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Home > Anti-aging Research > Ginseng


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News & Research:

  • Is Ginseng Effective for Cancer-Related Fatigue? - Medscape, 8/1/14 - "Barton and colleagues[1] performed a phase 3, multisite, double-blind, randomized trial evaluating the use of Wisconsin ginseng (P quinquefolius) (3% ginsenosides) 2000 mg daily vs placebo for 8 weeks in 364 patients with CRF. Fatigue was evaluated using the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form (MFSI-SF) ... At 4 weeks, change from baseline MFSI-SF score in the ginseng group (n = 147) was 14.4 vs 8.2 in the placebo group (n = 153) (P = .07). At 8 weeks, the ginseng group (n = 138) had a change in score of 20 vs 10.3 in the placebo group (n = 133) (P = .003). Patients receiving active cancer therapy reported greater benefit than those who had completed treatment. Self-reported toxicities were similar between groups" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Ginseng can treat, prevent influenza, RSV, researcher finds - Science Daily, 4/21/14 - "respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) ... After infection with influenza A virus, mice that were orally administered ginseng over a long time showed multiple immune modifying effects, such as stimulated antiviral production of proteins important in immune response and fewer inflammatory cells in their bronchial walls ... Korean red ginseng extract improved the survival of human lung epithelial cells against RSV infection and inhibited the virus from replicating, or multiplying, in the body. In addition, treatment with Korean red ginseng extract suppressed the expression of RSV-induced inflammatory genes and the formation of chemically reactive molecules containing oxygen, which play a role in virus-induced epithelial damage in RSV ... Also, mice that were orally administered Korean red ginseng extract had lower viral levels after infection with RSV"
  • Wisconsin Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) to Improve Cancer-Related Fatigue - Medscape, 9/27/13 - "cancer-related fatigue (CRF) ... A multisite, double-blind trial randomized fatigued cancer survivors to 2000mg of American ginseng vs a placebo for 8 weeks ... Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory–Short Form (MFSI-SF) ... A statistically significant difference was seen at 8 weeks with a change score of 20 (SD = 27) for the ginseng group and 10.3 (SD = 26.1) for the placebo group (P = .003). Greater benefit was reported in patients receiving active cancer treatment vs those who had completed treatment. Toxicities per self-report and CTCAE grading did not differ statistically significantly between arms" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Korean Ginseng Berry Extract Effect on Sexual Function in ED - Medscape, 5/6/13 - "were administered 4 tablets of either standardized Korean ginseng berry (SKGB, 350 mg ginseng berry extract per tablet), or placebo, daily, for 8 weeks. Efficacy was assessed with the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-15 and premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) at the end of the 4th and 8th week. We observed that the total and each of the individual domain scores of IIEF-15 increased from 40.95+/-7.05 to 46.19+/-12.69 significantly in the SKGB by the 8th week (P<0.05). The erectile function domain of IIEF changed slightly from 17.17+/-2.57 to 18.59+/-5.99 in the SKGB group by the 8th week (P<0.05). In addition, PEDT scores significantly improved from 9.14+/-4.57 to 7.97+/-4.4 and 7.53+/-4.26 in the SKGB group after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment (P<0.05). Safety markers including hormone and lipid in the blood were assessed at the end of the 4th and 8th week and they remained unchanged. Oral administration of the SKGB extract improved all domains of sexual function"
  • Ginseng May Banish Cancer Fatigue, New Study Finds - ABC News, 6/4/12 - "Researchers gave 2,000 milligrams of pure ground American ginseng or a placebo pill to 340 patients being treated for cancer and cancer survivors who had finished their treatment. After four weeks, patients reported little change in their cancer-related fatigue. But after eight weeks, the patients taking ginseng reported feeling generally more energized than their sugar pill-popping peers. The response was particularly strong among patients who were currently undergoing cancer treatment ... Some studies have shown that ginseng decreases inflammation and the stress hormone cortisol, both of which may be contributing factors to cancer-related fatigue ... Extracts of ginseng that are alcohol based change a characteristic of the ginseng to be somewhat estrogenic ... Stay with very reputable companies"
  • Natural aphrodisiacs: 'Spicing' up your love life possible, finds study of ginseng and saffron - Science Daily, 3/28/11 - "Ours is the most thorough scientific review to date. Nothing has been done on this level of detail before now ... They found that panax ginseng, saffron and yohimbine, a natural chemical from yohimbe trees in West Africa, improved human sexual function ... People report increased sexual desire after eating muira puama"
  • Best Treatment for Erectile Dysfunction? - Dr. Weil, 11/30/09 - "Ginkgo ... Ashwaganda ... Asian ginseng
  • Ginseng: Nature's Anti-inflammatory? - Science Daily, 5/13/09 - "The anti-inflammatory role of ginseng may be due to the combined effects of these ginsenosides, targeting different levels of immunological activity, and so contributing to the diverse actions of ginseng in humans"
  • Ginseng May Help Treat Schizophrenia - WebMD, 5/8/08 - "In a small study, patients had fewer negative symptoms -- such as lack of motivation and a severe reduction in emotional expression known as "flat affect" -- when they took Panax ginseng than when they took a placebo ... patients were 50% less likely to have flat affect when taking the higher, 200-milligram dose of ginseng than when taking placebo"
  • Ginseng May Relieve Cancer Fatigue - WebMD, 6/4/07
  • Herb Shows Potential To Reduce Cancer-related Fatigue - Science Daily, 6/3/07 - "Of the four treatment arms, patients receiving the placebo and the lowest dose of ginseng reported very little improvement in fatigue or other areas of physical or psychological well-being. The patients receiving the larger doses showed improvements in overall energy levels, reporting higher vitality levels and less interference with activity from fatigue. They also reported an improvement in overall mental, physical, spiritual and emotional well-being"
  • Ginseng, Ginko Biloba Do Not Interfere With Drug Absorption If Taken At Recommended Doses - Science Daily, 5/1/07 - "found daily use of ginseng or ginkgo biloba supplements at the recommended doses, or the combination of both supplements, are unlikely to alter the pharmacokinetics - by which drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated by the body - of the majority of prescription or over-the counter drugs"
  • Researchers Find Ginseng May Improve Breast Cancer Outcomes - Science Daily, 3/16/06 - "They also found significant improvements in both survival and quality of life measures in patients who used ginseng"
  • Cortisol, Stress, and Health - Life Extension Magazine, 12/05 - "Supplements to reduce high cortisol levels secondary to stress ... Vitamin C: 1000-3000 mg/day ... Fish oil (omega-3 fatty acids):1-4 gm/day ... Phosphatidylserine: 300-800 mg/day ... Rhodiola rosea: 100-200 mg/day, standardized extract ... Ginseng: 100-300 mg/day, standardized extract ... Ginkgo biloba: 100-200 mg/day, standardized extract ... DHEA: 25-50 mg/day (any hormone supplementation should be monitored by your physician)"
  • Ginseng for Gesundheit? Latest Study on Colds - WebMD, 10/24/05 - "one in 10 people in the ginseng group reported having two or more colds that winter, compared with about 23% of those taking the placebo ... Colds lasted about 11 days for the ginseng group and 16.5 days for the placebo group"
  • Ginseng review - ConsumerLab.com, 8/29/03 - "A high amount of the pesticide hexachlorobenzene — a potential human carcinogen — was found in one of five products labeled as containing "Korean Ginseng." Levels of two other pesticides, quintozene and lindane — were also above acceptable levels. Another product that failed the new testing was a liquid "Chinese Ginseng" sold in single-dose bottles. Despite being labeled "EXTRA STRENGTH" this product contained less than 10% of the expected ginsenosides"
  • Ginseng May Help Treat Diabetes - WebMD, 6/16/03 - "There are two reasons blood sugar can be out of control in [people with diabetes] ... Your body's tissues are not responsive enough to insulin so they don't process it properly and/or you don't make enough insulin to begin with ... Ginseng, he said, appears to help the patients both to secrete more insulin and to process better the insulin they have" - See ginseng at Amazon.com or Vitacosticon American ginseng products.
  • Korean Red Ginseng Benefits Men with Impotence - New Hope Natural Media, 1/2/03 - "Men experiencing sexual difficulties due to inability to achieve erection may be helped by Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng), according to a study published in the Journal of Urology ... It is a problem that affects nearly half of men over age forty worldwide ... Some 60% of participants reported improved erections while receiving ginseng. Improved sexual desire was also reported during ginseng treatment. Testosterone levels did not change with treatment, leading the researchers to conclude that improvements observed with ginseng are not due to hormonal effects" - See ginseng at Amazon.com or Vitacosticon Korean (Panax) ginseng.
  • Ginseng May Help Regulate Blood Glucose - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 8/02 - "Three new studies, performed jointly by researchers at the University of Toronto, St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto and the University of Ottawa, show that American ginseng can lower blood-sugar levels in diabetic and nondiabetic patients" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Ginseng Helps Regulate Blood Glucose - Nutrition Science News, Spring '02 - "Three new studies, performed jointly by researchers at the University of Toronto, St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto, and the University of Ottawa, show that American ginseng can lower blood-sugar levels in diabetic and nondiabetic patients ... They found no significant differences between the three doses—each lowered postprandial glucose levels an average of 11.4 percent"
  • Some Herbs Boost Breast Cancer Risk - WebMD, 3/26/02 - "Our studies show that dong quai and ginseng stimulate the growth of [breast cancer] cells"
  • Not All Ginseng Supplements Are Alike - WebMD, 6/26/01 - "a new analysis of 25 commercial ginseng products suggests that the actual concentration of ginseng is lower than the label says about half the time and in six products the concentration was only 1%"
  • Study: Supplement Can Help Take the 'Dys' Out of Female Sexual Dysfunction, Researchers Promote Idea of 'Sexual Wellness' - WebMD, 6/5/01 - "ArginMax -- a dietary cocktail consisting of ginseng, ginkgo, B vitamins, calcium, folic acid, and other vitamins and minerals -- is being heralded as one component of a lifestyle that improves sexual performance and helps prevent problems associated with intimacy"
  • Beyond the Label: American Ginseng Protects - Nutrition Science News, 2/01 - "American ginseng has been shown to display synergistic effects against breast cancer cell growth when combined with chemotherapy. From the protective perspective, American ginseng displays potent antioxidant defenses against free radical damage to human LDL cholesterol, which is reinforced by the vitamin C that inhabits LDL. The most striking results attributable to this American root are found in its ability to smooth out post-meal blood-sugar surges and carbohydrate metabolism in both nondiabetics and type II diabetics."
  • Saving Yourself from AGE - Life Enhancement Magazine, 8/00 - with American Ginseng, "The researchers found a reduction in plasma prolactin, a hormone connected with passive "nesting" behavior, suggesting that this may play a role in the ability of American ginseng to stimulate sexual activity in the male rat." (see prolactin)
  • Want a love potion? What to know before you try - CNN, 6/15/00 - "Tissue and animal studies of one form of ginseng, called panax, give some credence to the root's sexy reputation. A study published in the May 1995 issue of the journal British Pharmacology, for instance, concluded that substances in ginseng extract known as ginsenosides may work in a similar way to Viagra. Viagra enhances the effects of nitric oxide, which helps relax artery walls, allowing more blood flow into the penis. Ginsenosides may encourage the release of more nitric oxide."


  • Ginsenoside Rg1 activates brown adipose tissue to counteract obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice by regulating gut microbes and bile acid composition - Food Funct 2023 Apr 27 - "brown adipose tissue (BAT) ... In conclusion, these results suggest that Rg1 activates BAT to counteract obesity by regulating gut microbes and bile acid composition in HFD-fed mice" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Evaluation on the Efficacy and Safety of Panax Notoginseng Saponins in the Treatment of Stroke among Elderly People: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 206 Randomized Controlled Trials - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2023 May 4 - "Evidence regarding the effect of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) on treating elderly stroke patients is scare and inconsistent. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of PNS by means of meta-analysis so as to provide an evidence-based reference for the treatment of elderly patients with stroke. ... Single PNS intervention or PNS combined with WM/TAU significantly improves the neurological status, the overall clinical efficacy and daily living activities of elderly stroke patients. However, more multicenter RCT research with high quality is required in the future to verify the results in this study" - See Panax ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Combination of Astragalus membranaceus and Panax notoginseng as Main Components in the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2023 Apr 17 - "Astragalus membranaceus and Panax notoginseng (ARPN) ... The compatibility of Radix Astragali and Radix notoginseng as the main components can effectively improve the renal function of patients with diabetic nephropathy and delay the progress of diabetic nephropathy" - See Astragalus at Amazon.com and Panax ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Prevention effect of total ginsenosides and ginseng extract from Panax ginseng on cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression in mice - Phytother Res 2023 Apr 18 - "total ginsenosides (TGS) and ginseng extract (GE) ... both TGS and GE protected the hematopoietic function of bone marrow by inhibiting cell apoptosis, and recovering the normal cell cycle of BM; maintained the dynamic balance between the Th1 and Th2 cells; also protected the spleen, thymus, and liver. Meanwhile, TGS and GE protected the intestinal bacteria of immunosuppressed mice by increasing the abundance of lactobacillus and decreasing the abundance of the odoribacter and clostridia_UCG-014. The prevention effect of GE was superior to TGS in some parameters. In conclusion, TGS and GE protected the immune function of immunosuppressed mice induced by cyclophosphamide. Meanwhile, GE showed higher bioavailability and bioactivity compared with TGS, because the synergistic effect of polysaccharides and ginsenosides plays an important role in protecting the immune function"
  • Ginsenoside Rg3 Ameliorates DSS-Induced Colitis by Inhibiting NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Regulating Microbial Homeostasis - J Agric Food Chem 2023 Feb 8 - "Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a recurrent inflammatory disease without a specific cure or treatment for improvement. Here, we investigated the potential therapeutic effect and mechanism of ginsenoside Rg3 (Gin Rg3) on UC ... In summary, Gin Rg3 alleviated DSS-induced UC by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation and regulating gut microbiota homeostasis"
  • Ginsenoside Rg1 attenuates the NASH phenotype by regulating the miR-375-3p/ATG2B/PTEN-AKT axis to mediate autophagy and pyroptosis - Lipids Health Dis 2023 Feb 10 - "Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most frequent liver diseases at present, and there is no radical treatment ... This study showed that Rg1 participates in autophagy and pyroptosis through the miR-375-3p/ATG2B/PTEN-AKT pathway, thereby alleviating the occurrence and development of NASH, for that reason revealing Rg1 as a candidate drug for NASH"
  • Ginsenoside AD-2 Ameliorating Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Activation in HSC-T6 Cells and Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Mice via Regulation of VD-VDR Axis - J Agric Food Chem 2023 Jan 16 - "Ginsenoside 25-hydroxy protopanaxadiol (AD-2) isolated from ginseng was proved to have anti-hepatic fibrosis (HF) effect in our previous study. But the mechanism is unknown. The present study investigated the anti-HF effects and mechanisms of AD-2 on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation in HSC-T6 cells and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis (HF) in mice. Results showed that AD-2 significantly inhibited the LPS-induced activated HSC-T6 cells in vitro and markedly reduced the serum transaminase and hydroxyproline levels, pathological changes, and hepatic body ratio in CCl4-induced HF mice, indicating AD-2 ameliorated liver injury and reversed HF notably. Moreover, AD-2 decreased the expression of TGF-β1, α-SMA, and MMP2, and maintained TIMP1/MMP9 in balance with the level of vitamin D (VD) and the expression of VD nuclear receptor (VDR) and Sirt3 increased. In conclusion, the anti-HF mechanism of AD-2 is related to the inhibition of HSC activation, promotion of collagen degradation, and regulation of the VD/VDR axis" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Ginsenoside Compound K Ameliorates Osteoarthritis by Inhibiting the Chondrocyte Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated IRE1α-TXNIP-NLRP3 Axis and Pyroptosis - J Agric Food Chem 2023 Jan 11 - "Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease, and studies have reported that the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in chondrocytes caused by the cartilage tissue damage could mediate the activation of Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes through inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha (IRE1α) and thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP). Ginsenoside compound K (CK) has an inhibitory effect on IRE1α activation ... In conclusion, CK hindered OA progression by inhibiting the ERS-IRE1α-TXNIP-NLRP3 axis. Overall, our data indicate that CK could be useful in the treatment of OA and other chronic inflammatory diseases."
  • Ginsenoside Rc Alleviates Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Reducing Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis: Role of SIRT1 Activation - J Agric Food Chem 2023 Jan 10 - "Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury occurs when coronary blood supply is impaired and then re-established, leading to additional injury to the myocardial tissue, including mitochondria oxidative stress and apoptosis ... In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that ginsenoside Rc ameliorated MI/R injury by reducing mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptosis, at least in part, by activating SIRT1" - See ginseng at Amazon.com
  • Structure-specific antitumor effects and potential gut microbiota-involved mechanisms of ginseng polysaccharides on B16F10 melanoma-bearing mice - Food Funct 2023 Jan 6 - "Ginseng polysaccharides (GPs) have shown gut microbiota-related antitumor effects. However, the relation between their structures and antitumor functions remains unknown. Here, crude polysaccharide (GP-c) and its fractions neutral polysaccharide (GP-n) and pectin (GP-a) were prepared for structure characterization and anti-B16F10 melanoma effect evaluation, and their influence on gut microbiota diversities and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were also analyzed ... GP-n is essential for the anti-melanoma effects of GP, and the potential mechanisms might be related with its specific regulation of Allobaculum and Bifidobacterium abundance, and tumor-associated SCFAs levels. The outcomes highlighted here enable a deeper insight into the structure-function relationship of GP and propose new opinions on its antitumor effect"
  • Total saponins of panax ginseng via the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis attenuates neuroinflammation and exerted antidepressant-like effects in chronic unpredictable mild stress in rats - Phytother Res 2022 Dec 29 - "Total saponins of Panax ginseng (TSPG) have antidepressant effects. However, the underlying antidepressant mechanism of TSPG remains not clear ... It is suggested that the antidepressant effect of TSPG may be achieved through inhibition of CX3CL1/CX3CR1" - See Panax ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Ginsenoside CK improves skeletal muscle insulin resistance by activating DRP1/PINK1-mediated mitophagy - Food Funct 2022 Dec 23 - "Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is the main cause of type 2 diabetes, and mitochondria play a key role. Ginsenoside CK is the main active compound of ginseng with a variety of therapeutic effects, but few studies have reported on its mechanism towards skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Here, we found that CK significantly increased skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity, thereby alleviating hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Furthermore, the effects of CK on skeletal muscle were associated with an improved mitochondrial fusion/fission dynamics balance and fatty acid oxidation. In fatty acid (FA)-induced C2C12 cells, CK promoted the translocation of GLUT4 to the cell membrane to improve glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis and also enhanced the mitochondrial quality. CK ameliorated the damaged mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), which was based on mitophagy activation. After the knockdown of mitophagy-related receptors, we found that DRP1/PINK1 was the key pathway of CK-induced mitophagy. These findings indicated that ginsenoside CK is a promising lead compound against diabetes" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Ginsenoside Rk1 Prevents UVB Irradiation-Mediated Oxidative Stress, Inflammatory Response, and Collagen Degradation via the PI3K/AKT/NF-κB Pathway In Vitro and In Vivo - J Agric Food Chem 2022 Dec 6 - "Long-term exposure to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, especially UVB, can trigger destructive intracellular effects, including various types of DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses, leading to accelerated skin aging. Ginsenoside Rk1, a rare ginsenoside pertaining to panaxadiol saponins, has been certified to possess underlying anti-inflammatory effects. Nevertheless, the efficiency of Rk1 against the photoaging of human skin and the latent molecular mechanisms are still unclear ... The UVB-induced inflammatory response was alleviated by Rk1 application via regulation of the secretion of various proinflammatory cytokines. Additionally, western blot assays illustrated that Rk1 intervention inhibited collagen degradation by reducing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases. Further studies revealed that Rk1 could suppress the PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo. Molecular docking results indicated that Rk1 might effectively bind to the active pockets of PI3K, AKT, and NF-κB. The PI3K activator 740 Y-P clearly reversed the effects of Rk1 on oxidative stress, the inflammatory response, and collagen degradation in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Moreover, histological and Masson staining verified that the administration of Rk1 to BALB/c nude mice remarkably ameliorated UVB-induced skin roughness, epidermal thickening, collagen fiber arrangement disorder, and wrinkles. Overall, the evidence provided in this study suggested that Rk1 could be applied for the development of effective natural antiphotoaging agents for skin health"
  • Ginsenoside Rc Modulates SIRT6-NRF2 Interaction to Alleviate Alcoholic Liver Disease - J Agric Food Chem 2022 Oct 27 - "Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a serious worldwide health problem. Ginsenoside Rc is a major active ingredient isolated from Panax ginseng, whose pharmacological effects counteract oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid accumulation ... Our results showed that ginsenoside Rc attenuated alcohol-induced liver injury by regulating oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid accumulation both in vivo and in vitro. Ginsenoside Rc did increase the deacetylase activity of SIRT6, thereby lowering acetylated NRF2 levels, which elevated NRF2's stability, and subsequently exerting an antioxidant effect. In keeping with this, the hepatic knockout of SIRT6 almost abolished the hepatoprotective effects of ginsenoside Rc against ALD. Therefore, our results suggest that ginsenoside Rc attenuated hepatocytes' damage and oxidative stress in ALD by up-regulating the SIRT6/NRF2 pathway. Hence, ginsenoside Rc may be a promising drug to treat or relieve ALD" - See Panax ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Ginsenoside Rg1 Reduces Oxidative Stress Via Nrf2 Activation to Regulate Age-Related Mesenchymal Stem Cells Fate Switch Between Osteoblasts and Adipocytes - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 Oct 11 - "An important feature of aging cells is the gradual loss of physiological integrity. As aging progresses, MSCs change preferring to differentiate toward adipocytes rather than osteoblasts. Oxidative stress accumulation is an important factor in age-related bone loss. Many experiments have demonstrated the good therapeutic effect of Ginsenoside (Rg1) on oxidative stress injury. In this study, we investigated the effect of Rg1 on the osteogenic-adipogenic differentiation balance of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC) ... We have uncovered a novel function for Rg1 that involves attenuating bone loss via Nrf2 antioxidant signaling, which in turn may potentially be utilized as a therapeutic agent for improving osteogenic differentiation in aging BMMSCs"
  • Ginsenoside Rg1 Inhibits STAT3 Expression by miR-15b-5p to Attenuate Lung Injury in Mice with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus-Associated Pulmonary Tuberculosis - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 Oct 4 - "Thus, we conclude that ginsenoside Rg1 inhibits the STAT3 expression by miR-15b-5p to attenuate lung injury in mice with type 2 diabetes mellitus-associated pulmonary tuberculosis"
  • Ginsenoside Rd ameliorates muscle wasting by suppressing the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway - J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2022 Sep 20 - "GRd ameliorates aging- and cancer-induced muscle wasting. Our findings suggest that GRd may be a novel therapeutic agent or adjuvant for reversing muscle wasting"
  • Ginseng oligosaccharides protect neurons from glutamate-induced oxidative damage through the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway - Food Funct 2022 Jul 27 - "The effects of ginseng oligosaccharides (GSOs) on neuronal oxidative injury induced by glutamate (GLU) and the molecular mechanisms involved were investigated ... These findings indicate that GSOs protect against GLU-induced neuronal oxidative damage through Nrf2/HO-1 activation"
  • Ginsenoside Rh4 Suppresses Metastasis of Esophageal Cancer and Expression of c-Myc via Targeting the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway - Nutrients 2022 Jul 25 - "The metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a leading cause of death worldwide, however, it has a poor prognosis. Ginsenoside Rh4 is a rare saponin that has been shown to have potential antitumor effectiveness in ESCC ... In this study, we found that Rh4 could inhibit ESCC metastasis by regulating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and the level of c-Myc, which is an important transcription factor in cancer"
  • Ginsenoside Rg1 Suppresses Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer via MicroRNA-126-PI3K-AKT-mTOR Pathway - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 Jul 1 - "As one of the most common cause of cancer death in the world, lung cancer causes approximately 1.6 million deaths annually. Among them, NSCLC accounts for approximately 85% of patients in whole lung cancer patients. Ginsenoside Rg1 has been confirmed to play an important role in various diseases including cancer. As one of miRNAs, miR-126 closely involves in pathogenesis of the several types of cancers including colorectal, prostate, bladder and gastric cancer, and so on ... Inhibition of Ginsenoside Rg1 on growth of lung cancer cells was through miR-126 and mTOR. Thus, the present study confirmed that Ginsenoside Rg1 remarkably inhibit lung cancer, which is through microRNA-126-PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway"
  • Role of Ginseng, Quercetin, and Tea in Enhancing Chemotherapeutic Efficacy of Colorectal Cancer - Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 Jun 20 - "As the most common gastrointestinal malignancy, colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Although multimodal chemotherapy has effectively improved the prognosis of patients with CRC in recent years, severe chemotherapy-associated side effects and chemoresistance still greatly impair efficacy and limit its clinical application. In response to these challenges, an increasing number of traditional Chinese medicines have been used as synergistic agents for CRC administration. In particular, ginseng, quercetin, and tea, three common dietary supplements, have been shown to possess the potent capacity of enhancing the sensitivity of various chemotherapy drugs and reducing their side effects. Ginseng, also named "the king of herbs", contains a great variety of anti-cancer compounds, among which ginsenosides are the most abundant and major research objects of various anti-tumor studies. Quercetin is a flavonoid and has been detected in multiple common foods, which possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties, especially with stronger anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects. As one of the most consumed beverages, tea has become particularly prevalent in both West and East in recent years. Tea and its major extracts, such as catechins and various constituents, were capable of significantly improving life quality and exerting anti-cancer effects both in vivo and in vitro" - See ginseng at Amazon.com, quercetin at Amazon.com and green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Panax notoginseng Alleviates Sepsis-Induced Acute Kidney Injury by Reducing Inflammation in Rats - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 May 21 - "Sepsis is defined as a host inflammatory response to infection that can result in end-organ dysfunction. One of the most common consequences of sepsis is acute kidney injury (AKI). Panax notoginseng powder (PNP) has been previously reported to protect against overactive inflammation process ... PNP attenuated kidney inflammation to protect against CLP-induced septic AKI in rats via inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway"
  • Ginsenoside Rh4 Inhibits Colorectal Cancer Cell Proliferation by Inducing Ferroptosis via Autophagy Activation - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 May 29 - "Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a severe threat to human health. Ginsenosides such as ginsenoside Rh4 have been widely studied in the antitumor field ... this study proves that Rh4 inhibits cancer cell proliferation by activating the ROS/p53 signaling pathway and activating autophagy to induce ferroptosis, which provides necessary scientific evidence of the great anticancer potential of Rh4"
  • The Protective Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Apoptosis in Human Ankle Joint Traumatic Arthritis Chondrocytes - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 Apr 22 - "The ankle biomechanics is easily changed due to the acute injury of the tissue around the ankle joint and the damage of the ankle joint structure, such as ankle instability and joint surface imbalance. When the mechanical load of the ankle changes, it can cause ankle regeneration and remodeling processes such as cartilage loss, bone remodeling, and degenerative changes ... a specific concentration of Rg1 could promote the proliferation of IL-1β-induced HAC cells and inhibit apoptosis. At the same time, Rg1 treatment with specific concentration can reduce the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in HACs and improve the related expression of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Furthermore, qRT-PCR and western blot results showed that Rg1 could improve the low expression of Bcl-2 and inhibit the high expression of Bax, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, FasL, AIF, and Cyto c in IL-1β-induced cells. In summary, Rg1 can inhibit IL-1β-induced apoptosis of HAC cells by decreasing the activity of PI3K/Akt/mitochondrial signaling pathway, and Rg1 has a protective effect on apoptosis of HAC cells."
  • Notoginsenoside R1 ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction to circumvent neuronal energy failure in acute phase of focal cerebral ischemia - Phytother Res 2022 Apr 13 - "Due to sudden loss of cerebral blood circulation, acute ischemic stroke (IS) causes neuronal energy attenuation or even exhaustion by mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in aggravation of neurological injury. In this study, we investigated if Notoginsenoside R1 ameliorated cerebral energy metabolism by limiting neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction in acute IS ... Notoginsenoside R1 administration increases cerebral glucose and lactate transportation and ATP levels, ameliorates neuronal mitochondrial function after IS. Notoginsenoside R1 may be a novel protective agent for neuronal mitochondria poststroke"
  • Ginsenoside compound K inhibits obesity-induced insulin resistance by regulation of macrophage recruitment and polarization via activating PPARγ - Food Funct 2022 Mar 21 - "ginsenoside CK could improve insulin resistance by reducing inflammation through the PPARγ/NF-κB signaling pathway, which implies that ginsenoside CK may be an effective agent against obesity or early diabetes"
  • Memory enhancement effect of saponins from Eleutherococcus senticosus leaves and blood-brain barrier-permeated saponins profiling using a pseudotargeted monitoring strategy - Food Funct 2022 Mar 21 - "Dried Eleutherococcus senticosus leaves (ESL), also known as Siberian ginseng tea, are beneficial for human neural disorders. Our previous studies showed that the aqueous extract of ESL enhanced memory in mice, and its saponin fraction (ESL-SAP) exhibited promising neuroprotective activities in vitro; however, the in vivo neurally related effect, bioactive material basis, and possible mechanism of action of ESL-SAP have not been investigated. Here, a series of memory and learning tests were carried out, and the results evidenced a significant enhancement effect of ESL-SAP ... blood-brain barrier (BBB) ... A further network pharmacology analysis was conducted on BBB-permeated compounds, which indicated that the in vivo mechanism of ESL-SAP might be effective through multiple targets and pathways, such as the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, to exert neuroprotective effects. Moreover, the molecular docking experiments demonstrated that key BBB-transferred saponins primarily interacted with targets HRAS, MAPK1, and MAPK8 to produce the neuroprotective effect"
  • Anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenetic and antiviral activities of dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins from the roots of Panax notoginseng - Food Funct 2022 Mar 21 - "these findings enrich knowledge of the diversity of saponins in P. notoginseng and suggest that the dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins from P. notoginseng may be developed as potential functional foods to treat inflammation, angiogenesis or dengue-related diseases" - See Panax ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Rg1 Protects Hematopoietic Stem Cells from LiCl-Induced Oxidative Stress via Wnt Signaling Pathway - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 Mar 27 - "Ginsenoside Rg1 is a major component of ginseng with antioxidative and antiaging effects, which is a traditional Chinese medicine ... Rg1 exerts the pharmacological effect of maintaining the activity of GSK-3β in Sca-1+ hematopoietic cells, enhances the antioxidant potential of cells, improves the redox homeostasis, and thus protects cells from the decline in differentiation ability caused by aging. This study provides a potential therapeutic strategy to reduce stem cell pool failure caused by chronic oxidative damage to hematopoietic stem cells"
  • Ginsenoside Rk1 regulates glutamine metabolism in hepatocellular carcinoma through inhibition of the ERK/c-Myc pathway - Food Funct 2022 Mar 22 - "Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ... ginsenoside Rk1 could be a promising candidate for the clinical treatment of HCC"
  • Exploring the Mechanism of Astragalus propinquus Schischkin and Panax Notoginseng (A&P) Compounds in the Treatment of Renal Fibrosis and Chronic Kidney Disease Based on Integrated Network Analysis - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 Feb 27 - "Astragalus propinquus Schischkin and Panax notoginseng (A&P) has been widely used in clinical practice to treat chronic kidney disease (CKD) for many years and achieved a remarkable improvement of these outcomes ... What's more, the effect of A&P and potential genes was furthermore verified by using unilateral ureteral ligation (UUO) in rodent model. The results showed that the expression of HSF1 and RELA both at transcript and protein level was significantly upregulated in UUO model, but the expression was markedly reversed after A&P intervention. To further guide the interpretation of active ingredients from A&P on the effect of HSF1 and RELA, we performed a molecular docking assay and the results showed that active ingredients such as coptisine docked well into HSF1 and RELA. In total, these results suggest that A&P may improve RF in CKD by regulating HSF1 and RELA, which provides a basis for further understanding the mechanism of A&P in the treatment of RF and CKD" - See astragalus at Amazon.com and Panax ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Ginsenoside compound K inhibits obesity-induced insulin resistance by regulation of macrophage recruitment and polarization via activating PPARγ - Food Funct 2022 Mar 8 - "The results showed that CK could dose-dependently reduce macrophage M1-type inflammatory factor expression in serum and adipose tissue, improve insulin resistance and glucose tolerance effectively, upregulate PPARγ expression and block TLR4/TRAF6/TAK1/NF-κB activation in obese mice. In addition, CK promoted the expression of IRS1/PI3K/AKT. Furthermore, our study showed that ginsenoside CK could improve insulin resistance by reducing inflammation through the PPARγ/NF-κB signaling pathway, which implies that ginsenoside CK may be an effective agent against obesity or early diabetes"
  • Ginseng in vascular dysfunction: A review of therapeutic potentials and molecular mechanisms - Phytother Res 2022 Jan 13 - "Vascular dysfunction can lead to a variety of fatal diseases, including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. Although a large number of studies have reported the therapeutic effects of natural compounds on vascular-related diseases, ginseng is still the focus of research. Ginseng and its active substances have bioactive effects against different diseases with vascular dysfunction. In this review, we summarized the key molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways of ginseng, its different active ingredients or formula in the prevention and treatment of vascular-related diseases, including cardiac-cerebral vascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes complications, and cancer. Moreover, the bidirectional roles of ginseng in promoting or inhibiting angiogenesis have been highlighted"
  • Exploring the Mechanism of Panax notoginseng Saponins against Alzheimer's Disease by Network Pharmacology and Experimental Validation - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 Dec 30 - "Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) have been used for neurodegenerative disorders such as cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) ... An ingredient-target disease and function-pathway network demonstrated that 38 active ingredients were derived from PNS modulated 364 common targets shared by PNS and AD. GO and KEGG analysis, further clustering analysis, showed that mTOR signaling targets were associated with the neuroprotective effects of PNS. In Aβ-treated PC12 cells, PNS treatment improved neuroprotective effect, including mTOR inhibition and autophagy activation" - See Panax ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Ginsenoside Re Improves Inflammation and Fibrosis in Hepatic Tissue by Upregulating PPAR γ Expression and Inhibiting Oxidative Stress in db/db Mice - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 Oct 8 - "Ginsenoside Re (Re) is the main component of "Zhenyuan Capsule" (ZYC), which was wildly used in clinic in China for adjunctive treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) and type II diabetes (T2DM). Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most important complications of T2DM, as well as an important risk factor of CHD ... some evidence suggested that hepatic injury in db/db mice was attenuated by Re administering. Collagen deposition and aminotransferase elevation were significantly downregulated in the DB + Re group compared to those in the DB Group. The mechanisms of the protect effects of Re represented in db/db mice with NAFLD might be inhibiting oxidative stress and the reupregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (pparγ) expression. The results of this study indicated that ZYC might be able to help T2DM patients with NAFLD to control the progress of NAFLD as an alternation of thiazolidinediones, synthetic agonists of PPARγ, whose side effects and adverse events should not be ignored" - See Ginsenoside Re at Amazon.com.
    • Ginsenoside - wikipedia.org - "Ginsenosides or panaxosides are a class of natural product steroid glycosides and triterpene saponins. Compounds in this family are found almost exclusively in the plant genus Panax (ginseng), which has a long history of use in traditional medicine that has led to the study of pharmacological effects of ginseng compound"
  • Ginsenoside Rg1 Alleviates Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Mice via Activating ER α-Regulating YAP Expression - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 Sep 29;2021 - "Ginsenoside Rg1 exerts an estrogenic effect by activating ERα, upregulating the expression of YAP, reducing liver oxidative stress injury, and inhibiting mitochondrial injury to protect the liver from ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice"
  • Effect of Ginseng Extracts on the Improvement of Osteopathic and Arthritis Symptoms in Women with Osteopenia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial - Nutrients 2021, 13(10), 3352 - "serum osteocalcin (OC), urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD), and DPD/OC measurements ... The GE 3 g group had a significantly increased serum OC concentration. Similarly, the GE 3 g group showed a significant decrease in the DPD/OC ratio, representing bone resorption and bone formation. Moreover, among all the groups, the GE 3 g group demonstrated appreciable improvements in the WOMAC index scores. In women with osteopenia, intake of 3 g of GE per day over 12 weeks notably improved the knee arthritis symptoms with improvements in the OC concentration and ratios of bone formation indices like DPD/OC" - [Nutra USA] - See ginseng at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Ginsenoside Rk3 Suppresses Hepatocellular Carcinoma Development through Targeting the Gut-Liver Axis - J Agric Food Chem 2021 Aug 20 - "Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Our previous reports showed that ginsenoside Rk3 provided excellent efficacy in alleviating the intestinal inflammatory response and protecting the liver, but its mechanism for HCC prevention remains to be explored. Here, the results suggested that Rk3 displayed potent antitumor effects against a dimethyl nitrosamine- and CCl4-induced HCC mouse model. Results revealed that Rk3 application inhibited liver injury, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. In parallel, Rk3 lowered the inflammatory response by decreasing the expression of inflammatory cytokines, inducing apoptosis, and blocking the cell cycle. Meanwhile, Rk3 effectively ameliorated the gut microbiota dysbiosis. Furthermore, correlation analysis revealed that the LPS-TLR4 signaling pathway, which was inhibited by Rk3, plays a key role in preventing HCC. To conclude, our research provides valuable insights into how Rk3 application targets the gut-liver axis and suppresses HCC development, suggesting that Rk3 might be a promising candidate for clinical treatment of HCC" - See Panax ginseng at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer Phenolic Acid Extract Alleviates Ultraviolet B-Irradiation-Induced Photoaging in a Hairless Mouse Skin Photodamage Model - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 Aug 2 - "Here, we evaluated the in vivo skin-protective effects of topical applications of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer extract (PG2) and its phenolic acid- (PA-) based components against UVB-induced skin photoaging. PG2 or PA applied to skin of hairless mice after UVB-irradiation alleviated UVB-induced effects observed in untreated skin, such as increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL), increased epidermal thickness, and decreased stratum corneum water content without affecting body weight. Moreover, PG2 and PA treatments countered reduced mRNA-level expression of genes encoding filaggrin (FLG), transglutaminase-1 (TGM1), and hyaluronan synthases (HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3) caused by UVB exposure and reduced UVB-induced collagen fiber degradation by inhibiting the expression of matrix metalloproteinase genes encoding MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9. Meanwhile, topical treatments reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA-level expression in photodamaged skin, leading to the inhibition of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA-level expression. Thus, ginseng phenolic acid-based preparations have potential value as topical treatments to protect skin against UVB-induced photoaging" - See Panax ginseng at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Ginsenoside F2 Suppresses Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Cells and Obesity in Mice via the AMPK Pathway - J Agric Food Chem 2021 Aug 3 - "Ginsenoside F2 (GF2) is a protopanaxdiol saponin from Panax ginseng leaves and possesses many potential pharmacological properties. GF2 may prevent obesity by directly binding to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and inhibiting adipocyte differentiation ... GF2 suppressed adipogenesis and obesity by regulating the expression of adipokines and activating the AMPK pathway. Hence, the findings suggest that GF2 may have potential therapeutic implications to treat obesity"
  • Ginsenoside Rg5 Improves Insulin Resistance and Mitochondrial Biogenesis of Liver via Regulation of the Sirt1/PGC-1α Signaling Pathway in db/db Mice - J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jul 26 - "Our previous study demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg5 (Rg5) could attenuate renal injury in diabetic mice but its underlying mechanism in mitochondrial biogenesis and insulin sensitivity remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that Rg5 intervention significantly inhibited blood glucose increases in db/db mice, improved liver function damage and hepatocyte apoptosis, and activated the IRS-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT insulin metabolism signaling pathway. Rg5 treatment also increased the level of glycogen synthesis and activated sirtuin1 (Sirt1) to increase glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant HepG2 (IR-HepG2) cells. Rg5 intervention also effectively improved liver oxidative stress and inflammation in db/db mice and increased mitochondrial biogenesis caused by T2DM. Additionally, the Rg5 treatment increased the mitochondrial mass in IR-HepG2 cells and activated Sirt1 to regulate the Sirt1/PGC-1α/mitofusin-2 mitochondrial biosynthesis pathway. Our findings demonstrated that Rg5 enhanced liver mitochondrial biogenesis and insulin sensitivity in db/db mice by activating the Sirt1/PGC-1α signaling pathway, suggesting the potential of Rg5 as a natural product for T2DM interventions"
  • Ginsenoside Rb1 induces a pro-neurogenic microglial phenotype via PPARγ activation in male mice exposed to chronic mild stress - J Neuroinflammation 2021 Aug 9 - "Anti-inflammatory approaches are emerging as a new strategy for the treatment of depressive disorders. Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), a major component of Panax ginseng, can inhibit inflammatory cascade and alleviate depressive-like behaviors. Microglia can promote or inhibit adult hippocampal neurogenesis according to their functional phenotypes ... These findings demonstrated that GRb1 alleviated depressive-like behaviors of CMS-exposed male mice mainly through PPARγ-mediated microglial activation and improvement of adult hippocampus neurogenesis"
  • Selected root plant supplementation reduces indices of exercise-induced muscle damage: A systematic review and meta-analysis - Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2020 Nov 16 - "This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the effects of selected root plants (curcumin, ginseng, ginger and garlic) on markers of muscle damage and muscular performance measures following muscle-damaging protocols. We included 25 studies (parallel and crossover design) with 353 participants and used the PEDro scale to appraise each study ... The meta-analysis showed that the supplemental (SUPP) condition showed significantly lower levels of indirect muscle damage markers (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and myoglobin) and muscle soreness at 24 hours and 48 hours (p < 0.01) than the placebo (PLA) condition. The inflammatory markers were significantly lower for the SUPP condition than the PLA condition at 24 hours (p = 0.02), although no differences were identified at 48 hours (p = 0.40). There were no significant differences in muscular performance measures between the SUPP and PLA conditions at 24 hours and 48 hours (p > 0.05) post-exercise. According to our qualitative data, a number of studies reported a reduction in oxidative stress (e.g., malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase) with a concomitant upregulation of anti-oxidant status, although other studies showed no effects. Accordingly, selected root plants minimised the level of several biomarkers of muscle damage, inflammation and muscle soreness during periods of exercise-induced muscle damage. However, the benefits of these supplements in ameliorating oxidative stress, increasing anti-oxidant status and accelerating recovery of muscular performance appears equivocal, warranting further research in these outcome measures" - See curcumin at Amazon.com and iHerb, ginseng at Amazon.com and iHerb and garlic supplements at Amazon.com and garlic at iHerb.com.
  • Protective effect of supplementation with Ginseng, Lilii Bulbus and Poria against PM 2 .5 in air pollution-induced cardiopulmonary damage among adults - Phytother Res 2020 Sep 6 - "This randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial among 120 healthy adults in Wuhan, China, was conducted to evaluate whether the supplementation of herbal product composed of Ginseng, Lilii Bulbus and Poria (GLP) which have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity offers protective effects on PM2.5 -induced damage to cardiopulmonary health ... Compared to the placebo group, the GLP group showed significant increased antioxidant biomarkers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and paraoxonase1 (PON1). What is more, interleukin-6 (IL-6), an inflammatory biomarker, was significantly decreased in the GLP group. In addition, nitric oxide and club cell secretory protein (CC16) were increased but heart rate was decreased in the GLP group. As for pulmonary function indicators, significantly increased fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) was observed in the GLP group. Taken together, we concluded that GLP supplementation is associated with decreased inflammatory biomarker and increased antioxidant biomarkers suggesting cardiopulmonary benefits against PM2.5 exposure among young adults in China"
  • Ginseng, good for bone health, registered as a publicly recognized functional ingredient - The Rural Development Administration, 7/27/20 - "40 Older women 90 People 30 In groups of three 12 Weekly progress. contrast Group Fake medicine (Placebo) of, The rest of the groups were each using ginseng extract OneWork 1g, 3gEach To eat ... 8 weekly 300mg/kgTibia of old rat group treated with ginseng extract of (Shin bone) Serum osteocalcin content significantly increased inand, It was confirmed that serum calcium was also significantly increased" - Note:  It's in Korean, you have to select 'Translate'. [Nutra USA]
  • Anticancer Effect of Mountain Ginseng on Human Breast Cancer: Comparison with Farm-Cultivated Ginseng - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 Jul 25 - "MGE showed stronger cytotoxicity than farm-cultivated ginseng extract (FGE) through promoting ROS generation. Also MGE dose-dependently brought about mitochondrial dysfunction in MCF-7 cells. In addition, MGE induced apoptosis through enhancing the activities of caspase-3/7 by regulation of expression of Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3 in the MCF-7 cells. Consistent with the in vitro results, MGE significantly reduced tumor weights compared with FGE in mice transplanted with MCF-7 cells, and it regulated the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, such as Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved PARP, in the tumor tissues. Additionally, MGE included higher total ginsenoside contents than FGE. In conclusion, MGE, which is richer in ginsenosides, exerts a stronger anticancer action than FGE in breast cancer. The anticancer action of MGE may be closely correlated with caspase-mediated apoptosis through upregulating ROS generation. Therefore, these findings may be helpful for a clinical understanding of the anticancer mechanism of MGE for breast cancer patients" - See mountain ginseng at Amazon.com but it doesn't show anything with 'mountain'.
  • Effectiveness and Safety of Panax ginseng Extract on Hepatic Dysfunction: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 Jul 16 - "Panax ginseng extract (GS-KG9) ... A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted from December 2017 to January 2019. The trial included 60 subjects between the ages of 19 and 70 who had higher alanine transaminase (ALT) levels than the normal upper limit. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: GS-KG9 (n = 30) and placebo (n = 30). The former was administered three GS-KG9 capsules (3 g/day) and the latter three placebo capsules (3 g/day) twice each day orally after meals in the morning and evening for 12 weeks ... After 12 weeks of treatment, the ALT levels were significantly reduced in the GS-KG9 group compared to the placebo group (p=0.009). The GGT level of the GS-KG9 group was significantly lower than that of the placebo group (p=0.036). Mild AEs, such as diarrhea, occurred during the study. There were no significant differences between the two groups" - See Panax ginseng at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Acute Effects of Combined Bacopa, American Ginseng and Whole Coffee Fruit on Working Memory and Cerebral Haemodynamic Response of the Prefrontal Cortex: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study - Nutr Neurosci 2019 Nov 18;1-12 - "This study assessed whether a multi-ingredient herbal supplement containing Bacopa monniera (BM), Panax quinquefolius ginseng (PQ) and whole coffee fruit extract (WCFE) could enhance cognitive performance and cerebral-cortical activation during tasks of working memory and attention ... 40 healthy adults between 18-60 years (M = 34.46 SD = 12.95) completed tasks of working memory and attention at baseline and 45 min post active or placebo supplement consumption ... prefrontal cortex (PFC) ... Working memory task performance on the N-back task was significantly improved following active supplement consumption compared to placebo in terms of accuracy (p < .01) and response time (p < .05). Improved performance was associated with a reduction of PFC activation (p < .001) related to effortful mental demand, reflecting increased neural efficiency concomitant with improved cognitive performance" - [Nutra USA] - See Bacopa monnieri at Amazon.com and iHerb, ginseng at Amazon.com and iHerb, coffee fruit extract at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Eleutherococcus senticosus Leaf and Rhizome of Drynaria fortunei Enhances Cognitive Function: A Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind Study in Healthy Adults - Nutrients. 2020 Jan 23;12(2) - "We previously found that the water extract of Eleutherococcus senticosus leaves (ES extract) enhanced cognitive function in normal mice. Our study also revealed that the water extract of rhizomes of Drynaria fortunei (DR extract) enhanced memory function in Alzheimer's disease model mice. In addition, our previous experiments suggested that a combined treatment of ES and DR extracts synergistically improved memory and anti-stress response in mice ... The intake period was 12 weeks. The Japanese version of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) test was used for neurocognitive assessment. The combined treatment of ES and DR extracts significantly increased the figure recall subscore of RBANS (p = 0.045) in an intergroup comparison. Potentiation of language domain ((p = 0.040), semantic fluency (p = 0.021) and figure recall (p = 0.052) was shown by the extracts (in intragroup comparison). In anti-stress response, the anxiety/uncertainly score was improved by the extract in an intragroup comparison (p = 0.022). No adverse effects were observed. The combined treatment of ES and DR extracts appear to safely enhance a part of cognitive function in healthy adults" - [Nutra USA] - See Siberian ginseng at Amazon.com.  You're on your own trying to find Drynaria fortunei.
    • Eleutherococcus senticosus - wikipedia - "Eleutherococcus senticosus is a species of small, woody shrub in the family Araliaceae native to Northeastern Asia.[1][3] It may be colloquially called devil's bush,[4] Siberian ginseng, eleuthero, ciwujia, Devil's shrub, shigoka, touch-me-not, wild pepper, or kan jang"
    • Aglaomorpha fortunei - wikipedia - "This species is also more frequently cited by Asian studies by its synonym, Drynaria fortunei;[2] however, this is an illegitimate name, the correct name in the genus Drynaria being Drynaria roosii"
  • Ginsenoside Rg3 (Shenyi Capsule) Combined with Chemotherapy for Digestive System Cancer in China: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019 Dec 17 - "Ginsenoside Rg3 combined with chemotherapy can improve the clinical efficacy and alleviate treatment-induced side effects for digestive system cancer" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Ginsenoside Rg3 Attenuates Angiotensin II-Mediated Renal Injury in Rats and Mice by Upregulating Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 in the Renal Tissue - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019 Nov 29 - "Angiotensin II- (Ang II-) mediated renal injury represents a major pathogenetic mechanism in most chronic kidney diseases. Our previous research demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) attenuates Ang II elevation in the myocardium in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). It is possible that Rg3 has similar effects in the renal tissue. In this research, we first demonstrated that Rg3 could attenuate Ang II increase in the kidney of SHR and reduce hypertensive nephropathy progression. Then, we found that Rg3 attenuated Ang II increase by upregulating angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the renal tissue. We confirmed this finding in an exogenous Ang II-infused mice model of renal injury, and two models showed consistent results. In conclusion, Rg3 attenuates Ang II-mediated renal injury in rats and mice by upregulating ACE2 in the renal tissue. This research is the first to demonstrate that Rg3 increases tissue ACE2 levels in vivo"
  • Panax notoginseng saponins suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced barrier disruption and monocyte adhesion on bEnd.3 cells via the opposite modulation of Nrf2 antioxidant and NF-κB inflammatory pathways - Phytother Res. 2019 Aug 30 - "Dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a prerequisite for the pathogenesis of many cerebral diseases. Oxidative stress and inflammation are well-known factors accounting for BBB injury. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS), a clinical commonly used drug against cerebrovascular disease, possess efficient antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity ... The results showed that PNS mitigated the decrease of Trans-Endothelial Electrical Resistance, increase of paracellular permeability, and loss of tight junction proteins in bEnd.3 BBB model. Meanwhile, PNS suppressed the THP-1 monocytes adhesion on bEnd.3 monolayer. Moreover, PNS prevented the pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion and reactive oxygen species generation in bEnd.3 cells stimulated with LPS. Mechanism investigations suggested that PNS promoted the Akt phosphorylation, activated Nrf2 antioxidant signaling, and inhibited the NF-κB activation. All the effects of PNS could be abolished by PI3K inhibition at different levels. Taken together, these observations suggest that PNS may act as an extrinsic regulator that activates Nrf2 antioxidant defense system depending on PI3K/Akt and inhibits NF-κB inflammatory signaling to attenuate LPS-induced BBB disruption and monocytes adhesion on cerebral endothelial cells in vitro"
  • Ginsenoside Rg1 protects against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by ameliorating lipid peroxidation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and inflammasome activation - Biol Pharm Bull. 2018 Aug 21 - "ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) ... These results suggested that Rg1 may protect against NAFLD, through regulation of lipid peroxidation, ER stress and inflammasome activation"
  • A Combination of Essential Fatty Acids, Panax Ginseng Extract, and Green Tea Catechins Modifies Brain fMRI Signals in Healthy Older Adults - J Nutr Health Aging. 2018;22(7):837-846 - "Before and after supplementation with the investigational product or placebo, participants completed cognitive tests including the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE), Stroop test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), and Immediate and Delayed Recall tests, as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a standard cognitive task switching paradigm ... Performance on the MMSE, Stroop test, and DSST increased significantly over one month of supplementation with the investigational product (one-sample t tests, p<.05) although differences between these changes and corresponding changes during supplementation with placebo were not significant (two-sample t tests, p>.05). During supplementation with the investigational product, brain activation during task performance increased significantly more than during supplementation with placebo in brain regions known to be activated by this task (anterior and posterior cingulate cortex). Functional connectivity during task execution between task regions (middle frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex) increased significantly during supplementation with the investigational product, relative to placebo. Functional connectivity during rest between task regions (precentral gyrus and middle frontal gyrus) and default mode network regions (medial frontal gyrus and precuneus) decreased during supplementation with the investigational product relative to placebo, suggesting greater segregation of task and rest related brain activity" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com ginseng at Amazon.com and green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Panax ginseng on Obesity in Animal Models: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2018 May 15;2018:2719794 - "Our meta-analysis indicated that oral administration of P. ginseng significantly inhibits weight gain and improves serum lipid profiles in animal obesity models"
  • Towards natural mimetics of metformin and rapamycin - Aging (Albany NY). 2017 Nov 15 - "The analysis revealed many novel candidate metformin and rapamycin mimetics, including allantoin and ginsenoside (metformin), epigallocatechin gallate and isoliquiritigenin (rapamycin), and withaferin A (both)" - [Nutra USA] - See ginseng at Amazon.com and ashwagandha at Amazon.com.  See metformin at the Antiaging Store.
    • Withaferin A - wikipedia.org - "Withaferin A is a steroidal lactone, derived from Acnistus arborescens,[1] Withania somnifera[2] (Indian Winter cherry or Ashwagandha in Sanskrit) and other members of Solanaceae family"
  • Memory enhancement of fresh ginseng on deficits induced by chronic restraint stress in mice - Nutr Neurosci. 2017 Sep 15:1-8 - "Chronic stress exposure can disrupt the balance of organisms, result in learning and memory impairments and induce oxidative stress ... Fresh ginseng (FG), an unprocessed raw root of ginseng, has antioxidant and neuroprotective activities and has been used as functional health food in Asian countries for many years ... Our results suggest that FG treatment could improve CRS-induced learning and memory impairments and oxidative stress damage. FG is an intriguing therapeutic agent and functional health food in stress-related dementia"
  • Ginseng Extract G115 Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Depression in Mice by Increasing Brain BDNF Levels - Nutrients. 2017 Aug 24;9(9) - "The decrease of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been reported in alcohol use disorder and major depression. The effective treatment of these comorbid diseases remains undiscovered ... Ginseng extract G115, the standardized extract of Panax ginseng, is a widely-used nutraceutical that is beneficial for various central nervous system disorders ... The results demonstrated that the increase of immobility time in depressant mice induced by ethanol was reversed by both G115 and amitriptyline treatment. A significant increase of BDNF levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex was observed in ethanol-treated mice receiving G115. Taken together, this study provides scientific information on the use of G115 as an antidepressant that could be further used as a dietary supplement in comorbid alcohol use and major depressive disorders" - See Panax ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Red Ginseng on Genotoxicity and Health-Related Quality of Life after Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial - Nutrients. 2017 Jul 19;9(7) - "health-related quality of life (HRQL) ... there were no differences in adverse events between placebo and red ginseng groups. In terms of HRQL, red ginseng was associated with improved emotional functioning and decreased symptoms of fatigue, nausea and vomiting, and dyspnea, reduced anxiety and interference affecting life and improved daytime somnolence" - See red ginseng extract at Amazon.com.
  • Nephroprotective Effects of Anthocyanin from the Fruits of Panax ginseng (GFA) on Cisplatin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Mice - Phytother Res. 2017 Jul 21 - "Cisplatin is an effective anticancer chemotherapeutic agent, but the use of cisplatin in the clinic is severely limited by side effects. Nephrotoxicity is a major factor that contributes to the side effects of cisplatin chemotherapy. The aim of this research was to survey the nephroprotective effects of anthocyanin from the fruits of Panax ginseng (GFA) in a murine model of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury ... In conclusion, the findings from the present investigation demonstrate that GFA pre-administration can significantly prevent cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, which may be related to its antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and antiinflammatory effects" - See Panax ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Preventive Effects of Ginseng Total Saponins on Chronic Corticosterone-Induced Impairment in Astrocyte Structural Plasticity and Hippocampal Atrophy - Phytother Res. 2017 Jun 28 - "ginseng total saponins (GTS) ... These findings imply that the effects of GTS on corticosterone-induced depression-like behavior may be mediated partly through the protection to hippocampal astrocyte structural plasticity" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Korean Red Ginseng Extract Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Sorafenib through Abrogation of CREB and c-Jun Activation in Renal Cell Carcinoma - Phytother Res. 2017 May 22 - "Our results clearly demonstrate that KRGE can enhance the anticancer activity of sorafenib and may have a substantial potential in the treatment of RCC" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Saponins (ginsenosides) from the Leaves of Panax Quinquefolius Ameliorated Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice - J Agric Food Chem. 2017 Apr 21 - "Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most frequent inducement of drug-induced acute liver injury (ALI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of saponins (ginsenosides) from the leaves of Panax quinquefolius (PQS) against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and the involved mechanism were investigated ... The present study clearly demonstrates that PQS exerts a protective effect against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity due to its anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects. The findings from the present investigation show that PQS might be an effective candidate extract against drug-induced ALI"
  • White Ginseng Protects Mouse Hippocampal Cells Against Amyloid-Beta Oligomer Toxicity - Phytother Res. 2017 Jan 23 - "Amyloid-beta oligomer (AβO) is a soluble oligomer form of the Aβ peptide and the most potent amyloid-beta form that induces neuronal damage in Alzheimer's disease. We investigated the effect of dried white ginseng extract (WGE) on neuronal cell damage and memory impairment in intrahippocampal AβO (10 μM)-injected mice ... WGE improved memory impairment by inhibiting hippocampal cell death caused by AβO. In addition, AβO-injected mice treated with WGE showed restoration of reduced synaptophysin and choline acetyltransferase intensity and lower levels of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 in the hippocampus compared with those of vehicle-treated controls. These results suggest that WGE reverses memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease by attenuating neuronal damage and neuroinflammation in the AβO-injected mouse hippocampus"
  • Effects of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Learning and Memory in a Reward-directed Instrumental Conditioning Task in Chronic Restraint Stressed Rats - Phytother Res. 2016 Oct 20 - "Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the major active ingredients of Panax ginseng and has showed notable improving learning and memory effects in several behavioral tasks, such as water maze, shuttle-box, and step-through, based on avoidance ... chronic restraint stress (CRS) ... Rg1 has a good ability to improve learning and memory and also ameliorate impaired adaptive capacity induced by CRS. This amelioration effect of Rg1 might be mediated partially by BDNF/TrkB/Erk pathway in prefrontal cortex" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • American Ginseng Attenuates Colitis Associated Colon Carcinogenesis in Mice: Impact on Gut Microbiota and Metabolomics - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2016 Jul 21 - "oral ginseng significantly decreased AOM/DSS-induced colitis and colon carcinogenesis by inhibiting inflammatory cytokines, and restoring the metabolomic and microbiota profiles accordingly"
  • The effect of ginseng (genus Panax) on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials - J Hum Hypertens. 2016 Apr 14 - "Ginseng appears to have neutral vascular affects; therefore, should not be discouraged for concern of increased BP"
  • Protective Effects of Panax notoginseng Saponins against High Glucose-Induced Oxidative Injury in Rat Retinal Capillary Endothelial Cell - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016;2016:5326382 - "Diabetic retinopathy, a leading cause of visual loss and blindness, is characterized by microvascular dysfunction. Hyperglycemia is considered the major pathogenic factor for diabetic retinopathy and is associated with increased oxidative stress in the retina ... Panax notoginseng Saponins (PNS) in retinal capillary endothelial cells (RCECs) ... These results indicate that PNS exerts a protective effect against high glucose-induced injury in RCECs, which may be partially attributed to its antioxidative function" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on Cognitive Function and Quantitative EEG in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Preliminary Study - J Altern Complement Med. 2016 Mar 14 - "Korean red ginseng (KRG) has a nootropic effect. This study assessed the efficacy of KRG on cognitive function and quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) ... Fourteen patients with AD (mean age, 74.93 years; 11 women and 3 men) were recruited and treated with KRG (4.5 g per day) for 12 weeks. Cognitive function was assessed by the Korean Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) ... The FAB score improved significantly after 12 weeks of treatment. In the relative power spectrum analysis performed according to responsiveness, alpha power increased significantly in the right temporal area of the responders. The increments of relative alpha power in the right temporal, parietal, and occipital areas were significantly higher in the responders than the nonresponders"
  • Interferon-γ-Mediated Natural Killer Cell Activation by an Aqueous Panax ginseng Extract - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:603198 - "These results demonstrated that the aqueous P. ginseng extract augmented NK cell activation in vivo via an IFN-γ-dependent pathway"
  • Panax ginseng Improves Functional Recovery after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury by Regulating the Inflammatory Response in Rats: An In Vivo Study - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:817096 - "Ginseng is well known to possess anti-inflammatory effects ... P. ginseng treated group in SCI showed a significant improvement in locomotor function after the injury. The protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS at the lesion site and the cavity area were decreased following SCI by P. ginseng treatment. These results suggest that P. ginseng may improve the recovery of motor function after SCI which provides neuroprotection by alleviating posttraumatic inflammatory responses"
  • Ginseng Purified Dry Extract, BST204, Improved Cancer Chemotherapy-Related Fatigue and Toxicity in Mice - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:197459 - "BST204 was prepared by incubating crude ginseng extract with ginsenoside-β-glucosidase ... Treatment with BST204 significantly increased the running wheel activity and forced swimming time compared to the control group ... This result suggests that BST204 may improve chemotherapy-related fatigue and adverse toxic side effects" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Korean Red Ginseng Extract Enhances the Anticancer Effects of Imatinib Mesylate Through Abrogation p38 and STAT5 Activation in KBM-5 Cells - Phytother Res. 2015 Apr 8 - "Although imatinib mesylate (IM) in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) remains the best example of successful targeted therapy, majority of patients with CML suffer its toxicity profile and develop chemoresistance to existing therapeutic agents ... Korean red ginseng extract broadly suppressed the proliferation of five different cell lines, but KRGE was found to be the most potent inducer of apoptosis against KBM-5 cells ... The combination treatment of KRGE and IM caused pronounced suppression of p38 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 phosphorylation and induced phosphorylation of p53 compared with the individual treatment. Our results demonstrate that KRGE can enhance the anticancer activity of IM and may have a substantial potential in the treatment of CML"
  • The Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products Containing Ginseng among Tamoxifen-Treated Female Breast Cancer Survivors in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015 - "Chinese herbal products (CHPs) ... tamoxifen (TMX) ... The HR for the development of endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors who had ever taken Ginseng after TXM treatment was significantly decreased compared to those who never used CHP"
  • Ginseng Protects Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus by Modulating Multiple Immune Cells and Inhibiting Viral Replication - Nutrients. 2015 Feb 4;7(2):1021-1036 - "Ginseng has been used in humans for thousands of years but its effects on viral infection have not been well understood. We investigated the effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection using in vitro cell culture and in vivo mouse models ... Taken together, these results provide evidence that ginseng has protective effects against RSV infection through multiple mechanisms, which include improving cell survival, partial inhibition of viral replication and modulation of cytokine production and types of immune cells migrating into the lung" - See ginseng at Amazon.com and Cold FX, 300mg 168 Capsules at Amazon.com.
  • Antiatherosclerotic effect of korean red ginseng extract involves regulator of g-protein signaling 5 - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:985174 - "In conclusion, KRGE showed antiatherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory effects in western diet fed LDLr(-/-) mice and this effect could partly be mediated by RGS5 expression"
  • Modulation of Radiation-Induced Alterations in Oxidative Stress and Cytokine Expression in Lung Tissue by Panax Ginseng Extract - Phytother Res. 2014 Sep 15 - "We investigated the modulating effect of Panax ginseng extract (PGE) on radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) ... A high pretreatment dose of PGE may be a useful pharmacological approach for protection against RILI"
  • Korean Red Ginseng Extract Exhibits Neuroprotective Effects through Inhibition of Apoptotic Cell Death - Biol Pharm Bull. 2014;37(6):938-46 - "Taken together, these findings suggest that KRG extract may be beneficial for the prevention and/or treatment of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease"
  • Panax notoginseng saponins promotes stroke recovery by influencing expression of Nogo-A, NgR and p75NGF, in vitro and in vivo - Biol Pharm Bull. 2014;37(4):560-8 - "This may be the mechanism of Panax notoginseng saponins that contributes to the recovery of nerve function, which plays an important role in brain protection after cerebral infarction"
  • Red Ginseng Treatment for Two Weeks Promotes Fat Metabolism during Exercise in Mice - Nutrients. 2014 May 5;6(5):1874-85 - "These results suggest that RG treatment for two weeks promotes fat oxidation and a glycogen-sparing effect during exercise. This might lead to a delay in peripheral fatigue during endurance exercise performance"
  • Ginseng Treatment Attenuates Autophagic Cell Death in Chronic Cyclosporine Nephropathy - Nephrology (Carlton). 2014 May 5 - "These findings suggest that ginseng has a renoprotective effect against CsA-induced autophagic cell death"
  • Ginsenoside F2 Reduces Hair Loss by Controlling Apoptosis through the Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein Cleavage Activating Protein and Transforming Growth Factor-β Pathways in a Dihydrotestosterone-Induced Mouse Model - Biol Pharm Bull. 2014;37(5):755-763 - "the proliferation rates of DHT-treated human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs) and HaCaTs increased by 48% in the ginsenoside F2-treated group and by 12% in the finasteride-treated group"
  • Panax red ginseng extract regulates energy expenditures by modulating PKA dependent lipid mobilization in adipose tissue - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 Apr 20 - "Panax red ginseng extract treatments increased energy expenditures and prevented mice from diet induced obesity. Panax red ginseng extracts strongly activated Hormone Specific Lipase (HSL) via Protein Kinase A (PKA). Since activation of HSL induces lipolysis in WAT and fatty acid oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT), these results suggest that Panax red ginseng extracts prevent HFD induced obesity by regulating lipid mobilization" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Genistein Protects Hematopoietic Stem Cells against G-CSF-Induced DNA Damage - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014 Mar 10 - "Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been utilized to treat neutropenia in various clinical settings. Although clearly beneficial, there are concerns that the chronic use of G-CSF in certain conditions increases the risk of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and/or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The most striking example is in severe congenital neutropenia (SCN). SCN patients develop MDS/AML at a high rate that is directly correlated to the cumulative lifetime dosage of G-CSF. MDS and AML that arise in these settings are commonly associated with chromosomal deletions. We have demonstrated in this study that chronic G-CSF treatment in mice results in expansion of the hematopoietic stem cell population. In addition, primitive hematopoietic progenitors from G-CSF-treated mice show evidence of DNA damage as demonstrated by an increase in double strand breaks and recurrent chromosomal deletions. Concurrent treatment with genistein, a natural soy isoflavone, limits DNA damage in this population ... The protective effect of genistein was accomplished with plasma levels that are attainable through dietary supplementation" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Ginsenoside Rb3 attenuates oxidative stress and preserves endothelial function in hypertension - Br J Pharmacol. 2014 Feb 26 - "Panax ginseng is commonly used to treat cardiovascular complications in oriental countries. This study investigated mechanisms underlying vascular benefits of ginsenoside Rb3 (Rb3) in hypertension ... Ex vivo Rb3 treatment restores the impaired endothelial function in hypertension through reversing the over-expression of NADPH oxidases and subsequent ROS overproduction, leading to improved NO bioavailability. The present novel findings suggest that Rb3-containing medicinal plants might be effective in curtailing oxidative stress and protecting endothelial function in hypertension"
  • Ginseng Total Saponins Reverse Corticosterone-Induced Changes in Depression-Like Behavior and Hippocampal Plasticity-Related Proteins by Interfering with GSK-3 β -CREB Signaling Pathway - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:506735 - "This study aimed to explore the antidepressant mechanisms of ginseng total saponins (GTS) in the corticosterone-induced mouse depression model. In Experiment 1, GTS (50, 25, and 12.5 mg kg(-1) d(-1), intragastrically) were given for 3 weeks. In Experiment 2, the same doses of GTS were administrated after each corticosterone (20 mg kg(-1) d(-1), subcutaneously) injection for 22 days. In both experiments, mice underwent a forced swimming test and a tail suspension test on day 20 and day 21, respectively, and were sacrificed on day 22. Results of Experiment 1 revealed that GTS (50 and 25 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) exhibited antidepressant activity and not statistically altered hippocampal protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurofilament light chain (NF-L). Results of Experiment 2 showed that GTS (50 and 25 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) ameliorated depression-like behavior without normalizing hypercortisolism"
  • Immunomodulatory Activity of Red Ginseng against Influenza A Virus Infection - Nutrients. 2014 Jan 27;6(2):517-29 - "We investigated whether red ginseng extract (RGE) has preventive effects on influenza A virus infection in vivo and in vitro. RGE was found to improve survival of human lung epithelial cells upon influenza virus infection. Also, RGE treatment reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (IL-6, IL-8) probably in part through interference with the formation of reactive oxygen species by influenza A virus infection. Long-term oral administration of mice with RGE showed multiple immunomodulatory effects such as stimulating antiviral cytokine IFN-γ production after influenza A virus infection. In addition, RGE administration in mice inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the bronchial lumens. Therefore, RGE might have the potential beneficial effects on preventing influenza A virus infections via its multiple immunomodulatory functions"
  • Ginsenoside Rg3 Up-regulates the Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Human Dermal Papilla Cells and Mouse Hair Follicles - Phytother Res. 2013 Dec 26 - "Crude Panax ginseng has been documented to possess hair growth activity and is widely used to treat alopecia, but the effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on hair growth have not to our knowledge been determined ... Immunohistochemical analysis showed that expression of VEGF was significantly up-regulated by Rg3 in a dose-dependent manner in human DP cells and in mouse hair follicles. In addition, the CD8 and CD34 were also up-regulated by Rg3 in the mouse hair follicles. It may be concluded that Rg3 might increase hair growth through stimulation of hair follicle stem cells and it has the potential to be used in hair growth products" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
    • Ginsenoside Rg3 ≥98% (HPLC) - Sigma-Aldrich - "Ginsenoside Rg3 is a natural product isolated from Panax ginseng. Similar to other ginsenosides it exhibits cardio protective effects. Ginsenoside Rg3 enhances cardiac, hERG (IKr) and KCNQ (Iks), channel currents by interaction with the channel pore entryway. It also inhibits the palmitate-induced apoptosis of MIN6N8 mouse insulinoma beta-cells through modulating p44/42 MAPK activation. Ginsenoside Rg3 increases the level of the transcription factor Nrf2 and induces the mRNA levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp) 1 and Mrp3.1 Rg3 modulate neuroinflammation by attenuating the activation of microglia in response to systemic LPS treatment.2 It activates AMPK in HepG2 cells and reduces the lipid accumulation thereby decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease due to dyslipidemia"
  • Panax notoginseng Attenuates Experimental Colitis in the Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium Mouse Model - Phytother Res. 2013 Oct 21 - "Our data suggest that P. notoginseng is a promising candidate in preventing and treating colitis and inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
    • Panax pseudoginseng - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - "Panax notoginseng is a species of the genus Panax"
  • Ginsenoside Rg3 improves cardiac mitochondrial population quality:mimetic exercise training - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Oct 15 - "Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), one of the active ingredients in Panax ginseng, is well known in herbal medicine as a tonic and restorative agent ... In the present study, we compared the effects of Rg3 administration with aerobic exercise on mitochondrial adaptation in cardiac muscle tissue of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Three groups of SD rats were studied 1) sedentary control, 2) Rg3-treated and 3) aerobic exercise trained ... Rg3 mimics improved cardiac adaptations to exercise by regulating mitochondria dynamic remodeling and enhancing the quantity and quality of mitochondria"
  • The effect of fermented red ginseng on depression is mediated by lipids - Nutr Neurosci. 2013 Oct 1 - "The cortico-limbic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis has emerged as an important area for the cause and treatment of depression. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that hormones, energy sources, and minerals have a causal relationship with depression. The secondary aim was to test whether consumption of fermented red ginseng (FRG) would influence that causal relationship ... One group (49 women) was supplied with FRG capsules, and the other group (44 women) with placebo capsules, for 2 weeks. Both before and after the study, the participants filled out the Beck depression inventory questionnaire, and then blood samples were collected ... cognitive depression (CD) and somatic depression ... the effect of FRG consumption on CD occurred via the energy factor, which is mainly attributable to cholesterol"
  • Wisconsin Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) to Improve Cancer-Related Fatigue: A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial, N07C2 - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013 Jul 13 - "A multisite, double-blind trial randomized fatigued cancer survivors to 2000mg of American ginseng vs a placebo for 8 weeks ... Three hundred sixty-four participants were enrolled from 40 institutions ... Data support the benefit of American ginseng, 2000mg daily, on CRF over an 8-week period. There were no discernible toxicities associated with the treatment"
  • Long-term Ginsenoside Rg1 Supplementation Improves Age-Related Cognitive Decline by Promoting Synaptic Plasticity Associated Protein Expression in C57BL/6J Mice - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013 Jul 5 - "In aging individuals, age-related cognitive decline is the most common cause of memory impairment. Among the remedies, ginsenoside Rg1, a major active component of ginseng, is often recommended for its antiaging effects ... This study employed a scheme of Rg1 supplementation for female C57BL/6J mice, which started at the age of 12 months and ended at 24 months, to investigate the effects of Rg1 supplementation on the cognitive performance. We found that Rg1 supplementation improved the performance of aged mice in behavior test and significantly upregulated the expression of synaptic plasticity-associated proteins in hippocampus, including synaptophysin, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1, postsynaptic density-95, and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha, via promoting mammalian target of rapamycin pathway activation. These data provide further support for Rg1 treatment of cognitive degeneration during aging"
  • Effects of Korean ginseng berry extract on sexual function in men with erectile dysfunction: a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical study - Int J Impot Res. 2012 Dec 20 - "Ginseng is beneficial for many aspects of human physiology, including sexual function ... administered 4 tablets of either standardized Korean ginseng berry (SKGB, 350 mg ginseng berry extract per tablet), or placebo, daily, for 8 weeks. Efficacy was assessed with the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-15 and premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) at the end of the 4th and 8th week. We observed that the total and each of the individual domain scores of IIEF-15 increased from 40.95+/-7.05 to 46.19+/-12.69 significantly in the SKGB by the 8th week (P<0.05)"
  • Neoplasm Prevention and Immuno-Enhancement Mediated by Daily Consumption of a Proprietary Extract from North American Ginseng by Elderly Mice of a Cancer-Prone Strain - Phytother Res. 2012 Nov 7 - "We have previously shown in a leukemia-induced tumor model (mouse) that a proprietary extract (CVT-E002), of North American ginseng, administered in the diet, significantly increased the absolute numbers of NK cells, significantly decreased leukemia cells and significantly increased the life span of CVT-E002-fed leukemic mice. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of this extract to inhibit the spontaneous development of tumors in elderly mice of the cancer-prone C3H strain. Dietary CVT-E002 was fed for approximately a year beginning when mice were almost 2 years of age. Control mice, consuming the same chow without CVT-E002, all developed assorted, palpable tumors between 22 and 33 months, while all mice consuming CVT-E002 remained alive and tumor-free until they were purposely euthanized as healthy animals. The absolute numbers of NK cells at euthanasia, in CVT-E002-consuming mice, were significantly elevated in both the spleen and bone marrow. Given these profoundly positive results and the fact that CVT-E002 already exists in the marketplace under the label Cold-fX®, the potential for cancer prevention in humans becomes apparent" - See Cold FX, 300mg 168 Capsules.
  • Effects of Sun Ginseng on Memory Enhancement and Hippocampal Neurogenesis - Phytother Res. 2012 Oct 29 - "Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been used in traditional herb prescriptions for thousands of years. A heat-processing method has been used to increase the efficacy of ginseng, yielding what is known as red ginseng. In addition, recently, a slightly modified heat-processing method was applied to ginseng, to obtain a new type of processed ginseng with increased biological activity; this new form of ginseng is referred to as Sun ginseng (SG) ... These results suggest that SG has memory-enhancing activities and that these effects are mediated, in part, by the increase in the levels of pERK and pAkt and by the increases in cell proliferation and cell survival"
  • Beneficial effects of Korean red ginseng on lymphocyte DNA damage, antioxidant enzyme activity, and LDL oxidation in healthy participants: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Nutr J. 2012 Jul 17;11(1):47 - "KRG supplementation may attenuate lymphocyte DNA damage and LDL oxidation by upregulating antioxidant enzyme activity"
  • Ginsenoside Re rapidly reverses insulin resistance in muscles of high-fat diet fed rats - Metabolism. 2012 May 7 - "Our results show that the ginsenoside Re induces a remarkably rapid reversal of high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance of muscle glucose transport by reversing the impairment of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface"
  • The Synergistic Apoptotic Interaction of Panaxadiol and Epigallocatechin Gallate in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells - Phytother Res. 2012 May 8 - "Panaxadiol (PD) is a purified sapogenin of ginseng saponins, which exhibits anticancer activity. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major catechin in green tea, is a strong botanical antioxidant ... Cell growth was suppressed after treatment with PD (10 and 20 µm) for 48 h. When PD (10 and 20 µm) was combined with EGCG (10, 20, and 30 µm), significantly enhanced antiproliferative effects were observed in both cell lines. Combining 20 µm of PD with 20 and 30 µm of EGCG significantly decreased S-phase fractions of cells. In the apoptotic assay, the combination of PD and EGCG significantly increased the percentage of apoptotic cells compared with PD alone (p < 0.01). The synergistic apoptotic effects were also supported by docking analysis, which demonstrated that PD and EGCG bound in two different sites of the annexin V protein. Data from this study suggested that apoptosis might play an important role in the EGCG-enhanced antiproliferative effects of PD on human colorectal cancer cells"
  • Ginseng as a Potential Novel Addition to the Antikeloid Weaponry - Phytother Res. 2012 Feb 8 - "Keloid scars are large protruding claw-shaped lesions that develop beyond the confines of the wound and uniquely appears only in humans. For thousands of years ginseng has been used in the traditional medicine in oriental countries. It occupies a prominent position in the list of the best-selling medicinal herbs in the world. Panax ginseng often called Asian or Korean ginseng, is the most extensively used and the best grade of ginseng and the term of 'ginseng' generally refers to Panax ginseng. Previous studies have revealed that ginseng inhibits NF-kappa B, TGF-β, IL-6, ACE and MMP-2 and these factors play a pivotal role in keloid formation pathogenesis. Therefore it could be reasoned that ginseng could be effective for the treatment of the keloid scars. Clinical studies by topical applications of iPanax notoginseng (800 µg/ml) are warranted"
  • Ginsenoside Rg1 Promotes Glucose Uptake Through Activated AMPK Pathway in Insulin-resistant Muscle Cells - Phytother Res. 2011 Dec 15 - "Ginsenoside Rg1, a protopanaxatriols saponin, is one of the major active constituents from Panax ginseng and possesses various biological activities ... chronic treatment of insulin resulted in reduced glucose uptake in the muscle cells. The treatment of ginsenoside Rg1 significantly enhanced glucose uptake in the differentiated muscle cells and the relative abundance of GLUT4 through the adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase pathway. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 improved the insulin resistance in C2C12 muscle cells, which might be useful for prevention of T2DM and metabolic syndromes" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Improves Insulin Sensitivity in High Fat Fed Sprague-Dawley Rats - Phytother Res. 2011 Oct 28 - "Many studies have documented that ginseng has antidiabetic and antiobesity effects, but the mechanism of the effects has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG, Panax ginseng) and investigate the mechanism of antidiabetic and antiobesity effects in obese insulin resistant animal models. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups: a control group (group I) fed a normal diet, another group (group II) fed only high fat diet (HFD) and a third group (group III) fed HFD with KRG (200 mg/kg, oral) for 18 weeks ... A significant weight reduction, especially fat mass reduction, was observed in the KRG treated group. Increased insulin sensitivity was found in the KRG treated group. We observed increased insulin signalling, increased phosphorylation of IR, IRS-1, Akt, and membranous GLUT4 in muscle by Western blotting assay. In conclusion, KRG may have antidiabetic and antiobesity effects due to partly increased insulin sensitivity by increased adipokine and partly enhanced insulin signalling" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of red ginseng supplementation on menopausal symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women: a double-blind randomized controlled trial - Menopause. 2011 Oct 24 - "The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of red ginseng (RG) on menopausal symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women ... either an RG group (supplemented with 3 g of RG, including 60 mg of ginsenosides, per day) or a placebo group for 12 weeks ... Significant improvements in the Kupperman index (P = 0.032) and in the menopause rating scale (P = 0.035) scores were observed in the RG group compared with the placebo group. Total cholesterol (P = 0.009) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.015) significantly decreased in the group receiving RG. The RG group also showed a significant decrease in carotid intima-media thickness (P = 0.049). Serum estradiol levels were not influenced by RG supplementation" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Preventive Action of Panax ginseng Roots in Hypercortisolism-induced Impairment of Hippocampal Neurons in Male C57BL/6N Mice - Phytother Res. 2011 Aug;25(8):1242-5 - "An increasing number of people suffering from hypercortisolism are at risk of developing hippocampus impairment and mental disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the water extract of Panax ginseng roots (GWE) could prevent hypercortisolism-induced adverse consequences. Hypercortisolism was experimentally induced by repeated corticosterone injection in male mice. Treatment with corticosterone alone resulted in a significant decrease in hippocampus neurofilament light chain (NF-L) protein expression and induced depression-like behavior. Serum corticosterone was significantly increased in the corticosterone-treated mice. Treatment with GWE (800 and 400 mg/kg) during corticosterone treatment reduced or partially antagonized the effects induced by corticosterone toward the normal values of the controls; however, it failed to normalize increased corticosterone levels in corticosterone-treated mice. Overall, ginseng conclusively exhibited a protective action against hypercortisolism-induced impairment of hippocampal neurons"
  • Effects of Ginseng Rhizome and Ginsenoside Ro on Testosterone 5α-Reductase and Hair Re-growth in Testosterone-treated Mice - Phytother Res. 2011 May 2 - "Extracts of red ginseng rhizome showed greater dose-dependent inhibitory effects against testosterone 5α-reductase (5αR) when compared with extracts of the main root. Ginsenoside Ro, the predominant ginsenoside in the rhizome, and ginsenoside Rg(3) , a unique ginsenoside in red ginseng, showed inhibitory activity against 5αR with IC(50) values of 259.4 and 86.1 µm, respectively. The rhizome of P. japonicus, which contains larger amounts of ginsenoside Ro, also inhibited 5αR. Topical administration of extracts of red ginseng rhizomes (2 mg/mouse) and ginsenoside Ro (0.2 mg/mouse) to shaved skin inhibited hair re-growth suppression after shaving in the testosterone-treated C57BL/6 mice. These results suggest that red ginseng rhizomes containing both oleanane- and dammarane-type ginsenosides are a promising raw material for cosmetic use. This is the first report that ginsenoside Ro enhances in vivo hair re-growth based on their inhibitory activity against 5αR in the androgenetic alopecia model"
  • Effects of Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer) and Its Isolated Ginsenosides and Polysaccharides on Arterial Stiffness in Healthy Individuals - Am J Hypertens. 2010 Feb 4 - "Although preliminary, this study is the first to demonstrate that KRG may improve arterial stiffness as measured by AI"
  • A new herbal combination, Etana, for enhancing erectile function: an efficacy and safety study in animals - Int J Impot Res. 2009 Jun 4 - "a new herbal combination called Etana that is composed of five herbal extracts including Panax quinquelotius (Ginseng), Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Epimedium grandiflorum (Horny goat weed), Centella asiatica (Gotu Kola) and flower pollen extracts. Most of the above-mentioned extracts have a long historical and traditional use for erectile dysfunction (ED) ... penile erection index (PEI) ... At a 7.5 mg kg(-1) single dose, the percentage of responding rats was 53+/-7 with a PEI of 337+/-72 compared with 17+/-6 with a PEI of 30+/-10 for control animals. This PEI was significantly (P<0.001) higher than each single component and than the sum of any two herbal components of Etana. When compared with sildenafil citrate, Etana induced more pronounced PEI than 0.36 mg kg(-1), but similar to 0.71 mg kg(-1) of sildenafil. Furthermore, full acute and sub-acute toxicity studies showed no toxic effects of Etana. In conclusion, this study describes a new and safe combination of herbal components that enhance erectile function in male rats"
  • Effect of ginsam, a vinegar extract from Panax ginseng, on body weight and glucose homeostasis in an obese insulin-resistant rat model - Metabolism. 2009 Jan;58(1):8-15 - "We evaluated the antihyperglycemic and antiobesity effects of ginsam, a component of Panax ginseng produced by vinegar extraction, which is enriched in the ginsenoside Rg3 ... Insulin-resistant rats treated with ginsam had lower fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations compared with vehicle-treated rats. Importantly, overall glucose excursion during the intraperitoneal 2-hour glucose tolerance test decreased by 21.5% (P < .01) in the treated rats, indicating improved glucose tolerance. Plasma insulin concentration was significantly lower in ginsam-treated rats. These changes may be related to increased glucose transporter 4 expression in skeletal muscle. Interestingly, when the data from both ginsam-treated groups were combined, body weight was 60% lower in the ginsam-treated rats than in the controls (P < .01). Liver weight and serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations were also lower in the ginsam-treated rats. These effects were associated with increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in liver and muscle. Our data suggest that ginsam has distinct beneficial effects on glucose metabolism and body weight control in an obese animal model of insulin resistance by changing the expression of genes involved in glucose and fatty acid metabolism" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Panax Ginseng Enhances Cognitive Performance in Alzheimer Disease - Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2008 Jun 17 - "ginseng group was treated with Panax ginseng powder (4.5 g/d) for 12 weeks ... After ginseng treatment, the cognitive subscale of ADAS and the MMSE score began to show improvements and continued up to 12 weeks (P=0.029 and P=0.009 vs. baseline, respectively). After discontinuing ginseng, the improved ADAS and MMSE scores declined to the levels of the control group. These results suggest that Panax ginseng is clinically effective in the cognitive performance of AD patients" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Combined effects of swim training and ginseng supplementation on exercise performance time, ROS, lymphocyte proliferation, and DNA damage following exhaustive exercise stress - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2007 Jul;77(4):289-96 - "These findings suggest that the combined effect of swim training and ginseng supplementation sustain lymphocyte function in the presence of reduced ROS production and DNA damage following acute exercise stress"
  • Botanical and dietary supplements for mood and anxiety in menopausal women - Menopause. 2006 Dec 28 - "The one randomized, controlled trial of ginseng in postmenopausal women reported improvements in mood and anxiety"