2022 May 23 - "Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often associated with muscle atrophy ... Here, we treated 5/6-nephrectomized (5/6Nx) rats with resveratrol and found that this treatment greatly improves renal function as evidenced by reduced proteinuria and cystatin C. Moreover, resveratrol ameliorates renal fibrosis by reducing transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Meanwhile, muscle atrophy in these 5/6Nx rats was largely attenuated by resveratrol. Immunoprecipitation revealed that SIRT1 physically interacts with FoxO1 in muscle, and this interaction was weakened in 5/6Nx rats. As a consequence, acetylated FoxO1 was increased in muscle of 5/6Nx rats. The application of resveratrol markedly reverses this trend. These data point out that SIRT1 is a key factor for linking renal disease and muscle atrophy. Indeed, both renal dysfunction and muscle atrophy were further aggravated by 5/6Nx in Sirt1+/- mice. Taken together, our data indicate that SIRT1 plays a pivotal role in muscle atrophy in CKD, and FoxO1 might be a substrate of SIRT1 in this process. Furthermore, resveratrol, together with other agonists of SIRT1, may hold great therapeutic potentials for treating CKD and its related muscle atrophy" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Quercetin attenuates adipogenesis and fibrosis in human skeletal muscle - Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2022 May 14 - "Quercetin suppressed the differentiation of muscle-derived PDGFRα+/CD201+ cells to adipocytes and fibroblasts at concentrations achievable by dietary and dietary supplement intake, which indicated its preventive or therapeutic effect against the loss of muscle quality" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Adherence to the Mediterranean-style diet and high intake of total carotenoids reduces the odds of frailty over 11 years in older adults: Results from the Framingham Offspring Study - Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 12 - "Our findings suggest that adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet and higher total carotenoid intake is associated with frailty prevention over time, particularly in adults <60y" - See mixed carotenoids at Amazon.com.
  • Essential Amino Acid and Tea Catechin Supplementation after Resistance Exercise Improves Skeletal Muscle Mass in Older Adults with Sarcopenia: An Open-Label, Pilot, Randomized Controlled Trial - J Am Nutr Assoc 2022 Feb 23 - "Tea catechins (TCCs) have gained significant attention owing to their health effects. However, evidence is limited regarding the benefit of TCC and essential amino acids (EAAs) ingestion plus that of TCC ingestion after resistance exercise (RE) among older individuals with sarcopenia. We aimed to evaluate whether a 24-week nutritional program involving EAA and TCC supplementation after RE improved skeletal muscle mass (SMM) among older adults with sarcopenia ... A 24-week resistance exercise program was carried out twice weekly, with an intake of 3,000 mg and 540 mg of EAA and TCC supplements, respectively ... These results suggest that supplementation with EAA and TCC after RE, compared to RE only, improves SMM in older people with sarcopenia" - See tea catechins at Amazon.com and essential amino acids at Amazon.com.
  • The effect of krill oil supplementation on skeletal muscle function and size in older adults: A randomised controlled trial - Clin Nutr 2022 Apr 20 - "randomised to either control or krill oil supplements (4g/day) for 6 months in this double blind randomised controlled trial ... Six months supplementation with krill oil resulted in, an increase in knee extensor maximal torque, grip strength and vastus lateralis muscle thickness, relative to control ... Increases in erythrocyte fatty acid profile were seen with krill oil for EPA 214% (95%CI: 166, 262%), DHA 36% (95%CI: 24, 48%) and the omega-3 index 61% (95%CI: 49, 73%), relative to control ... Krill oil supplementation for 6 months results in statistically and clinically significant increases in muscle function and size in healthy older adults" - See krill Oil products at Amazon.com.
  • Identification of Coenzyme Q10 and Skeletal Muscle Protein Biomarkers as Potential Factors to Assist in the Diagnosis of Sarcopenia - Antioxidants (Basel) 2022 Apr 6 - "The aim of this study was to explore the use of coenzyme Q10 and skeletal muscle protein biomarkers in the diagnosis of sarcopenia ... Approximately half of the subjects suffered from a low coenzyme Q10 concentration (&lt;0.5 μM). The levels of creatinine kinase and irisin were significantly lower in subjects with sarcopenia (p ≤ 0.05). In receiver operating characteristic analyses, irisin and creatine kinase showed a better prediction capability for sarcopenia (area under the curve, irisin: 0.64 vs. creatinine kinase: 0.61) than other biomarkers. Additionally, a low level of irisin (&lt;118.0 ng/mL, odds ratio, 6.46, p &lt; 0.01), creatine kinase (&lt;69.5 U/L, odds ratio, 3.31, p = 0.04), or coenzyme Q10 (&lt;0.67 μM, odds ratio, 9.79, p &lt; 0.01) may increase the risk for sarcopenia even after adjusting for confounders. Since the levels of coenzyme Q10 and muscle biomarkers, such as irisin and creatine kinase, are associated with sarcopenia, we suggest they could be used as candidate markers to assist in the diagnosis of sarcopenia" - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com.
  • Multiple treatments to slow age-related muscle wasting - Science Daily, 4/20/22 - "Researchers led by Professor Markus Rüegg at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel have demonstrated in mice that both calorie restriction and the drug rapamycin have a positive effect on aging skeletal muscle" - See siromus at ReliableRXPharmacy.
  • Changes in dietary total and non-haem iron intake is associated with incident frailty in older men: The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2022 Mar 30 - "Maintaining or increases in dietary total iron, and increases or changes in dietary non-haem iron intakes over three years were associated with reduced incidence of FP frailty in older me" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation on muscle mass, function, and other outcomes in patients with cancer: a systematic review - J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2022 Mar 17 - "Low muscle mass is prevalent among patients with cancer and a predictor of adverse clinical outcomes. To counteract muscle loss, β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation has been proposed as a potential therapy for older adults and various diseases states ... Studies prescribed HMB combined with amino acids (73.3%), HMB in oral nutritional supplements (20.0%), or both supplement types (6.7%); Ca-HMB doses of 3.0 g/day were provided in 80.0% of the studies. Four studies had high risk of bias across all outcome domains. Considering the higher-quality studies, evidence of a beneficial effect of HMB supplementation was found in four of four studies for muscle mass, two of two for muscle function, three of three for hospitalization, and five of seven for survival. In contrast, no beneficial effects of HMB on quality of life or body weight was found in two of four and three of five studies, respectively. A limited number of higher-quality studies evaluating the impact of HMB on cancer therapy-related toxicity, inflammation, and tumour response were observed. No serious adverse effects directly related to the nutrition intervention were reported. Although limited, current evidence suggests that HMB supplementation has a beneficial effect on muscle mass and function in patients with cancer" - See HMB at Amazon.com.
  • Impact of high-intensity interval training with or without l-citrulline on physical performance, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue in obese older adults - J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2022 Mar 7 - "Aging is associated with a progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength as well as an increase in adiposity. These changes may have devastating impact on the quality of life of older adults ... High-intensity interval training is effective in improving functional capacities, lean mass, muscle power, and waist circumference in obese older adults. HIIT also increases markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial fusion, and mitophagy. Importantly, adding CIT to HIIT results in a greater increase in muscle strength and a significant decrease in fat mass. The present study therefore positions HIIT combined with CIT as an effective intervention to improve the health status of obese older adults" - See l-citrulline at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol Blunts Mitochondrial Loss in Slow and Mixed Skeletal Muscle Phenotypes of Non-Human Primates following a Long-Term High Fat/Sugar Diet - J Diet Suppl 2022 Mar 1 - "Mitochondrial biogenesis and destruction in skeletal muscle are coordinated by distinct signaling pathways that are influenced by internal and exogenous variables including, but not limited to, muscle phenotype, physical activity, dietary composition, or drug administration. Previously we found that long-term resveratrol administration (up to 480 mg/day) ameliorates the slow-to-fast phenotypic shift in soleus muscles and promotes the expression in slow myosin heavy chain in the mixed plantaris muscle of non-human primates consuming a high fat/sugar (HFS) diet ... Taken together, resveratrol appears to blunt mitochondrial losses with a high fat/sugar diet by tempering mito/autophagy rather than promoting mitochondrial biogenesis, suggesting that the quantity of daily resveratrol supplement ingested and/or its long-term consumption are important considerations" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Adequate Protein Intake on Comprehensive Frailty in Older Adults: Kyoto-Kameoka Study - J Nutr Health Aging 2022 - "actual body weight (BW) ... The association between protein intake and comprehensive frailty was also evaluated using curve fitting with non-linear regression, a weak U-shaped association was found in males and an L-shaped association in females. Men had a low prevalence of frailty at a calibrated protein intake of 15-17% energy from protein, 1.2 g/kg actual BW/day, or 1.4 g/kg ideal BW/day, and women had a low prevalence of frailty at 17-21% energy from protein or 1.6 g/kg ideal BW/day, with the prevalence of frailty remaining unchanged at higher protein intakes. Meanwhile, the inverse relationship between protein intake per ABW and frailty showed a gradual decrease at 1.4 g/kg ABW/day for protein in women"
  • Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and the risk of low muscle mass in young and middle-aged Korean adults - Eur J Endocrinol 2022 Feb 1 - "Maintaining sufficient serum 25(OH)D could prevent unfavourable changes in muscle mass in both young and middle-aged Korean adults" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Protective effects of chlorogenic acid on capillary regression caused by disuse muscle atrophy - Biomed Res 2021;42(6):257-264 - "Inactivity causes muscle atrophy and capillary regression in skeletal muscle. Chlorogenic acid has an antioxidant capacity and may prevent capillary regression ... In conclusion, chlorogenic acid supplementation may qualify as an effective treatment to reduce capillary regression in skeletal muscle caused by disuse muscle atrophy" - See chlorogenic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Probiotic supplementation attenuates age-related sarcopenia via the gut-muscle axis in SAMP8 mice - J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Nov 11 - "Lactobacillus casei Shirota represents an active modulator that regulates the onset and progression of age-related muscle impairment potentially via the gut-muscle axis" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Protein intake and muscle mass maintenance in patients with cancer types with high prevalence of sarcopenia: a systematic review - Support Care Cancer 2021 Oct 25 - "Cancer is associated with muscle wasting. However, optimal protein intake has not been determined, limiting the efficacy of nutritional interventions ... Our findings show that protein intakes below 1.2 g/kg, even when within the recommendations, have been associated with muscle wasting during treatment. Only intakes above 1.4 g/kg have been associated with muscle maintenance. High-quality research is needed to establish an optimal dose response"
  • Metformin induces muscle atrophy by transcriptional regulation of myostatin via HDAC6 and FoxO3a - J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Nov 2 - "Our results demonstrate that metformin treatment impairs muscle function through the regulation of myostatin in skeletal muscle cells via AMPK-FoxO3a-HDAC6 axis. The muscle-wasting effect of metformin is more evident in WT than in db/db mice, indicating that more complicated mechanisms may be involved in metformin-mediated muscular dysfunction"
  • The cost effectiveness of personalized dietary advice to increase protein intake in older adults with lower habitual protein intake: a randomized controlled trial - Eur J Nutr 2021 Oct 5;1-16 - "Dietary advice to increase protein intake to ≥ 1.2 g/kg aBW/d improved 400-m walk time and leg strength among older adults with a lower habitual protein intake. From a societal perspective, PROT was considered cost-effective compared to CON" - [Nutra USA]
  • Daily Leucine Intake Is Positively Associated with Lower Limb Skeletal Muscle Mass and Strength in the Elderly - Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3536 - "Higher daily protein intake, with an emphasis on leucine content, is thought to mitigate age-related anabolic resistance, potentially counteracting age-related morphological and functional declines ... total daily leucine intake is associated with muscle mass and strength in healthy older individuals and this association remains after controlling for multiple factors, including overall protein intake. Furthermore, our breakpoint analysis revealed non-linearities and a potential threshold for habitual leucine intake, which may help guide future research on the effects of chronic leucine intake in age-related muscle loss" - [Nutra USA] - See leucine products at Amazon.com and leucine at iHerb.
  • Understanding the gut microbiota and sarcopenia: a systematic review - J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Sep 14 - "Altering the gut microbiota through bacteria depletion, faecal transplantation, and various supplements was shown to directly affect muscle phenotypes. Probiotics, prebiotics, SCFAs, and bacterial products are potential novel therapies to enhance muscle mass and physical performance. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains restored age-related muscle loss. Potential mechanisms of microbiome modulating muscle mainly include protein, energy, lipid, and glucose metabolism, inflammation level, neuromuscular junction, and mitochondrial function. The role of the gut microbiota in the development of muscle loss during aging is a crucial area that requires further studies for translation to patients" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Leucine-enriched whey protein supplementation, resistance-based exercise, and cardiometabolic health in older adults: a randomized controlled trial - J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Sep 14 - "Increasing protein intake (above the Recommended Dietary Amount) alone or with resistance-based exercise is suggested to improve cardiometabolic health ... Sixteen weeks of leucine-enriched whey protein supplementation alone and combined with resistance-based exercise improved cardiometabolic health markers in older adults" - See leucine products at Amazon.com and leucine at iHerb and whey protein at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Vitamin D/VDR signaling attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy by suppressing renin-angiotensin system - J Bone Miner Res 2021 Sep 7 - "renin-angiotensin system (RAS) ... Taken together, VDR protects against skeletal muscle atrophy by suppressing RAS. Vitamin D could be a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of skeletal muscle atrophy" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • The Relationship between Sarcopenia and Vitamin D Levels in Adults of Different Ethnicities: Findings from the West China Health and Aging Trend Study - J Nutr Health Aging 2021;25(7):909-913 - "Sarcopenia is a condition associated with progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and function resulting in substantial negative health outcomes and disability in older adults ... Among middle-aged and older adults of multiple ethnicities in western China, we found that inadequate vitamin D was an independent predictor of sarcopenia risk specifically in males" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Metformin and leucine increase satellite cells and collagen remo - FASEB J 2021 Sep;35(9):e21862 - "Loss of muscle mass and strength after disuse followed by impaired muscle recovery commonly occurs with aging. Metformin (MET) and leucine (LEU) individually have shown positive effects in skeletal muscle during atrophy conditions but have not been evaluated in combination nor tested as a remedy to enhance muscle recovery following disuse atrophy in aging ... Together, the dual treatment of MET and LEU was able to increase muscle function, satellite cell content, and reduce collagen accumulation, thus improving muscle quality during disuse and recovery in aging" - See metformin at ReliableRX and leucine products at Amazon.com and leucine at iHerb.
  • Effects of dietary tryptophan on muscle growth, protein synthesis, and antioxidant capacity in hybrid catfish Pelteobagrus vachelli♀ × Leiocassis longirostris - Br J Nutr 2021 Jul 29 - "Trp improved muscle growth, protein synthesis as well as antioxidant capacity, which might be partly related to myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), IGFs/PIK3Ca/AKT/TOR, and Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathways" - See l-tryptophan at Amazon.com.
  • The Influence of Specific Bioactive Collagen Peptides on Body Composition and Muscle Strength in Middle-Aged, Untrained Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial - Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 30 - "It has been shown that specific collagen peptides combined with resistance training (RT) improves body composition and muscle strength in elderly sarcopenic men. The main purpose of this RCT study was to investigate the efficacy of the identical specific collagen peptides combined with RT on body composition and muscle strength in middle-aged, untrained men ... Ninety-seven men completed this study and participated in a 12-week RT program. They ingested 15 g of specific collagen peptides (n = 30; CP-G), placebo (n = 31; P-G), or whey protein (n = 36; WP-G) daily ... All participants had significantly (p < 0.01) improved levels in fat free mass (ΔCP-G = 3.42 ± 2.54 kg; ΔP-G = 1.83 ± 2.09 kg; ΔWP-G = 2.27 ± 2.56 kg), fat mass (Δ CP-G = −5.28 ± 3.19 kg; ΔP-G = −3.39 ± 3.13 kg; ΔWP-G = −4.08 ± 2.80 kg) and leg strength (ΔCP-G = 163 ± 189 N; ΔP-G = 100 ± 154 N; ΔWP-G = 120 ± 233 N). The main analysis revealed a statistically significantly higher increase in fat free mass (p = 0.010) and decrease in fat mass (p = 0.023) in the CP-G compared with the P-G. The exploratory analysis showed no statistically significant differences between WP-G and CP-G or P-G, regarding changes of fat free mass and fat mass. In conclusion, specific collagen peptide supplementation combined with RT was associated with a significantly greater increase in fat free mass and a decrease in fat mass compared with placebo. RT combined with whey protein also had a positive impact on body composition, but the respective effects were more pronounced following the specific collagen peptide administration" - [Nutra USA] - See collagen supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Characterization of the Gut-Liver-Muscle Axis in Cirrhotic Patients With Sarcopenia - Medscape, 7/6/21 - "Alterations in the gut-liver-muscle axis are associated with sarcopenia in patients with cirrhosis. Detrimental but also compensatory functions are involved in this complex network" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Oral Nutritional Supplement with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) Improves Nutrition, Physical Performance and Ameliorates Intramuscular Adiposity in Pre-Frail Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial - J Nutr Health Aging 2021;25(6):767-773 - "Supplementation of high protein oral nutrition shakes supplemented with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HP-HMB) has been shown to improve muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance in older adults ... enrolled 70 community-dwelling pre-frail older persons without active or uncontrolled conditions, disability or dementia. The intervention group was provided with two services of HP HMB (Ensure® Plus Advance containing 3g HMB) per day for 12 weeks, and the control group was provided with professional nutritional counselling for sufficient protein intake ... The 12-week supplementation with high protein oral nutrition shake supplemented with 3g HMB per day significantly increased muscle mass, as well as nutritional status and physical performance, and ameliorated the intramuscular adiposity of pre-frail older persons" - See HMB at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Curcumin Attenuates Sarcopenia in Chronic Forced Exercise Executed Aged Mice by Regulating Muscle Degradation and Protein Synthesis with Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Effects - J Agric Food Chem 2021 May 5 - "The aim of the current study is to investigate the effects of spray dry powders of Curcuma longa containing 40% curcumin (CM-SD), as a new aqueous curcumin formula, on sarcopenia in chronic forced exercise executed 10 month old ICR mice. CM-SD (80 and 40 mg/kg) increased calf thicknesses and strengths, total body and calf protein amounts, and muscle weights in both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. mRNA expressions regarding muscle growth and protein synthesis were induced, while those of muscle degradation significantly declined in CM-SD treatment. CM-SD decreased serum biochemical markers, lipid peroxidation, and reactive oxygen species and increased endogenous antioxidants and enzyme activities. It also reduced immunoreactive myofibers for apoptosis and oxidative stress markers but increased ATPase in myofibers. These results suggest that CM-SD can be an adjunct therapy to exercise-based remedy that prevents muscle disorders including sarcopenia by anti-apoptosis, anti-inflammation, and antioxidation-mediated modulation of gene expressions related to muscle degradation and protein synthesis" - See curcumin at Amazon.com.
  • Higher Branched-Chain Amino Acid Intake Is Associated with Handgrip Strength among Korean Older Adults - Nutrients 2021 Apr 30 - "Sarcopenia is a disease of old age characterized by decreased muscle mass and strength. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) promote muscle mass synthesis and increase muscle strength. We aimed to develop a dietary amino acid database and to examine the association between BCAA intake and handgrip strength in Korean older adults ... Grains greatly contributed to amino acid intake; however, a significant negative association was observed between handgrip strength and increased BCAA intake through grains. In the fully adjusted model, leucine intake and handgrip strength showed a positive association. Thus, consuming BCAAs (especially leucine) via a variety of food sources can help maintain muscle health in older people" - See leucine products at Amazon.com.
  • γ-Oryzanol improves exercise endurance and muscle strength by upregulating PPARδ and ERRγ activity in aged mice - Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 May 1 - "γ-Oryzanol, a well-known antioxidant, has been used by body builders and athletes to boost strength and increase muscle gain, without major side effects. However, the effect of γ-oryzanol on sarcopenia and the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood ... These are the first findings showing that γ-oryzanol enhances skeletal muscle function in aged mice by regulating PPARδ and ERRγ activity without muscle gain" - See Gamma Oryzanol at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of n-3 EPA and DHA supplementation on fat free mass and physical performance in elderly. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trial - Mech Ageing Dev 2021 Mar 26 - "The most studied n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), and their intake seem to have a positive effect on skeletal muscle. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to investigate the effect of n-3 EPA and DHA supplementation on fat free mass, and on different indexes of physical performance in the elderly ... The meta-analyzed mean differences for random effects showed that daily n-3 EPA + DHA supplementation (from 0.7 g to 3.36 g) decreases the time of Time Up and Go (TUG) test of -0.28 s (CI 95 %-0.43, -0.13;). No statistically significant effects on physical performance indicators, such as 4-meter Walking Test, Chair Rise Test and Handgrip Strength, have been found. The fat free mass follows an improvement trend of +0.30 kg (CI 95 % -0.39, 0.99) but not statistically significant. N-3 EPA + DHA supplementation could be a promising strategy in order to enhance muscle quality and prevent or treat frailty" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com.
  • GlyNAC improves multiple defects in aging to boost strength and cognition in older humans - Science Daily, 3/29/21 - "supplementation with GlyNAC -- a combination of glycine and N-acetylcysteine as precursors of the natural antioxidant glutathione -- could improve many age-associated defects in older humans to improve muscle strength and cognition, and promote healthy aging ... older humans taking GlyNAC for 24 weeks saw improvements in many characteristic defects of aging, including glutathione deficiency, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, body fat, genomic toxicity, muscle strength, gait speed, exercise capacity and cognitive function. The benefits declined after stopping supplementation for 12 weeks. GlyNAC supplementation was well tolerated during the study period ... Mitochondria generate energy needed for supporting cellular functions by burning fat and sugar from foods, therefore mitochondrial health is critically important for life. Sekhar believes that improving the health of malfunctioning mitochondria in aging is the key ... I am particularly encouraged by the improvements in cognition and muscle strength ... Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are serious medical conditions affecting memory in older people and leading to dementia, and there are no effective solutions for these disorders. We are exploring the possibility that GlyNAC could help with these conditions by conducting two pilot randomized clinical trials to test whether GlyNAC supplementation could improve defects linked to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease and in MCI, and possibly improve cognitive function." - See glycine products at Amazon.com and n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Green leafy vegetables essential for muscle strength - Science Daily, 3/24/21 - "Researchers examined data from 3,759 Australians taking part in Melbourne's Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute AusDiab study over a 12-year period. They found those with the highest regular nitrate consumption had 11 per cent stronger lower limb strength than those with the lowest nitrate intake. Up to 4 per cent faster walking speeds were also recorded ... The research found nitrate-rich vegetables, such as lettuce, spinach, kale and even beetroot, provided the greatest health benefits"
  • Effects of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate Supplementation on Elderly Body Composition and Muscle Strength: A Review of Clinical Trials - Ann Nutr Metab 2021 Mar 12 - "The aging process has great impact on body composition, such as the increase of adipose tissue in abdominal region, and the decrease of lean body mass, due to skeletal muscle loss. A reduction in muscle mass is associated to high risk of fractures and falls, loss of mobility, and increased number of hospitalizations. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a biological substance derived from leucine metabolism, with anabolic and anticatabolic properties. Some HMB effects are tissue repair stimulation and protein anabolism ... Supplementation of 3 g of HMB has shown to be most beneficial in improving strength and body composition in people over 65 years, especially in bed rest and untrained conditions ... Our findings suggest that HMB has a positive effect on body composition and strength, especially in bedridden or sedentary elderly, due to its anticatabolic properties" - See HMB at Amazon.com.
  • Prevalence of low protein intake in 80+ year-old community-dwelling adults and association with dietary patterns and modifiable risk factors- a cross-sectional study - Br J Nutr 2021 Mar 8 - "Low protein intake may accelerate age-related loss of lean mass and physical function. We investigated prevalence of low protein intake (<1.0 g/kg/day) and the associations between dietary patterns, key modifiable risk factors and low protein intake in self-reliant community-dwelling adults ≥ 80 years ... Participants with low protein intake had a higher prevalence of nausea, diarrhoea and mouth dryness. Reduced appetite, mouth dryness and pain increased odds of low protein intake (adjusted OR 3.06 CI: 1.23-7.63, OR 3.41 CI:1.51-7.7, OR 1.54 CI:1.00-2.36, respectively). There was a high prevalence of low protein intake in community-dwelling adults ≥ 80-years. Day-to-day variability, reduced appetite, mouth dryness and pain may be potentially modifiable risk factors. Targeting dietary patterns and risk factors in primary prevention strategies may be important to improve intake of protein and minimise risk of physical frailty"
  • NAD+ can restore age-related muscle deterioration, research finds - Science Daily, 1/20/21 - "Although aggregated proteins have been suggested to contribute to brain aging, this is the first time that they have been shown to contribute to muscle aging and to directly damage mitochondria. "These abnormal proteotoxic aggregates could serve as novel biomarkers for the aging process, beyond the brain and muscle," says Auwerx ... the researchers fed worms the vitamin nicotinamide riboside and the antitumor agent Olaparib, both of which boost the levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a biomolecule that is essential for maintaining mitochondrial function, and whose levels decline during aging ... The encouraging results led the researchers to test nicotinamide riboside in aged mice. The treatment also activated the mitochondrial defense systems and reduced the number and size of amyloid aggregates in different skeletal muscle tissues ... Drugs that boost mitochondrial quality control could therefore be tested in the clinic to reverse these age-related proteotoxic aggregates and rejuvenate tissues" - See nicotinamide riboside at Amazon.com.
  • Identification of Withania somnifera-Silybum marianum-Trigonella foenum-graecum Formulation as a Nutritional Supplement to Contrast Muscle Atrophy and Sarcopenia - Nutrients 2020 Dec 26 - "Muscle atrophy, i.e., the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, is an unresolved problem associated with aging (sarcopenia) and several pathological conditions. The imbalance between myofibrillary protein breakdown (especially the adult isoforms of myosin heavy chain, MyHC) and synthesis, and the reduction of muscle regenerative potential are main causes of muscle atrophy ... We identified WST (Withania somnifera, Silybum marianum, Trigonella foenum-graecum) formulation as extremely efficacious in protecting C2C12 myotubes against MyHC-II degradation by stimulating Akt (protein kinase B)-dependent protein synthesis and p38 MAPK (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase)/myogenin-dependent myoblast differentiation. WST sustains trophism in C2C12 and young myotubes, and rescues the size, developmental MyHC expression and myoblast fusion in sarcopenic myotubes. Conclusion: WST strongly counteracts muscle atrophy associated to different conditions in vitro. The future validation in vivo of our results might lead to the use of WST as a food supplement to sustain muscle mass in diffuse atrophying conditions, and to reverse the age-related functional decline of human muscles, thus improving people quality of life and reducing social and health-care costs." - See ashwagandha at Amazon.com, silymarin at Amazon.com and fenugreek at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids and human skeletal muscle - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2020 Dec 15 - "ω-3 fatty acid ingestion is a potential preventive therapy to combat skeletal muscle-disuse atrophy" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary leucine requirement of older men and women is higher than current recommendations - Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Dec 16 - "Current national (34 mg . kg-1 . d-1) and international (39 mg kg-1 . d-1) recommendations for leucine in older adults are based on data from young adults. Evidence suggests that the leucine requirements of older adults are higher than those of young adults ... The mean leucine requirement for male participants was 77.8 mg . kg-1 . d-1 (upper 95% CI: 81.0) and for female participants, it was 78.2 mg . kg-1 . d-1 (upper 95% CI: 82.0) with no sex effect based on body weight. The data were therefore combined to yield a mean of 78.5 mg . kg-1 d-1 (upper 95% CI: 81.0 mg . kg-1 . d-1 ) for both sexes. On the basis of fat-free mass, the mean ± SEM leucine requirements were 115 ± 3.2 and 127 ± 2.4 mg . kg-1 . d-1 for male and female participants, respectively (P < 0.005) ... The estimated leucine requirement of older adults is more than double the amount in current recommendations. These data suggest that leucine could be a limiting amino acid in the diet of older adults consuming the current RDA for protein and those consuming a plant-based diet. In view of the functional and structural role of leucine, especially its importance in muscle protein synthesis, current leucine recommendations of older adults should be revised" - Note: 170 pounds is 77 KG. 77 KG times 115 mg = 8,855 mg or about 9 grams by my calculations. One scoop of the leucine I take contains 5 grams. - See leucine products at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Patterns and Muscle Mass, Muscle Strength, and Physical Performance in the Elderly: A 3-Year Cohort Study - J Nutr Health Aging 2021;25(1):108-115 - "This study aimed to determine the association between adherence to Mediterranean-style diet (MD), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top (JFG-ST), and modified JFG-ST (mJFG-ST) and muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance in community-dwelling Japanese elderly ... skeletal mass index (SMI) ... Adherence to JFG-ST was positively associated with SMI in Japanese community-dwelling elderly adults aged over 60 years, specifically in men. The country-specific dietary recommendations are required to be developed for sarcopenia prevention"
  • Muscle loss with aging — are you at risk for sarcopenia? - updated 10/28/20 - This is a little old but I just received it in an email.  I like the easy to understand graphs.
  • Nutrients to mitigate osteosarcopenia: the role of protein, vitamin D and calcium - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2020 Nov 2 - "An adequate intake of protein (1.2-1.5 g/kg/day), vitamin D (800 IU/day) and calcium (1000-1200 mg/day), is well tolerated and effective at mitigating some aspects of osteosarcopenia such as lean mass, bone density and fracture risk" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • High Salt Diet Impacts the Risk of Sarcopenia Associated with Reduction of Skeletal Muscle Performance in the Japanese Population - Nutrients 2020 Nov 12 - "The World Health Organization has recommended 5 g/day as dietary reference intakes for salt. In Japan, the averages for men and women were 11.0 g/day and 9.3 g/day, respectively. Recently, it was reported that amounts of sodium accumulation in skeletal muscles of older people were significantly higher than those in younger people ... Four groups based on age and salt intake ("younger low-salt," "younger high-salt," "older low-salt," and "older high-salt") were compared. Stratifying by age category, body fat percentage significantly increased in high-salt groups in both younger and older people. Handgrip strength/body weight and chair rise tests of the older high-salt group showed significant reduction compared to the older low-salt group. However, there was no significant difference in renalase concentrations in plasma. The results suggest that high-salt intake may lead to fat accumulation and muscle weakness associated with sarcopenia. Therefore, efforts to reduce salt intake may prevent sarcopenia"
  • β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate supplementation in older persons - an update - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2020 Nov 2 - "The interest in the use of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) as an intervention to prevent and treat sarcopenia has increased over recent years ... No new studies have been published over the last 2 years investigating the effect of HMB in older persons who are hospitalized, aside from one posthoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial exploring the effect of a high protein oral nutrition supplement containing HMB on handgrip strength and nutritional status ... Recent data suggest the need for high-quality studies investigating the effectiveness of HMB to improve outcomes related to sarcopenia in both hospitalized and community-dwelling older persons" - See HMB at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Metformin ameliorates skeletal muscle atrophy in Grx1 KO mice by regulating intramuscular lipid accumulation and glucose utilization - Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 Oct 14 - "Disorder in lipid metabolism and glucose utilization could impair the quality and function of skeletal muscle. Glutaredoxin-1 (Grx1) acts as a vital metabolic regulator of redox homeostasis ... intraperitoneal injection of metformin for 15 consecutive days ameliorated skeletal muscle atrophy caused by Grx1 deficiency to a certain extent. Taken together, these findings indicate that Grx1 deficiency might induce skeletal muscle atrophy by regulating the intramuscular lipid deposition and glucose utilization, which could be attenuated by metformin. Therefore, the expression or activity of Grx1 may be a pharmacological approach to ameliorate muscle atrophy diseases, such as sarcopenia" - See metformin at ReliableRX.
  • Risk Factors for Sarcopenia in the Elderly with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and the Effect of Metformin - J Diabetes Research Oct 7 2020 - "Participants who took metformin alone or combined with other drugs exhibited a lower risk for sarcopenia than those who took no medication (, 95% –0.904 and , 95% –0.702, respectively; ) ... Conclusions. We showed that being female and at an older age, lower educational level, and lower BMI were risk factors for sarcopenia in elderly T2DM and that metformin acted as a protective agent against sarcopenia in these patients" - See metformin at ReliableRX.
  • Long-term Effects of Calcium β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) and Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Muscular Function in Older Adults with and without Resistance Training: A Randomized, Double-blind, Controlled Study - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2020 Aug 28 - "The primary aim of this study was to determine whether supplementation with calcium β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) and Vitamin D3 (D) would enhance muscle function and strength in older adults. Older adults over 60 years of age with insufficient circulating 25-hydroxy-Vitamin D (25OH-D) levels were enrolled in a double-blinded controlled 12-month study. Study participants were randomly assigned to treatments consisting of: (a) Control + no exercise; (b) HMB+D + no exercise; (c) Control + exercise, and (d) HMB+D + exercise. The study evaluated 117 participants consisting of multiple measurements over the 12 months that included body composition, strength, functionality, and questionnaires. HMB+D had a significant benefit on lean body mass within the non-exercise group at 6 months (0.44±0.27kg, HMB+D vs. -0.33±0.28kg control, p<0.05). In non-exercisers, improvement in knee extension peak torque (60°/sec) was significantly greater in HMB+D supplemented participants than in non-supplemented group (p=0.04) at 3 months, 10.9 ± 5.7Nm and -5.2 ± 5.9Nm, respectively. A composite functional index, integrating changes in handgrip, Get Up, and Get Up and Go measurements, was developed. HMB+D + no exercise resulted in significant increases in the functional index compared to those observed in the control + no exercise group at 3 (p=0.03), 6 (p=0.04), and 12 months (p=0.04). Supplementation with HMB+D did not further improve the functional index within the exercising group. This study demonstrated the potential of HMB and Vitamin D3 supplementation to enhance muscle strength and physical functionality in older adults, even in individuals not engaged in an exercise training program" - [Nutra USA] - See HMB at Amazon.com and iHerb and Vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Potassium intake, skeletal muscle mass, and effect modification by sex: data from the 2008-2011 KNHANES - Nutr J 2020 Aug 29 - "skeletal muscle index (SMI) ... In men, higher potassium intake was associated with lower odds for low muscle mass; the fully adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.78 (0.60-1.03), 0.71 (0.54-0.93), 0.68 (0.51-0.90), and 0.71 (0.51-0.98) for the top four quintiles (referenced against the lowest quintile), respectively. However, this association was attenuated in women after adjusting for total energy intake. Higher potassium intakes were also associated with a greater SMI" - See potassium citrate at Amazon.com and potassium citrate at iHerb.com.
  • Muscle aging: Stronger for longer - Science Daily, 9/9/20 - "Contrary to our expectations, the long-term mTORC1 suppression with rapamycin is overwhelmingly beneficial for skeletal muscle aging in mice, preserving muscle size and strength ... There is currently no effective pharmacological therapy to treat sarcopenia. This study provides hope that it may be possible to slow down age-related muscle wasting with treatments that suppress mTORC1 and thereby extend the autonomy and life quality of elderly people" - See Siromus at ReliableRXPharmacy.
  • How vitamin C could help over 50s retain muscle mass - Science Daily, 8/27/20 - "studied data from more than 13,000 people aged between 42-82 years, who are taking part in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) Norfolk Study ... people with the highest amounts of vitamin C in their diet or blood had the greatest estimated skeletal muscle mass, compared to those with the lowest amounts" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com and iHerb.com.
  • A Five-Ingredient Nutritional Supplement and Home-Based Resistance Exercise Improve Lean Mass and Strength in Free-Living Elderly - Nutrients 2020 Aug 10 - "Old age is associated with lower physical activity levels, suboptimal protein intake, and desensitization to anabolic stimuli, predisposing for age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia). Although resistance exercise (RE) and protein supplementation partially protect against sarcopenia under controlled conditions, the efficacy of home-based, unsupervised RE (HBRE) and multi-ingredient supplementation (MIS) is largely unknown ... Thirty-two sedentary men underwent twelve weeks of home-based resistance band training (3 d/week), in combination with daily intake of a novel five-nutrient supplement ('Muscle5'; M5, n = 16, 77.4 ± 2.8 y) containing whey, micellar casein, creatine, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids, or an isocaloric/isonitrogenous placebo (PLA; n = 16, 74.4 ± 1.3 y), containing collagen and sunflower oil. Appendicular and total lean mass (ASM; +3%, TLM; +2%), lean mass to fat ratios (ASM/% body fat; +6%, TLM/% body fat; +5%), maximal strength (grip; +8%, leg press; +17%), and function (5-Times Sit-to-Stand time; -9%) were significantly improved in the M5 group following HBRE/MIS therapy (pre vs. post tests; p < 0.05). Fast-twitch muscle fiber cross-sectional areas of the quadriceps muscle were also significantly increased in the M5 group post intervention (Type IIa; +30.9%, Type IIx, +28.5%, p < 0.05). Sub-group analysis indicated even greater gains in total lean mass in sarcopenic individuals following HBRE/MIS therapy (TLM; +1.65 kg/+3.4%, p < 0.05). We conclude that the Muscle5 supplement is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective complement to low-intensity, home-based resistance exercise and improves lean mass, strength, and overall muscle quality in old age" - [Nutra USA] - Note:  I'd add leucine, HBM and collagen.
  • Effects of High Intensity Dynamic Resistance Exercise and Whey Protein Supplements on Osteosarcopenia in Older Men with Low Bone and Muscle Mass. Final Results of the Randomized Controlled FrOST Study - Nutrients 2020 Aug 5 - "The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of high intensity dynamic resistance exercise (HIT-DRT) and whey protein supplementation (WPS) on bone mineral density (BMD) and sarcopenia parameters in osteosarcopenic men. Men ≥ 72 years with osteosarcopenia (n = 43) were randomly assigned to a HIT-RT (HIT-RT: n = 21) or a non-training control group (n = 22). Supervised HIT-RT twice/week was applied for 18 months, while the control group maintained their habitual lifestyle. Supplying WPS, total protein intake amounted to 1.5-1.6 (HIT-RT) and 1.2 g/kg/body mass/d (control). Both groups were supplied with calcium and vitamin D ... we observed significant positive effects for sarcopenia Z-score (standardized mean difference (SMD): 1.40), BMD at lumbar spine (SMD: 0.72) and total hip (SMD: 0.72). In detail, effect sizes for skeletal muscle mass changes were very pronounced (1.97, p < 0.001), while effects for functional sarcopenia parameters were moderate (0.87, p = 0.008; handgrip strength) or low (0.39, p = 0.209; gait velocity). Apart from one man who reported short periods of temporary worsening of existing joint pain, no HIT-RT/WPS-related adverse effects or injuries were reported. We consider HIT-RT supported by whey protein supplementation as a feasible, attractive, safe and highly effective option to fight osteosarcopenia in older men" - See whey protein at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Conjugated linoleic acid supplements preserve muscle in high-body-fat adults: A double-blind, randomized, placebo trial - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2020 Jun 8 - "66 Chinese adults (aged 18-45 years old, 37.9% male) with elevated body fat percentage were provided with 3.2 g/day CLA (n = 33) or 3.2 g/day placebo (sunflower oil; n = 33) for 12 weeks ... Compared with the placebo group, the CLA group showed increased trunk muscle mass (MM) (0.6 ± 1.7 vs. -0.3 ± 1.2 kg, P = 0.019). Among those with an adherence score higher than 0.80 (n = 56, 87.5%), a greater increase in both total and trunk MM was observed in the CLA group (both P < 0.05). Moreover, the effect on MM appeared to be more evident in men, those with a body mass index <25 kg/m2, or those with higher self-rated physical activity" - [Nutra USA] - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Effects of Fortetropin® on the Rate of Muscle Protein Synthesis in Older Men and Women: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Study - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2020 Jun 29 - "Fortetropin is a proteo-lipid complex made from fertilized egg yolk and, in young men, has been shown to increase lean body mass ... The overall magnitude of the difference in muscle protein FSR of Fortetropin from placebo was 18%, with multiple gene ontologies affected. While these results should be confirmed in larger cohorts, they suggest that Fortetropin supplementation is effective for promoting muscle protein synthesis in older people" - See Fortetropin at Amazon.com.
  • The 5,7-Dimethoxyflavone Suppresses Sarcopenia by Regulating Protein Turnover and Mitochondria Biogenesis-Related Pathways - Nutrients. 2020 Apr 13 - "Sarcopenia is a muscle disease featured by the loss of muscle mass and dysfunction with advancing age. The 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (DMF), a major flavone found in Kaempferia parviflora, has biological activities, including anti-diabetes, anti-obesity, and anti-inflammation ... Eighteen-month-old mice were orally administered DMF at the dose of 25 mg·kg-1·day-1 or 50 mg·kg-1·day-1 for 8 weeks. DMF not only stimulated grip strength and exercise endurance but also increased muscle mass and volume. Besides, DMF stimulated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway, consequently activating the mammalian target of rapamycin-eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1-70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase pathway for protein synthesis. DMF reduced the mRNA expression of E3 ubiquitin ligase- and autophagy-lysosomal-related genes involved in proteolysis via the phosphorylation of Forkhead box O3. DMF upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha, nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial transcription factor A along with the increase of relative mitochondrial DNA content. DMF alleviated inflammatory responses by reducing the tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 serum and mRNA levels. Collectively, DMF can be used as a natural agent to inhibit sarcopenia via improving protein turnover and mitochondria function" - See Kaempferia parviflora at Amazon.com and Kaempferia parviflora at iHerb.com.
  • Number of high-protein containing meals correlates with muscle mass in pre-frail and frail elderly - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2020 Apr 7 - "Protein intake and number of meals with either ≥20 g or ≥30 g of protein were significantly associated (after controlling for confounding factors) with greater total and appendicular lean mass and vastus lateralis CSA ... We found that not only total protein intake but also the number of high-protein containing meals are associated with muscle mass in frail and pre-frail elderly"
  • Glutamine-stimulated in vitro hypertrophy is preserved in muscle cells from older women - Mech Ageing Dev. 2020 Mar 3 - "Age-related loss of muscle mass may result from reduced protein synthesis stimulation in response to anabolic stimuli, such as amino acid (AA) supplementation. The exact etiology of anabolic resistance to AA remains unclear ... Altogether, our data support the idea that the intrinsic capacity of muscle cells to respond to glutamine stimulation is preserved in healthy older women" - See L-glutamine at Amazon.com.
  • A more balanced protein intake can reduce age-related muscle loss - Science Daily, 3/16/20 - "old people, compared to young and middle-aged individuals, people were more likely to eat a lower-quality protein source, such as bread, at lunchtime ... We know that older people show a blunted response to muscle building when consuming a certain amount of protein. Therefore, older individuals need to eat more protein to get the same muscle building response as younger and middle-aged people"
  • Tannase-Converted Green Tea Extract with High (-)-Epicatechin Inhibits Skeletal Muscle Mass in Aged Mice - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2020 Jan 29 - "tannase-converted green tea extract prevents muscle loss and regulates the quantity and quality of muscle by the levels of antioxidant stress-related enzymes and muscle differentiation factors to a greater extent than the administration of epicatechin and middle dose green tea extract" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Novel Insights on Intake of Fish and Prevention of Sarcopenia: All Reasons for an Adequate Consumption - Nutrients. 2020 Jan 24 - "Sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength and it is diagnosed by measurements of muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance. Sarcopenia affects quality of life and is associated with several adverse health effects. Muscle decline is aggravated by a sedentary lifestyle and can be prevented through proper nutrition, together with adequate physical activity. Fish contains biologically active compounds, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, proteins, vitamin D, magnesium, and carnitine, which are able to intervene positively on muscle metabolism ... fish consumption has a protective and anti-inflammatory function on skeletal muscle and that its biologically active compounds help to maintain good muscle performance, preventing sarcopenia. Considering the nutritional and health benefits, elderly with sarcopenia should consume at least three servings per week of fish in order to have a minimum intake of 4-4.59 g daily of omega 3, and reaching the 50% RDA in Vitamin E and D. High biological value of proteins in 150 g of fish and its high available magnesium (20% of RDA in 150 g of fish) are an added value that could suggest fish as a "functional food" in order to prevent and treat sarcopenia"
  • Anti-Aging Effects of Schisandrae chinensis Fructus Extract: Improvement of Insulin Sensitivity and Muscle Function in Aged Mice - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019 Nov 3;2019 - "Schisandrae chinensis Fructus has a long history of medicinal use as a tonic, a sedative, and an antitussive drug ... Insulin sensitivity was lower at 20 months of age than at 16 months of age; however, the decrease in insulin sensitivity was less in SFe-fed mice. SFe supplementation also appeared to improve glucose tolerance. Body weight gain was lower in SFe-fed mice than in mice fed the control diet. Body fat mass was lower and the lean mass was higher in SFe-fed mice. In addition, the grip strength was enhanced in SFe-fed mice. Histological analysis of the tibialis anterior muscle showed that the size of myofiber and slow-twitch red muscle was increased by SFe supplementation. The expression of proteins related to muscle protein synthesis such as phospho-Erk1 and phospho-S6K1 was increased by SFe supplementation. The mRNA expression of genes related to myogenesis and their encoded proteins such as MyoD, Myf5, MRF4, myogenin, and myosin heavy chain, was increased, whereas that of genes related to muscle degradation, such as atrogin-1, MuRF-1, and myostatin, were decreased relative to control mice. These results suggest that SFe supplementation might have beneficial effects for the improvement of insulin sensitivity and inhibition of muscle loss that occur with aging" - See schizandra at Amazon.com.
  • 25 Again? How Exercise May Fight Aging - NYT, 12/4/19 - "A lot of studies, probably thousands, show that higher circulating inflammatory factors in people are associated with greater loss of muscle mass ... physically fit people tend to have lower levels of inflammation in their bodies than inactive people"
  • Vitamin D Key to Muscle Strength in Older Adults - WebMD, 11/5/19 - "Researchers looked at more than 4,100 people, aged 60 and older, in England. About 4 in 10 with vitamin D deficiency had muscle weakness -- twice the level found among those who had adequate vitamin D levels ... Impaired muscle performance was three times more common among those with vitamin D deficiency (25.2%) than those with adequate vitamin D (7.9%)." - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of a Resistance Training Program on Sarcopenia and Functionality of the Older Adults Living in a Nursing Home - J Nutr Health Aging. 2019;23(9):829-836 - "The resistance training program improves the functionality (muscle strength and physical performance), with the benefit of the decrease in severe sarcopenia"
  • The gut microbiota influences skeletal muscle mass and function in mice - Sci Transl Med. 2019 Jul 24;11(502) - "We compared the skeletal muscle of germ-free mice that lacked a gut microbiota to the skeletal muscle of pathogen-free mice that had a gut microbiota. Compared to pathogen-free mouse skeletal muscle, germ-free mouse skeletal muscle showed atrophy, decreased expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, and reduced transcription of genes associated with skeletal muscle growth and mitochondrial function. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry analysis of skeletal muscle, liver, and serum from germ-free mice revealed multiple changes in the amounts of amino acids, including glycine and alanine, compared to pathogen-free mice. Germ-free mice also showed reduced serum choline, the precursor of acetylcholine, the key neurotransmitter that signals between muscle and nerve at neuromuscular junctions. Reduced expression of genes encoding Rapsyn and Lrp4, two proteins important for neuromuscular junction assembly and function, was also observed in skeletal muscle from germ-free mice compared to pathogen-free mice. Transplanting the gut microbiota from pathogen-free mice into germ-free mice resulted in an increase in skeletal muscle mass, a reduction in muscle atrophy markers, improved oxidative metabolic capacity of the muscle, and elevated expression of the neuromuscular junction assembly genes Rapsyn and Lrp4 Treating germ-free mice with short-chain fatty acids (microbial metabolites) partly reversed skeletal muscle impairments" - [Nutra USA] - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Mice with myocyte deletion of vitamin D receptor have sarcopenia and impaired muscle function - J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2019 Jun 21 - "It has long been recognized that vitamin D deficiency is associated with muscle weakness and falls ... Maintenance of normal vitamin D signalling is a useful strategy to prevent loss of muscle function and size" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Citrulline stimulates muscle protein synthesis, by reallocating ATP consumption to muscle protein synthesis - J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2019 May 8 - "Animal studies and clinical data support the interest of citrulline as a promising therapeutic for sarcopenia ... Under certain stress conditions, citrulline increases muscle protein synthesis by specifically reallocating mitochondrial fuel to the protein synthesis machinery" - See citrulline at Amazon.com.
  • A High Serum Cortisol/DHEA-S Ratio Is a Risk Factor for Sarcopenia in Elderly Diabetic Patients - Medscape, 5/9/19 - "A relative increase in cortisol may reflect the presence of stress and stimulate muscle catabolism, whereas a relative decrease in DHEA-S may cause a decrease in the anabolic action of DHEA on muscle; the combination of these factors may lead to sarcopenia" - See 7-keto DHEA at Amazon.com.
  • The Effect of Branched Chain Amino Acids-Enriched Nutritional Supplements on Activities of Daily Living and Muscle Mass in Inpatients with Gait Impairments: A Randomized Controlled Trial - J Nutr Health Aging. 2019;23(4):348-353. doi: 10.1007/s12603-019-1172-3 - "Participants in the intervention group (RJ group) received nutritional supplements (jelly foods comprising 2500 mg BCAA and 20 IU vitamin D) twice a day until hospital discharge ... The primary outcome was the motor components of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM-m), and the secondary outcome was skeletal muscle mass index ... FIM-m was significantly elevated in the RJ group and the control group , but no difference was noted between the two groups. Only the RJ group showed a significant increase in skeletal muscle mass index, and the amount of variation was significantly different between the two groups (the control group decreased an average of 2.2% and the RJ group increased an average of 4.3%" - See BCAA at Amazon.com.
  • Leucine, Not Total Protein, Content of a Supplement Is the Primary Determinant of Muscle Protein Anabolic Responses in Healthy Older Women - J Nutr. 2018 Jul 1;148(7):1088-1095 - "Evidence suggests that this anabolic resistance can be overcome by consuming greater quantities of leucine ... whey protein isolate (WPI) ... randomly assigned with the use of a single-blind, parallel-group design to twice-daily consumption of either WPI [25 g WPI (3 g l-leucine)] or leucine (LEU; 10 g milk protein with 3 g total l-leucine) for 6 d ... A lower-protein (10 compared with 25 g/dose), leucine-matched beverage induced similar increases in acute and integrated myoPS in healthy older women. Lower-protein supplements with added leucine may represent an advantageous approach in older adults to maintain skeletal muscle anabolic sensitivity and attenuate muscle loss" - See leucine products at Amazon.com.
  • Protein supplementation improves lean body mass in physically active older adults: a randomized placebo-controlled trial - J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2019 Mar 7 - "A randomized double-blinded controlled trial was performed among 116 physically active older adults [age 69 (interquartile range: 67-73) years, 82% male] who were training for a 4 day walking event of 30, 40, or 50 km/day. Participants were randomly allocated to either 31 g of milk protein or iso-caloric placebo supplementation for 12 weeks ... In physically active older adults with relatively low habitual dietary protein consumption, an improvement in physical performance, an increase in lean body mass, and a decrease in fat mass were observed after walking exercise training. A larger increase in relative lean body mass and larger reduction in fat mass were observed in participants receiving 12 weeks of daily protein supplementation compared with controls, whereas this was not accompanied by differences in improvements between groups in muscle strength and physical performance"
  • The Effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on Sarcopenia and Functional Frailty in Older Persons: A Systematic Review - J Nutr Health Aging. 2019;23(2):145-15 - "Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) has been shown to be effective and superior to other types of protein supplements to attenuate loss of muscle mass, strength and function, however, its benefits in sarcopenic and frail older people remain unclear ... Three studies matched our eligibility criteria which enrolled 203 subjects through a variety of definitions of sarcopenia or frailty. Lean body mass increased and muscle strength and function were preserved following HMB supplementation" - See HMB at Amazon.com.
  • Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate and sarcopenia: from biological plausibility to clinical evidence - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2019 Jan;22(1):37-43 - "the consumption of protein sources enhanced with this essential amino acid, or its metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), is assumed to give the greatest benefit in terms of maintenance of muscle mass and function during aging ... It is proposed that HMB may be utilized to protect or rebuild muscle mass in older people with reduced lean body mass" - See metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of a leucine-enriched amino acid supplement on muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical function in post-stroke patients with sarcopenia: A randomized controlled trial - Nutrition. 2018 Jul 11;58:1-6 - "The intervention group (n = 21) received a leucine-enriched amino acid supplement; the control group (n = 23) did not. Both groups performed low-intensity resistance training in addition to a post-stroke rehabilitation program. A primary outcome of physical function by using the motor domain of Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and secondary outcomes of appendicular muscle mass (skeletal muscle mass index [SMI]) measured via bioelectrical impedance analysis and muscle strength as handgrip strength were measured at baseline and at the end of the intervention ... The FIM score increased significantly in both groups over time (P < 0.01), with significantly greater improvement in the intervention group than in the control group (P < 0.045). Handgrip strength also increased significantly over time (P <0.05), with significantly greater improvement in the intervention group (P < 0.01). The SMI increased significantly in the intervention group but not in the control group over time, with significantly greater improvement in the intervention group" - [Nutra USA] - See leucine products at Amazon.com.
  • Late night snacker? Make it cottage cheese - Science Daily, 10/15/18 - "consuming 30 grams of protein about 30 minutes before bed appears to have a positive effect on muscle quality, metabolism and overall health. And for those who have sworn off eating at night, there is no gain in body fat"
  • Ideal protein to help seniors rebuild lost muscle - Science Daily, 10/10/18 - "Researchers found that protein did not stop lean muscle loss caused by inactivity, however, whey supplements helped to rebuild muscle once the participants activities resumed ... whey versus collagen protein ... Whey is considered a high-quality or complete protein, meaning it is rich in all essential amino acids and is higher in leucine, one of the essential amino acids the body cannot make itself and therefore, must derive from food ... Collagen peptides, by comparison, are much lower in their leucine content, lack or are low in essential amino acids ... While protein was ineffective in mitigating muscle loss, say researchers, when participants returned to normal, muscle-building activity, the whey group recovered more skeletal muscle" - See whey protein at Amazon.com and leucine products at Amazon.com.
  • Building strength, endurance, and mobility using an astaxanthin formulation with functional training in elderly - J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2018 Sep 26 - "Building both strength and endurance has been a challenge in exercise training in the elderly, but dietary supplements hold promise as agents for improving muscle adaptation. Here, we test a formulation of natural products (AX: astaxanthin, 12 mg and tocotrienol, 10 mg and zinc, 6 mg) with both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in combination with exercise ... Forty-two subjects were fed AX or placebo for 4 months and trained 3 months (3×/week for 40-60 min) with increasing intervals of incline walking. Strength was measured as maximal voluntary force (MVC) in ankle dorsiflexion exercise, and tibialis anterior muscle size (cross-sectional area, CSA) was determined from magnetic resonance imaging ... Greater endurance (exercise time in incline walking, >50%) and distance in 6 min walk (>8%) accompanied training in both treatments. Increases in MVC by 14.4% (±6.2%, mean ± SEM, P < 0.02, paired t-test), CSA by 2.7% (±1.0%, P < 0.01), and specific force by 11.6% (MVC/CSA, ±6.0%, P = 0.05) were found with AX treatment, but no change was evident in these properties with placebo treatment (MVC, 2.9% ± 5.6%; CSA, 0.6% ± 1.2%; MVC/CSA, 2.4 ± 5.7%; P > 0.6 for all)" - [Nutra USA] - See astaxanthin at Amazon.com.
  • An Update on Protein, Leucine, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Vitamin D in the Prevention and Treatment of Sarcopenia and Functional Decline - Nutrients. 2018 Aug 16;10(8) - "Recent evidence supports a higher protein intake recommendation of 1.0⁻1.2 g/kg/day in healthy older adults; an evenly distributed mealtime protein intake or minimal protein per meal may be beneficial. In addition, vitamin D supplementation of 800⁻1000 IU, particularly when vitamin D status is low, and doses of ~3 g/day of n-3 PUFA may be favorable for physical function, muscle mass, and strength. Reviewed studies are highly heterogenous, yet the quantity, quality, and timing of intakes should be considered when designing intervention studies. Combined protein, leucine, vitamin D, and n-3 PUFA supplements may convey added benefits and may represent an intervention strategy in the prevention of sarcopenia and functional decline" - See leucine products at Amazon.com.
  • β-Alanine supplementation increased physical performance and improved executive function following endurance exercise in middle aged individuals - J Int Soc Sport Nutr, Jul 11, 18 - "Sarcopenia, a reduction in muscle mass and function seen in aging populations, may be countered by improving systemic carnosine stores via beta-Alanine (β-alanine) supplementation. Increasing systemic carnosine levels may result in enhanced anti-oxidant, neuro-protective and pH buffering capabilities ... Twelve healthy adults (average age = 60.5 ± 8.6 yrs, weight = 81.5 ± 12.6 kg) were randomized and given either 2.4 g/d of β-alanine (BA) or Placebo (PL) for 28 days ... BA supplementation increased exercise capacity and eliminated endurance exercise induced declines in executive function seen after recovery. Increased POST TTE coupled with similar PRE vs POST lactate production indicates an improvement in the ability of BA to extend exercise durations. Furthermore, by countering endurance exercise’s accompanying deficits in executive function, the aging population can maintain benefits from exercise with improved safety" - [Nutra USA] - See beta-alanine at Amazon.com.
  • Role of Oral Nutritional Supplements Enriched with β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate in Maintaining Muscle Function and Improving Clinical Outcomes in Various Clinical Settings - J Nutr Health Aging. 2018;22(6):664-675 - "Aging and disease-related malnutrition are well associated with loss of muscle mass and function. Muscle mass loss may lead to increased health complications and associated increase in health care costs, especially in hospitalized individuals. High protein oral nutritional supplements enriched with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HP-ONS+HMB) have been suggested to provide benefits such as improving body composition, maintaining muscle mass and function and even decreasing mortality rates. The present review aimed to examine current evidence on the effect of HP-ONS+HMB on muscle-related clinical outcomes both in community and peri-hospitalization patients. Overall, current evidence suggests that therapeutic nutrition such as HP-ONS+HMB seems to be a promising tool to mitigate the decline in muscle mass and preserve muscle function, especially during hospital rehabilitation and recovery" - See HMB at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol Improves Muscle Atrophy By Modulating Mitochondrial Quality Control In STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018 Mar 26:e1700941 - "The results showed that RSV supplementation improved muscle atrophy and muscle function, attenuated the increase in ubiquitin and muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF-1), and simultaneously attenuated LC3-II and cleaved caspase-3 in the skeletal muscle of diabetic mice. Moreover, RSV treatment of diabetic mice resulted in an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis and inhibition of the activation of mitophagy in skeletal muscle. RSV also protected skeletal muscle against excess mitochondrial fusion and fission in the diabetic mice" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Protein leucine content is a determinant of shorter- and longer-term muscle protein synthetic responses at rest and following resistance exercise in healthy older women: a randomized, controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2018 Feb 1;107(2):217-226 - "Older women may not be consuming enough protein to maintain muscle mass. Augmentation of protein intake with leucine may enhance the muscle protein synthetic response in older women to aid in maintaining muscle mass ... healthy older women (aged 65-75 y, n = 11/group) consumed a fixed, weight-maintaining diet with protein at 1.0 g · kg-1 · d-1 and were randomly assigned to twice-daily consumption of either 15 g milk protein beverage containing 4.2 g leucine (LEU) or 15 g mixed protein (milk and soy) beverage containing 1.3 g leucine (CON) ... Acute myoPS increased in response to feeding in the rested (CON: 13% ± 4%; LEU: 53% ± 5%) and exercised (CON: 30% ± 4%; LEU: 87% ± 7%) leg in both groups, but the increase was greater in LEU (P < 0.001). Integrated myoPS increased during the supplementation period in both legs (rested: 9% ±1%; exercised: 17% ± 2%; P < 0.001) in LEU, but in the exercised leg only (7% ± 2%; P < 0.001) in CON" - See leucine products at Amazon.com.
  • A lifetime of regular exercise slows down aging, study finds - Science Daily, 3/8/18 - "The study showed that loss of muscle mass and strength did not occur in those who exercise regularly. The cyclists also did not increase their body fat or cholesterol levels with age and the men's testosterone levels also remained high, suggesting that they may have avoided most of the male menopause ... More surprisingly, the study also revealed that the benefits of exercise extend beyond muscle as the cyclists also had an immune system that did not seem to have aged either ... An organ called the thymus, which makes immune cells called T cells, starts to shrink from the age of 20 and makes less T cells. In this study, however, the cyclists' thymuses were making as many T cells as those of a young person."
  • Intake of a Protein-Enriched Milk and Effects on Muscle Mass and Strength. A 12-Week Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial among Community-Dwelling Older Adults - J Nutr Health Aging. 2017;21(10):1160-1169 - "Increased protein intake (2 x 20 g/d) did not significantly improve muscle mass, muscle strength or functional performance in healthy older weight stable adults. Whether intake of > 20 g protein to each meal is necessary for preservation of muscle mass and strength in older adults should be further investigated in a larger study. This underscores the need for well-designed studies that can differentiate between the effect of protein intake and increased energy"
  • Soluble Milk Proteins Improve Muscle Mass Recovery after Immobilization-Induced Muscle Atrophy in Old Rats but Do not Improve Muscle Functional Property Restoration - J Nutr Health Aging. 2017;21(10):1133-1141 - "Whey proteins and soluble milk proteins improve muscle mass recovery after immobilization-induced muscle atrophy in old rats but do not allow muscle functional property restoration"
  • Effects of Aerobic and Resistance Training Combined with Fortified Milk on Muscle Mass, Muscle Strength, and Physical Performance in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial - J Nutr Health Aging. 2017;21(10):1349-1357 - "Fortified milk and resistance training (RT) increase muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance in older adults, but it remains unclear whether RT combined with aerobic training (AT) would have stronger effects on these outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aerobic and resistance training (ART) combined with fortified milk consumption on muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance in older adults ... These results suggest that AT before RT combined with fortified milk consumption has similar effects on skeletal muscle mass and strength compared with RT alone, but it may be a more useful strategy to improve physical performance in older adults. Although the mechanism of our intervention is uncertain, our program would be an effective prevention for sarcopenia in older adults"
  • Dietary Magnesium May Be Protective for Aging of Bone and Skeletal Muscle in Middle and Younger Older Age Men and Women: Cross-Sectional Findings from the UK Biobank Cohort - Nutrients. 2017 Oct 30;9(11) - "Our study suggests that dietary magnesium may play a role in musculoskeletal health and has relevance for population prevention strategies for sarcopenia, osteoporosis, and fractures" - [Nutra USA] - See Magtein at Amazon.com.
  • Low bone mineral density in middle-aged women: a red flag for sarcopenia - Menopause. 2017 Nov 6 - "A BMD T-score below -1.5 suggests low muscle mass in middle-aged women, which is a central element in the diagnosis of sarcopenia. Early diagnosis provides the opportunity to introduce preventive and therapeutic options"
  • Supplementing Breakfast with a Vitamin D and Leucine-Enriched Whey Protein Medical Nutrition Drink Enhances Postprandial Muscle Protein Synthesis and Muscle Mass in Healthy Older Men - J Nutr. 2017 Aug 23 - "Supplementing breakfast with a vitamin D and leucine-enriched whey protein medical nutrition drink stimulated postprandial muscle protein synthesis and increased muscle mass after 6 wk of intervention in healthy older adults and may therefore be a way to support muscle preservation in older people" - See leucine products at Amazon.com.
  • High-Protein Foods and Physical Activity Protect Against Age-Related Muscle Loss and Functional Decline - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017 May 25 - "Higher intakes of protein-source foods (red meat, poultry, fish, dairy, and soy, nuts, seeds and legumes) were associated with higher %SMM over 9 years, particularly among women. Men and women with higher intakes of foods from animal sources had a higher % SMM regardless of activity; beneficial effects of plant-based protein foods were only evident in physically active adults. Active subjects with higher intakes of animal or plant protein-source foods had 35% lowest risks of functional decline. Among less active individuals, only those consuming more animal protein-source foods had reduced risks of functional decline (HR: 0.7l" - See BulkSupplements Pure L-Leucine Powder (1 Kilogram).
  • Recommended daily protein intake too low for the elderly - Science Daily, 5/23/17 - "The RDA you will find on the nutrition labels on your food, however, were set in 1968, and the ones used by researchers and professionals were set in 2003. A recent review published in Frontiers in Nutrition points out that both these values do not do justice to the protein needs of the elderly and critically ill ... A big disservice is being done. The prescribed 0.8 g/kg/day just isn't enough protein for the elderly and people with a clinical condition .... he points out that the quality of proteins should be considered when setting the RDA guidelines and recommending protein supplements. He argues that there should be a stronger focus on leucine; an indispensable amino acid and building block for proteins. The elderly have a higher need for leucine to build muscle proteins, and milk-based proteins (e.g. milk and whey) are a good source for this" - See BulkSupplements Pure L-Leucine Powder (1 Kilogram).
  • L-leucine dietary supplementation modulates muscle protein degradation and increases pro-inflammatory cytokines in tumour-bearing rats - Cytokine. 2017 May 8;96:253-260 - "the leucine-supplemented tumour-bearing groups showed improvements in muscle mass and protein content, and in this specific situation, the leucine-rich diet led to an increase on the day in cytokine profile and proteasome subunits mainly on the 14th day, which subsequently had a modulating effect on tumour growth on the 21st day. These results indicate that the presence of leucine in the diet may modulate important aspects of the proteasomal pathway in cancer cachexia and may prevent muscle wasting due to the decrease in the cachexia index" - See BulkSupplements Pure L-Leucine Powder (1 Kilogram) at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol preserves neuromuscular synapses, muscle fibers in aging mice - Science Daily, 3/7/17 - "resveratrol, a compound in the skin of red grapes and red wine, and metformin, a drug often prescribed to fight type 2 diabetes, have many of the neuroprotective benefits of a low-calorie diet and exercise ... resveratrol preserves muscle fibers as we age and helps protect connections between neurons called synapses from the negative effects of aging ... the diabetes drug metformin slowed the rate of muscle fiber aging, but it did not significantly affect aging of neuromuscular junctions. However, the drug may possibly protect synapses in different dosage amounts ... Metformin is an FDA-approved drug to treat diabetes, but our study hints it may also serve the purpose of slowing the motor dysfunction that occurs with aging ... In wine, resveratrol is in such small amounts you could not drink enough of it in your life to have the benefits we found in mice given resveratrol" - See Reserveage Nutrition - Resveratrol with Pterostilbene 500mg, Cellular Age-Defying Formula, 60 veg capsules at Amazon.com and metformin at The Antiaging Store.
  • Vitamin D and muscle trophicity - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2017 Mar 2 - "Vitamin D deficiencies are associated with reduced muscle mass and strength, and its supplementation seems effective to improve these parameters in vitamin D-deficient study participants. Latest investigations have also evidenced that vitamin D is essential in muscle development and repair. In particular, it modulates skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation ... Recently, it has been demonstrated that vitamin D influences skeletal muscle cell metabolism as it seems to regulate protein synthesis and mitochondrial function" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.  I find that it takes about 8,000 IU average per day to keep my vitamin D around 60 ng/mL but I'm old.  I take 10,000 IU per day because some days I forget to take it.
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 exert distinct effects on human skeletal muscle function and gene expression - PLoS One. 2017 Feb 15;12(2):e0170665 - "Age-associated decline in muscle function represents a significant public health burden. Vitamin D-deficiency is also prevalent in aging subjects, and has been linked to loss of muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia), but the precise role of specific vitamin D metabolites in determining muscle phenotype and function is still unclear ... These data show that although 25OHD3 has potent actions on muscle gene expression, the circulating concentrations of this metabolite are more closely linked to body fat mass, suggesting that 25OHD3 can influence muscle function via indirect effects on adipose tissue. By contrast, serum 1α,25(OH)2D3 has limited effects on muscle gene expression, but is associated with increased muscle strength and lean mass in women" - [Nutra USA] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Efficacy of a novel formulation of L-Carnitine, creatine, and leucine on lean body mass and functional muscle strength in healthy older adults: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study - Nutr Metab (Lond). 2017 Jan 18;14:7 - "Forty-two healthy older adults aged 55-70 years were randomized to receive either a novel L-Carnitine (1500 mg), L-leucine (2000 mg), creatine (3000 mg), Vitamin D3 (10 μg) (L-Carnitine-combination) product (n = 14), L-Carnitine (1500 mg) (n = 14), or a placebo (n = 14) for eight weeks ... Participants supplemented with the L-Carnitine-combination showed a 1.0 kg increase in total lean muscle mass (P = 0.013), leg lean muscle mass (0.35 kg, P = 0.005), and a 1.0 kg increase in lower leg strength (P = 0.029) at week 8. In addition, these increases were significant when compared to the placebo group (P = 0.034, P = 0.026, and P = 0.002, respectively). Total mTOR protein expression was increased in participants in the L-Carnitine-combination group at the end of the study compared to the baseline (P = 0.017). This increase was also significant when compared to the placebo (P = 0.039), suggesting that the increase in muscle mass and strength was due to new protein synthesis and mTOR pathway activation" - [Nutra USA] - See L-carnitine at Amazon.com.
  • Leucine supplementation enhances integrative myofibrillar protein synthesis in free-living older men consuming lower- and higher-protein diets: a parallel-group crossover study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Dec;104(6):1594-1606 - "We examined the impact of leucine co-ingestion with mixed macronutrient meals on integrated 3-d rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) in free-living older men who consumed higher protein (HP) (1.2 g · kg-1 · d-1) or LP (0.8 g · kg-1 · d-1) in rested and resistance exercise (REX) conditions ... Leu co-ingestion with daily meals enhances integrated MyoPS in free-living older men in rested and REX conditions and is equally effective in older men who consume daily protein intakes greater than or equal to the RDA" - See BulkSupplements Pure L-Leucine Powder (1 Kilogram).
  • Can You Regain Muscle Mass After Age 60? - NYT, 12/2/16 - "But in practical terms, who cares? Older muscles will become larger and stronger if you work them, Dr. Bamman says ... The key, he continues, is regular and progressive weight training. If you don’t belong to a gym, consider joining one, and then plan on tiring yourself. In order to initiate the biochemical processes that lead to larger, stronger fibers, Dr. Bamman says, you should push your muscles until they are exhausted"
  • The impact of protein quality on the promotion of resistance exercise-induced changes in muscle mass - Nutr Metab (Lond). 2016 Sep 29;13:64 - "Protein ingestion and the resultant hyperaminoacidemia provides the building blocks (indispensable amino acids - IAA) for, and also triggers an increase in, muscle protein synthesis (MPS), suppression of muscle protein breakdown (MPB), and net positive protein balance (i.e., MPS > MPB). The key amino acid triggering the rise in MPS is leucine, which stimulates the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1, a key signalling protein, and triggers a rise in MPS. As such, ingested proteins with a high leucine content would be advantageous in triggering a rise in MPS. Thus, protein quality (reflected in IAA content and protein digestibility) has an impact on changes in MPS and could ultimately affect skeletal muscle mass. Protein quality has been measured by the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS); however, the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) has been recommended as a better method for protein quality scoring. Under DIAAS there is the recognition that amino acids are individual nutrients and that protein quality is contingent on IAA content and ileal (as opposed to fecal) digestibility. Differences in protein quality may have important ramifications for exercise-induced changes in muscle mass gains made with resistance exercise as well as muscle remodelling" - [Nutra USA] - See BulkSupplements Pure L-Leucine Powder (1 Kilogram).
  • Preservation of muscular mass and strength in aged subjects with Pycnogenol® supplementation - Minerva Ortopedica E Traumatologica, Oct 16 - "Supplementation with Pycnogenol® improved muscular strength and the general fitness level (also decreasing oxidative stress) in otherwise healthy, older subjects with symptoms of fatigue and signs of muscle mass loss" - [Nutra USA] - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com and grape seed extract at Amazon.com (some claim grape seed extract is basically the same thing without the patent mark-up).
  • Resveratrol primes the effects of physical activity in old mice - Br J Nutr. 2016 Aug 4:1-10 - "Decrease in muscle mass and performance with ageing is one of the main factors of frailty in the elderly. Maintenance of muscle performance by involving in physical activities is essential to increase independence and quality of life among elderly ... RSV improves muscle performance in mature and old animals but not in young animals. Without showing significant effect by itself, RSV primed the effect of exercise by increasing endurance, coordination and strength in old animals. This effect was accompanied by a higher protection against oxidative damage and an increase in mitochondrial mass. RSV increased catalase and superoxide dismutase protein levels in muscle and primed exercise to reverse the decrease in their activities during ageing. Furthermore, RSV increased the level of mitochondrial mass markers such as cytochrome C, mitochondrial transcription factor A and nuclear respiratory factor-1 in muscle in exercised animals" - See Reserveage Nutrition - Resveratrol with Pterostilbene 500mg, Cellular Age-Defying Formula, 60 veg capsules at Amazon.com.
  • The Association between Total Protein and Vegetable Protein Intake and Low Muscle Mass among the Community-Dwelling Elderly Population in Northern Taiwan - Nutrients. 2016 Jun 17;8(6) - "Sarcopenia, highly linked with fall, frailty, and disease burden, is an emerging problem in aging society. Higher protein intake has been suggested to maintain nitrogen balance ... Participants with diets in the lowest quartile of total protein density (<13.2%) were at a higher risk for low muscle mass (odds ratio (OR) 3.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37-6.72) than those with diets in the highest quartile (≥17.2%). Similarly, participants with diets in the lowest quartile of vegetable protein density (<5.8%) were at a higher risk for low muscle mass (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.14-4.83) than those with diets in the highest quartile (≥9.4%). Furthermore, the estimated skeletal muscle mass index increased significantly across the quartiles of total protein density (p = 0.023) and vegetable protein density (p = 0.025). Increasing daily intakes of total protein and vegetable protein densities appears to confer protection against pre-sarcopenia status"
  • Protein Intake and Muscle Health in Old Age: From Biological Plausibility to Clinical Evidence - Nutrients. 2016 May 14;8(5) - "Older persons, in particular, are at high risk of insufficient protein ingestion. Furthermore, the current recommended dietary allowance for protein (0.8 g/kg/day) might be inadequate for maintaining muscle health in older adults, probably as a consequence of "anabolic resistance" in aged muscle. Older individuals therefore need to ingest a greater quantity of protein to maintain muscle function. The quality of protein ingested is also essential to promoting muscle health. Given the role of leucine as the master dietary regulator of muscle protein turnover, the ingestion of protein sources enriched with this essential amino acid, or its metabolite β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate, is thought to offer the greatest benefit in terms of preservation of muscle mass and function in old age" - See BulkSupplements Pure L-Leucine Powder (1 Kilogram).
  • Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Combination with Leucine and Vitamin D Increase Muscle Strength and Function in Frail Elderly Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial - J Nutr. 2016 Apr 13 - "Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function, is common in elderly individuals but difficult to treat  .. The first group received a daily L-leucine (1.2 g) and cholecalciferol (20 μg)-enriched supplement with 6 g medium-chain triglycerides (TGs) (MCTs) (LD + MCT); the second group received the same leucine and cholecalciferol-enriched supplement with 6 g long-chain TGs (LD + LCT); and the third group did not receive any supplements (control). The supplement and oils were taken at dinner, and changes in muscle mass, strength, and function were monitored ... After 3 mo, participants in the LD + MCT group had a 13.1% increase in right-hand grip strength (1.2 ± 1.0 kg,P< 0.01), a 12.5% increase in walking speed (0.078 ± 0.080 m/s,P< 0.05), a 68.2% increase in a 10-s leg open-and-close test performance (2.31 ± 1.68n/10 s,P< 0.001), and a 28.2% increase in peak expiratory flow (53 ± 59 L/min,P< 0.01). No significant improvements in muscle mass, strength, or function were observed in the LD + LCT or control groups" - See BulkSupplements Pure L-Leucine Powder (1 Kilogram).
  • Per meal dose and frequency of protein consumption is associated with lean mass and muscle performance - Clin Nutr. 2016 Apr 7 - "We found that more frequent consumption of meals containing between 30 and 45 g protein/meal produced the greatest association with leg lean mass and strength. Thus, the consumption of 1-2 daily meals with protein content from 30 to 45 g may be an important strategy for increasing and/or maintaining lean body mass and muscle strength with aging"
  • Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10 Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Increases Muscle Mass in Mice - Nutrients 2016, 8(4), 205 - "Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) is a well-known probiotic among the ingested-microorganism probiotic ... few studies have examined the effects of L. plantarum TWK10 (LP10) supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue, and gut microbial profile ... LP10 significantly decreased final body weight and increased relative muscle weight (%). LP10 supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength (p < 0.0001) and endurance swimming time (p < 0.001) and decreased levels of serum lactate (p < 0.0001), ammonia (p < 0.0001), creatine kinase (p = 0.0118), and glucose (p = 0.0151) after acute exercise challenge. The number of type I fibers (slow muscle) in gastrocnemius muscle significantly increased with LP10 treatment. In addition, serum levels of albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and triacylglycerol significantly decreased with LP10 treatment. Long-term supplementation with LP10 may increase muscle mass, enhance energy harvesting, and have health-promotion, performance-improvement, and anti-fatigue effects" - [Nutra USA] -Note:  Lactobacillus plantarum is the top probiotic in the Garden of Life Primal Defense Ultra that I take.
  • β-Alanine Supplementation Improved Workload Capacity and Cognitive Function of Middle Age Individuals - FASEB Journal, Mar 2016 - "Sarcopenia, the age induced wasting of skeletal muscle, has been seen to be tightly associated with significantly decreased systemic carnosine stores. β-alanine supplementation has previously been shown to increase systemic carnosine concentrations in young adults. Increasing systemic carnosine may result in enhanced antioxidant and pH buffering capabilities within its main storage sites of skeletal muscle and brain tissue. This enhancement may result in improved submaximal endurance exercise capacity and in the prevention of exercise associated cognitive decline ... Before supplementation, average time-to-exhaustion (TTE) for the β-alanine group and Placebo group was 17.3±10.2 and 22.9±10.2 minutes, respectively. After supplementation, all subjects increased their TTE; with β-alanine supplemented subjects cycling significantly longer than those on Placebo (7.9±1.4 vs 0.9±2.5 minutes, respectively, P<0.01). Placebo subjects were 8.9±2.0 seconds slower in completing the Stroop Test at T4 compared to T3 (P=0.04), while the β-alanine group (1.9±2.0 seconds, P=0.8) was not slower at this time point" - [Nutra USA] - See beta-alanine at Amazon.com.
  • Leucine partially protects muscle mass and function during bed rest in middle-aged adults - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Dec 30 - "muscle protein synthesis (MPS) ... leucine supplementation (LEU group: 0.06 g ∙ kg-1 ∙ meal-1) or an alanine control (CON group) during 14 d of bed rest ... Leucine protected knee extensor peak torque (CON compared with LEU group: -15% ± 2% and -7% ± 3%; group × time interaction, P < 0.05) and endurance (CON compared with LEU: -14% ± 3% and -2% ± 4%; group × time interaction, P < 0.05), prevented an increase in body fat percentage (group × time interaction, P < 0.05), and reduced whole-body lean mass loss after 7 d (CON compared with LEU: -1.5 ± 0.3 and -0.8 ± 0.3 kg; group × time interaction, P < 0.05) but not 14 d (CON compared with LEU: -1.5 ± 0.3 and -1.0 ± 0.3 kg) of bed rest. Leucine also maintained muscle quality (peak torque/kg leg lean mass) after 14 d of bed-rest inactivity (CON compared with LEU: -9% ± 2% and +1% ± 3%; group × time interaction, P < 0.05)" - See leucine products at Amazon.com.
  • Protein Supplementation at Breakfast and Lunch for 24 Weeks beyond Habitual Intakes Increases Whole-Body Lean Tissue Mass in Healthy Older Adults - J Nutr. 2015 Nov 18 - "lean tissue mass (LTM) ... 60 healthy older men and women (aged 61 ± 5 y) with a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 25.8 ± 3.6 consumed either 0.165 g/kg body mass of a milk-based protein matrix (PRO) or an isoenergetic, nonnitrogenous maltodextrin control (CON) at breakfast and midday meals, the lower protein-containing meals of the day, for 24 wk ... LTM increased by 0.45 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.83) kg in the PRO group compared with a decrease of 0.16 (95% CI: -0.49, 0.17) kg in the CON group (P = 0.006). Appendicular LTM accounted for the majority of the difference in LTM, increasing by 0.27 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.48) kg in the PRO group compared with no change in the CON group"
  • Dietary Protein Intake Is Protective Against Loss of Grip Strength Among Older Adults in the Framingham Offspring Cohort - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015 Nov 2 - "Greater protein intake, regardless of source, was associated with less decrease in grip strength (all p for trend ≤.05): participants in the lowest quartiles lost 0.17% to 0.27% per year while those in the highest quartiles gained 0.52% to 0.60% per year. In analyses stratified by age, participants aged 60 years or older (n = 646) had similar linear trends on loss of grip strength for total and animal (all p for trend <.03) but not plant protein, while the trends in participants younger than 60 years (n = 896) were not statistically significant"
  • Does Vitamin-D Intake During Resistance Training Improve the Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophic and Strength Response in Young and Elderly Men? - Medscape, 10/22/15 - "No additive effect of vitamin-D intake during 12 weeks of resistance training could be detected on either whole muscle hypertrophy or muscle strength, but improved muscle quality in elderly and fiber type morphology in young were observed, indicating an effect of vitamin-D on skeletal muscle remodeling" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Magnesium Is Positively Associated with Skeletal Muscle Power and Indices of Muscle Mass and May Attenuate the Association Between Circulating C-Reactive Protein and Muscle Mass in Women - J Bone Miner Res. 2015 Aug 19 - "Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength are risk factors for sarcopenia, osteoporosis, falls, fractures, frailty and mortality. Dietary magnesium (Mg) could play a role in prevention of age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, power and strength directly through physiological mechanisms or indirectly through an impact on chronic low-grade inflammation, itself a risk factor for loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength ... Our results suggest that dietary magnesium may aid conservation of age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and power in women of all ages" - See Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
  • Key to maintaining muscle strength while we age - Science Daily, 6/2/15 - "Previous research by Steinberg's team has shown that this "metabolic switch" is turned on with exercise as well as commonly-used medications including metformin and salicylate (the active ingredient in Aspirin) ... We know we can turn on the AMPK pathway with intense exercise and commonly-used Type 2 diabetes medications" - See metformin at The Antiaging Store.
  • Fish oil-derived n-3 PUFA therapy increases muscle mass and function in healthy older adults - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 May 20 - "Compared with the control group, 6 mo of n-3 PUFA therapy increased thigh muscle volume (3.6%; 95% CI: 0.2%, 7.0%), handgrip strength (2.3 kg; 95% CI: 0.8, 3.7 kg), 1-RM muscle strength (4.0%; 95% CI: 0.8%, 7.3%) (all P < 0.05), and tended to increase average isokinetic power (5.6%; 95% CI: -0.6%, 11.7%; P = 0.075) ... Fish oil-derived n-3 PUFA therapy slows the normal decline in muscle mass and function in older adults and should be considered a therapeutic approach for preventing sarcopenia and maintaining physical independence in older adults" - [Nutra USA] - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Impact of Leucine Supplementation on Exercise Training Induced Anti-Cardiac Remodeling Effect in Heart Failure Mice - Nutrients. 2015 May 15 - "Leucine supplementation potentiates the effects of aerobic exercise training (AET) on skeletal muscle ... Leucine supplementation potentiated AET effects on exercise tolerance, which might be related to its recognized impact on skeletal muscle" - See leucine products at Amazon.com.
  • Protein and healthy aging - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Apr 29 - "The potential benefits of young and middle-aged adults adopting a diet pattern whereby adequate protein is consumed at each meal as a countermeasure to sarcopenia are presented and discussed. For example, meeting a protein threshold (~25-30 g/meal) represents a promising, yet still largely unexplored dietary strategy to help maintain muscle mass and function. For many older adults, breakfast is a carbohydrate-dominated lower-protein meal and represents an opportunity to improve and more evenly distribute daily protein intake. Although both animal and plant-based proteins can provide the required essential amino acids for health, animal proteins generally have a higher proportion of the amino acid leucine. Leucine plays a key role in stimulating translation initiation and muscle protein anabolism and is the focus of ongoing research. Protein requirements should be assessed in the light of habitual physical activity. An evenly distributed protein diet provides a framework that allows older adults to benefit from the synergistic anabolic effect of protein and physical activity" - Note:  I put a scoop of leucine into an empty jelly jar with about a third cup of water and shake it then swill it every morning just before breakfast.  It's probably the worst thing you'll ever taste but I'm convinced it works for preserving muscles  See Leucine products at Amazon.com.
  • Association Between Healthy Diet and Exercise and Greater Muscle Mass in Older Adults J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015 Apr 27 - "vegetable consumption (odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.30-0.89) and aerobic exercise (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.39-1.00) were inversely associated with low muscle mass. Also, the odds of low muscle mass was lower in women with three or more healthy lifestyle factors versus none (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.23-0.87). In men, there were no associations between food group consumption and exercise and low muscle mass"
  • Caloric restriction: A fountain of youth for aging muscles? - Science Daily, 4/22/15 - "while 14 weeks of calorie restriction did not significantly affect the middle-aged rats, it reduced muscle mass in the young rats. Calorie restriction slowed the glycolytic rate in the muscles and increased the cells' dependency for OXPHOS versus glycolysis in older rats, which was linked to improvement of normalized muscle mass. The team also found that "14 weeks of CR reprogrammed cellular metabolism, where the relative contribution of OXPHOS and glycolysis in muscles of middle-aged rats with CR was similar to that in muscles of young rats"
  • Effects of leucine-rich protein supplements on anthropometric parameter and muscle strength in the elderly: a systematic review and meta-analysis - J Nutr Health Aging. 2015;19(4):437-46 - "It is concluded that leucine supplementation was found to exert beneficial effects on body weight, body mass index, and lean body mass in older persons in those subjects already prone to sarcopenia, but not muscle strength" - Note:  Here's what I take. I put a scoop and a half of leucine in about a half cup of water in a small jelly jar and shake it and swill it. It's probably the worst think you could taste: Serious Nutrition Solutions Leucine - 500 Grams at Amazon.com.
  • Prevalence of and interventions for sarcopenia in ageing adults: a systematic review. Report of the International Sarcopenia Initiative (EWGSOP and IWGS) - oxfordjournals.org - 9/21/14 - "EAAs (with 2.5 g of leucine) and HMB seem to have some effects on muscle mass and muscle function that need to be confirmed in larger trials" - [Nutra USA] - See leucine products at Amazon.com and Core Nutritionals Hmb Dietary Supplement, 90 Gram.
  • Curcumin counteracts loss of force and atrophy of hindlimb-unloaded rat soleus by hampering nNOS untethering from sarcolemma - J Physiol. 2014 Apr 7 - "curcumin represents an effective and safe tool to upregulate Grp94 muscle levels and to maintain muscle function during unweighting" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids and protein metabolism: enhancement of anabolic interventions for sarcopenia - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2014 Mar;17(2):145-50 - "The metabolic derangements and other consequences associated with sarcopenia can be slowed or even prevented by specific nutritional interventions. New evidence is available about the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplementation to improve protein metabolism and counteract anabolic resistance through indirect effects. Studies show that the anabolic stimuli from substrates (e.g. amino acids or proteins), hormones (e.g. insulin) and/or physical activity in skeletal muscle can be enhanced by long-term fish oil administration" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Protein Distribution Positively Influences 24-h Muscle Protein Synthesis in Healthy Adults - J Nutr. 2014 Jan 29 - "The consumption of a moderate amount of protein at each meal stimulated 24-h muscle protein synthesis more effectively than skewing protein intake toward the evening meal"
  • Leucine supplementation of a low-protein mixed macronutrient beverage enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men: a double-blind, randomized trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov 27 "40 men (21 ± 1 y) completed unilateral knee-extensor resistance exercise before the ingestion of 25 g whey protein (W25) (3.0 g leucine), 6.25 g whey protein (W6) (0.75g leucine), 6.25 g whey protein supplemented with leucine to 3.0 g total leucine (W6+Low-Leu), 6.25 g whey protein supplemented with leucine to 5.0 g total leucine (W6+High-Leu), or 6.25 g whey protein supplemented with leucine, isoleucine, and valine to 5.0 g total leucine ... A low-protein (6.25 g) mixed macronutrient beverage can be as effective as a high-protein dose (25 g) at stimulating increased MPS rates when supplemented with a high (5.0 g total leucine) amount of leucine. These results have important implications for formulations of protein beverages designed to enhance muscle anabolism" - See leucine products at Amazon.com
  • Low muscle mass in older men: the role of lifestyle, diet and cardiovascular risk factors - J Nutr Health Aging. 2014;18(1):26-33 - "Setting: British Regional Heart Study. Participants: 4252 men aged 60-79 years ... Participants attended a physical examination in 1998-2000, and completed a general questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. Low muscle mass was assessed by two measures: midarm muscle circumference (MAMC) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) ... Physical inactivity, insulin resistance, C-reactive protein, von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen were associated with significantly increased odds of low MAMC and FFMI after adjustment for body mass index, lifestyle characteristics and morbidity. Those with higher percent energy intake from carbohydrates showed decreased odds of low MAMC (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55-0.96) and FFMI (OR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.58-0.99)" - Note:  See my macaroni and cheese recipe on my grains page.
  • Methylcobalamin promotes proliferation and migration and inhibits apoptosis of C2C12 cells via the Erk1/2 signaling pathway - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Dec 13 - "Methylcobalamin (MeCbl) is a vitamin B12 analog that has some positive effects on peripheral nervous disorders ... Our results suggest that MeCbl has beneficial effects on the muscle in vitro. MeCbl administration may provide a novel therapeutic approach for muscle injury or degenerating muscle after denervation" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary protein and muscle in older persons - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2014 Jan;17(1):5-11 - "Results from muscle protein anabolism, appetite regulation and satiety research support the contention that meeting a protein threshold (approximately 30g/meal) represents a promising strategy for middle-aged and older adults concerned with maintaining muscle mass while controlling body fat"
  • Exercise as a remedy for sarcopenia - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2014 Jan;17(1):25-31 - "Resistance exercise training is more effective in increasing muscle mass and strength, whereas endurance exercises training is superior for maintaining and improving maximum aerobic power. Based on these evidences, recommendations for adult and frail older people should include a balanced program of both endurance and strength exercises, performed on a regular schedule (at least 3 days a week) ... Regular exercise is the only strategy found to consistently prevent frailty and improve sarcopenia and physical function in older adults"
  • Urine melatonin levels are inversely associated with sarcopenia in postmenopausal women - Menopause. 2013 Jun 10 - "Seventy-eight Korean postmenopausal women participated ... Our study shows an inverse association between urine melatonin and sarcopenia, suggesting that melatonin may have a protective role in the pathophysiology of sarcopenia" - See melatonin at Amazon.com.
  • Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids - Medscape, 6/11/13 - "Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass that results in a reduction in skeletal muscle function, quality of life and an increased risk of falls. Older muscle has an 'anabolic resistance' to both nutrients and exercise, with the precise underlying mechanism still to be elucidated. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids found in fish oil can be incorporated into the membranes of skeletal muscles, where they may have anti-inflammatory effects. This alteration in muscle membrane fatty acid composition may have anabolic effects in aging muscle and, thus, be useful in the treatment of sarcopenia ... The current data presented suggest that n-3 PUFAs may be of benefit in the treatment of sarcopenia" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on lean body mass during 10 days of bed rest in older adults - Clin Nutr. 2013 Mar 4 - "Loss of muscle mass due to prolonged bed rest decreases functional capacity and increases hospital morbidity and mortality in older adults ... In healthy older adults, HMB supplementation preserves muscle mass during 10 days of bed rest" - See HMB at Amazon.com.
  • Beef up: Middle-aged men may need more to maintain muscle mass - Science Daily, 2/4/13 - "Canada's Food Guide now suggests that consuming about 3oz (0.80 g/kg/d) of meat per serving is adequate to provide protein at the recommended level ... However, our work shows that the quantity of beef needed to maximize the renewal of new muscle proteins was at least 6oz in middle-aged men. Our findings have clear ramifications for the current recommendations regarding protein to prevent muscle loss in aging"
  • The association between daily calcium intake and sarcopenia in older, non-obese Korean adults: the fourth Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES IV) 2009 - Endocr J. 2013 Jan 26 - "The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between daily calcium intake and sarcopenia. We analyzed data for older adults (over 60 years) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted in 2009 ... assessed using a nutrition survey that used a 24-hour recall method ... We found that daily calcium intake was negatively correlated with total body fat percentage and positively correlated with appendicular skeletal mass (p<0.001). Participants with sarcopenia appear to have significantly lower daily calcium intakes than participants without sarcopenia (p<0.001). The unadjusted prevalence of sarcopenia according to daily calcium intake tertiles were 6.3%, 4.3%, and 2.7% in tertiles 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI, total energy intake, and lifestyle factors, compared with those in the lowest tertile of daily calcium intake, participants in the highest tertile had an odds ratio for sarcopenia of 0.295 (95% confidence interval, 0.087-0.768; p for trend = 0.014)"
  • Which nutritional factors help preserve muscle mass, strength and performance in seniors? - Science Daily, 1/18/13 - "The authors propose an intake of 1.0-1.2 g/kg of body weight per day as optimal for skeletal muscle and bone health in elderly people without severely impaired renal function ... adequate vitamin D should be ensured through exposure to sunlight and/or supplementation if required. Vitamin D supplementation in seniors, and especially in institutionalized elderly, is recommended for optimal musculoskeletal health ... Excess intake of acid-producing nutrients (meat and cereal grains) in combination with low intake of alkalizing fruits and vegetables may have negative effects on musculoskeletal health. Modifying the diet to include more fruits and vegetables is likely to benefit both bones and muscles ... Emerging evidence also suggests that vitamin B12 and/or folic acid play a role in improving muscle function and strength" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com, folic acid products at Amazon.com and vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.

Other News:

  • Prediabetes is an independent risk factor for sarcopenia in older men, but not in older women: the Bunkyo Health Study - J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2022 Sep 2 - "Although we confirmed that diabetes mellitus is associated with sarcopenia in both sexes, prediabetes is associated with sarcopenia in men, but not in women"
  • Sarcopenia: an unsolved problem after hip fracture - J Bone Miner Metab 2022 May 31 - "After hip fracture, osteoporosis seemed to be well managed and the prevalence of osteoporosis did not increase. However, SMI decreased and the prevalence of sarcopenia increased. More active measures are warranted to prevent sarcopenia in elderly hip fracture patients"
  • Red meat consumption and risk of frailty in older women - J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Nov 9 - "Habitual consumption of unprocessed and processed red meat was associated with a higher risk of frailty. Replacement of red meat by other protein sources might reduce the risk of frailty"
  • Study Links Muscle Mass to Severity of Hot Flashes in Women - WebMD, 11/12/21 - "Older women with muscle loss are less likely to have menopause-related hot flashes"
  • Sarcopenia Is Associated With Incident Alzheimer's Dementia, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Cognitive Decline - Medscape, 9/3/21 - "More severe sarcopenia at baseline was associated with a higher risk of incident AD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.50 [95% confidence interval 1.20–1.86]; p < 0.001) and of MCI (1.21 [1.01–1.45]; 0.04) and a faster rate of cognitive decline" - Note:  Makes you wonder if supplements the help prevent sarcopenia such as leucine might also protect the noodle.
  • The Association Between Hormone Therapy and Sarcopenia in Postmenopausal Women - Medscape, 5/29/20 - "The present study showed that the prolonged use of HT was associated with high muscle mass and a low prevalence of sarcopenia in postmenopausal women"
  • Sarcopenia Is Related to Mortality in the Acutely Hospitalized Geriatric Patient - J Nutr Health Aging. 2019;23(2):128-137 - "Sarcopenia is prevalent in acutely hospitalized geriatric patients and is associated with significantly higher 2-year mortality"
  • Muscle mass should be a new vital sign, research shows - AAAS, 10/18/18 - "Adults go to the doctor roughly three times a year. During their visit, vitals are taken such as blood pressure, pulse, and weight, but are these measurements really showing the full picture of a person's overall health? Extensive research shows health care professionals should be considering something often overlooked -- muscle mass. ... people with less muscle had more surgical and post-operative complications, longer hospital stays, lower physical function, poorer quality of life and overall lower survival"
  • Chronic inflammation causing loss of muscle mass - Science Daily, 1/11/18 - "Their findings show that CRP affects muscle cells' protein synthesis, that is, the generation of new proteins taking place in all living cells ... Muscles are our main protein depots. We saw that CRP interferes with the protein synthesis in the muscle cells, hence contributing to the loss of muscle mass ... A mechanism which explains the connection is of great significance for both preventive measures and drug development. What is interesting is that inflammaging is a process quietly at work. If we can tackle inflammaging in time, are we then able to postpone the development of a number of chronic diseases" - Note:  See my CRP and inflammation pages for ways to reduce it.
  • Eating protein three times a day could make our seniors stronger - Science Daily, 8/30/17 - "We observed that participants of both sexes who consumed protein in a balanced way during the day had more muscle strength than those who consumed more during the evening meal and less at breakfast. However, the distribution of protein throughout the day was not associated with their mobility ... All body tissues, including the muscles, are composed of proteins, which consist of amino acids. If the protein intake decreases, the synthesis is not done correctly and this leads to a loss of muscle mass ... "Our research is based on scientific evidence demonstrating that older people need to consume more protein per meal because they need a greater boost of amino acids for protein synthesis," says Dr. Chevalier, adding that one of the essential amino acids known for protein renewal is leucine" - See BulkSupplements Pure L-Leucine Powder (1 Kilogram).
  • Higher alcohol consumption leads to greater loss of muscle tissue in postmenopausal women - Science Daily, 6/7/17 - "Both aging and menopause are known to affect sarcopenia, which is a loss of muscle mass and strength, which in turn affects balance, gait, and overall ability to perform tasks of daily living ... the prevalence of sarcopenia was found to be nearly four times greater for the high-risk, alcohol-drinking group than the low-risk group"
  • Sarcopenic obesity, weight loss, and mortality: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing - Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May 24 - "The risk of all-cause mortality was significantly greater in participants who experienced weight loss over 4 y (HR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.32, 3.71) and/or reduced hand grip strength (HR: 1.53; 95% CI: 10.07, 2.17) than in those with stable weight and grip strength, with the highest risk in those with both weight loss and reduced strength (HR: 3.77; 95% CI: 2.54, 5.60).Conclusions: Sarcopenic obesity did not confer any greater risk than sarcopenia alone. Weight loss combined with sarcopenia presented the greatest risk of mortality"
  • Deli Dilemma: Meat and Cheese Linked to Earlier Death - ABC News, 3/4/14 - "The study of more than 6,000 American adults found those between the ages of 50 and 65 with diets high in animal protein were 74 percent more likely to meet an untimely end than those who consumed less animal protein or got their protein from non-animal sources ... For deaths due to cancer, the risk was four times higher ... Why did the effect disappear with older people? As we age, our demand for protein increases. So getting more of it from a host of sources after 65 is important in extending our longevity ... The patients whose diets were packed with protein were more than 25 percent less likely to meet an early death ... What we know for sure is older people have a problem getting enough protein ... The condition is known as sarcopenia, and is estimated to affect nearly half of seniors by the time they reach eighty years of age" - [Fox video segment on this which gets into the percentages of protein]