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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 9/14/11.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

High-Protein Diet Raises Type 2 Diabetes Risk - Medscape, 9/13/11 - "The study consisted of 27,140 individuals 45 to 74 years of age who participated in the Malmö Diet and Cancer study ... the researchers found a 37% increased risk for type 2 diabetes associated with high protein intake (hazard ratio [HR], 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 to 1.61; P for trend < .001]. High intake of processed meat was also associated with an elevated risk for diabetes (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.36; P for trend = .005) ... The intake of breads and cereals rich in fiber was associated with a lower risk of developing diabetes (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92 to 0.98; P for trend = .005)"

Probiotic intake linked to fewer birth complications - Nutra USA, 9/13/11 - "The Norwegian researchers analyzed data from 33,399 women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study ... The intake of lactobacilli-containing milk-based products was determined using a food frequency questionnaire, while pre-eclampsia was determined using the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry ... the daily intake of at least 140 mL of probiotic milk products was associated with a 20% reduced risk of pre-eclampsia ... The effects were more pronounced for severe pre-eclampsia, with daily and weekly intakes of probiotic products associated with a 39% and 25%, respectively" - [Abstract] - See my yogurt recipe at the top of my Yogurt Page.  See probiotics at Amazon.com.

Link between high cholesterol and Alzheimer's disease revealed in new study - Science Daily, 9/12/11 - "high cholesterol levels were significantly related to brain plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease ... the cholesterol levels were tested for 2,587 people age 40 to 79 who had no signs of Alzheimer's disease. Then they examined 147 autopsied people who died after a long observation period (10 to 15 years) ... People with high cholesterol levels, defined by a reading of more than 5.8 mmol/L, had significantly more brain plaques when compared to those with normal or lower cholesterol levels. A total of 86 percent of people with high cholesterol had brain plaques, compared with only 62 percent of people with low cholesterol levels ... insulin resistance, a sign of diabetes, may be another risk factor for brain plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease"

Olive extract shows benefits for inflammatory bowel disease - Nutra USA, 9/12/11 - "Olive oil and the hydroxytyrosol it contains may reduce inflammation linked with the development of colitis ... Hydroxytyrosol is thought to be the main antioxidant compound in olives, and believed to play a significant role in the many health benefits attributed to olive oil. Previous research has linked the compound to cardiovascular benefits, with reductions in LDL or 'bad' cholesterol. Data has also suggested the compound may boost eye health and reduce the risk of against macular degeneration ... the olive oil-fed animals had an attenuation of the colonic damage, as well as a 50% reduction in the mortality rate caused by DSS. The results were improved further by hydroxytyrosol supplement ... levels of the pro-inflammatory compound interleuking-10 (IL-10) were “significantly improved” in both olive oil-fed groups" - [Abstract] - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.

Maternal omega-3 intake may influence childhood allergy - Nutra USA, 9/12/11 - "Omega-3 fatty acids may aid the development of the infant gut and improve how gut immune cells respond to bacteria and foreign substances, making the baby less likely to suffer from allergies in the long term, according to new research in pigs ... These findings suggest that feeding fatty acids of the omega-3 family during pregnancy and lactation impact newborn intestinal barrier function ... such changes “are likely to reduce the risk of developing allergies in later life" ... The end result is that the baby's immune system may develop and mature faster – leading to better immune function and less likelihood of suffering allergies ... the pig intestine is an excellent model of the human gut, however, so they are hopeful that the findings can be extrapolated" - [Abstract] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Vitamin D Dosing Strategies After Acute Hip Fracture - Medscape, 9/12/11 - "Our findings reveal that a simple daily 1,000 IU vitamin D3 dosing regimen may be as effective as a regimen that adds a loading dose of vitamin D2 to daily vitamin D3 for increasing 25-OHD levels as early as 4-weeks. However, more than 25% of all study patients taking 1,000 IU vitamin D3 (with or without the loading dose) still did not achieve the target 25-OHD level of at least 75 nmol/L. Future studies should examine higher daily doses of vitamin D3 (i.e. 2,000 IU) as well as the benefits of an additional loading dose in patients who are severely deficient" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Omega-3 Effective for Treating Child ADHD - Medscape, 9/8/11 - "In an evaluation of 10 trials with 699 total children with ADHD, investigators found that those who received omega-3 supplements had a "small but significant" improvement in symptom severity compared with those who were given placebo. This effect was also significant in the children who received supplements that specifically contained higher doses of eicosapentaenoic acid ... Omega-3 supplements that included higher doses of eicosapentaenoic acid were also significantly associated with lowering ADHD symptoms ... There were no significant differences found for any dose of docosahexaenoic acid or α-linolenic acid, or between omega-3 monotherapy vs augmenting traditional ADHD medications with omega-3" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.

Aerobic exercise may reduce the risk of dementia, researchers say - Science Daily, 9/7/11 - "Researchers examined the role of aerobic exercise in preserving cognitive abilities and concluded that it should not be overlooked as an important therapy against dementia ... Examples include walking, gym workouts and activities at home such as shoveling snow or raking leaves ... We culled through all the scientific literature we could find on the subject of exercise and cognition, including animal studies and observational studies, reviewing over 1,600 papers, with 130 bearing directly on this issue ... brain imaging studies have consistently revealed objective evidence of favorable effects of exercise on human brain integrity"

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

Cancer mortality according to lipid-lowering drugs and lipoproteins in a general population - Curr Med Res Opin. 2011 Sep 7 - "The beneficial effect of lipid-lowering drugs (LLD) on cardiovascular risk is established, but long term safety data remain scarce. Our aim was to assess 10-year risk of cancer mortality according to blood lipoprotein levels and LLD exposure, in a general population ... There were 3262 participants and 177 deaths were recorded over the 10-year period (78 due to a cancer). The sample comprised 64% of normolipidaemic, 25% of untreated dyslipidaemic and 11% of dyslipidaemic subjects treated with LLD (4% statins, 6% fibrates and 1% other hypolipidaemic drugs). After adjustment for centre, age, gender, smoking, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and mean corpuscular volume, the hazard ratios (HR) for cancer mortality in subjects with non-HDL cholesterol <3.5 mmol/L (135 mg/dL) and in those with HDL cholesterol <0.90 mmol/L (35 mg/dL) were 2.74 (95% confidence interval: 1.66-4.52, p < 0.001) and 2.83 (1.62-4.96, p < 0.001), respectively. The adjusted HR for cancer mortality was 0.31 (0.11-0.86, p = 0.025) in people on LLD compared to untreated subjects. Conclusions: In the present study, we confirm the significant association between low cholesterol and cancer mortality without finding any harmful signal regarding cancer risk associated with the use of LLD"

Effects of Diet on High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol - Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2011 Sep 8 - "Multiple dietary factors have been shown to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, and HDL-C has been inversely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Replacement of dietary carbohydrate with polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fat has been associated with progressively greater increases in HDL-C (7-12%) in addition to other lipid changes. Added sugars, but not high glycemic carbohydrates, have been associated with decreased HDL-C. Alcohol consumption has been associated with increased HDL-C (9.2%) independent of changes in other measured lipids. Modest effects on HDL-C (~4-5%) among other lipid and non-lipid CHD risk factors have also been observed with weight loss by dieting, omega-3 fatty acids, and a Mediterranean diet pattern. The CHD benefit of increasing HDL-C is unclear given the inconsistent evidence from HDL-raising pharmacologic trials. Furthermore, pleiotropic effects of diet preclude attribution of CHD benefit specifically to HDL-C"

Evaluation of the immune benefits of two probiotic strains Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis, BB-12® and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, L. casei 431® in an influenza vaccination model: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study - Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep 7:1-9 - "The present study investigated the ability of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (BB-12®) and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. casei 431®) to modulate the immune system using a vaccination model in healthy subjects. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted in 211 subjects (56 % females, mean age 33.2 (sd 13.1) years). Subjects consumed a minimum of 109 colony-forming units of BB-12® (capsule) or L. casei 431® (dairy drink) or a matching placebo once daily for 6 weeks. After 2 weeks, a seasonal influenza vaccination was given. Plasma and saliva samples were collected at baseline and after 6 weeks for the analysis of antibodies, cytokines and innate immune parameters. Changes from baseline in vaccine-specific plasma IgG, IgG1 and IgG3 were significantly greater in both probiotic groups v. the corresponding placebo group (L. casei 431®, P = 0.01 for IgG; P < 0.001 for remaining comparisons). The number of subjects obtaining a substantial increase in specific IgG (defined as ≥ 2-fold above baseline) was significantly greater in both probiotic groups v. placebo (BB-12®, P < 0.001 for IgG, IgG1 and IgG3; L. casei 431®, P < 0.001 for IgG1 and IgG3). Significantly greater mean fold increases for vaccine-specific secretory IgA in saliva were observed in both probiotic groups v. placebo (BB-12®, P = 0.017; L. casei 431®, P = 0.035). Similar results were observed for total antibody concentrations. No differences were found for plasma cytokines or innate immune parameters. Data herein show that supplementation with BB-12® or L. casei 431® may be an effective means to improve immune function by augmenting systemic and mucosal immune responses to challenge" - See probiotics at Amazon.com.

Dietary patterns and risk of oesophageal cancers: a population-based case-control study - Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep 7:1-10 - "We conducted a population-based case-control study, which included 365 oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), 426 oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma (OGJAC) and 303 oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cases, with frequency matched on age, sex and geographical location to 1580 controls ... A high score on the meat-and-fat pattern was associated with increased risk of all three cancers: multivariable-adjusted OR 2.12 (95 % CI 1.30, 3.46) for OAC; 1.88 (95 % CI 1.21, 2.94) for OGJAC; 2.84 (95 % CI 1.67, 4.83) for OSCC (P-trend < 0.01 for all three cancers). A high score on the pasta-and-pizza pattern was inversely associated with OSCC risk (OR 0.58, 95 % CI 0.36, 0.96, P for trend = 0.009); and a high score on the fruit-and-vegetable pattern was associated with a borderline significant decreased risk of OGJAC (OR for Q4 v. Q1 0.66, 95 % CI 0.42, 1.04, P = 0.07) and significantly decreased risk of OSCC (OR 0.41, 95 % CI 0.24, 0.70, P for trend = 0.002). High-fat dairy foods appeared to play a dominant role in the association between the meat-and-fat pattern and risk of OAC and OGJAC"

Lutein and zeaxanthin intake and the risk of age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis - Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep 8:1-10 - "We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between dietary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin and AMD risk. Relevant studies were identified by searching five databases up to April 2010 ... The pooled relative risk (RR) for early AMD, comparing the highest with the lowest category of lutein and zeaxanthin intake, was 0.96 (95 % CI 0.78, 1.17). Dietary intake of these carotenoids was significantly related with a reduction in risk of late AMD (RR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.57, 0.97); and a statistically significant inverse association was observed between lutein and zeaxanthin intake and neovascular AMD risk (RR 0.68; 95 % CI 0.51, 0.92). The results were essentially consistent among subgroups stratified by participant characteristics. The findings of the present meta-analysis indicate that dietary lutein and zeaxanthin is not significantly associated with a reduced risk of early AMD, whereas an increase in the intake of these carotenoids may be protective against late AMD" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.

Can blood pressure measurements taken in the physician's office avoid the 'white coat' bias? - Blood Press Monit. 2011 Sep 3 - "physician's clinic (CBP) ... ambulatory (ABP) and home (HBP) monitoring ... nonclinical setting by trained technicians (NCBP) ... Multiple regression analysis showed that HBP and NCBP (P<0.001) explained 94 and 87% of the variance in systolic and diastolic ABP, respectively. The agreement between NCBP and ABP was greater than that between CBP and ABP or between HBP ... When ABP monitoring and HBP monitoring are not options, the NCBP at the clinic can avoid the white coat bias and therefore improve diagnosis"

Grapefruit juice and liquorice increase cortisol availability in patients with Addison's disease - Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Sep 6 - "Compared to the ordinary treatment, the median AUC for serum cortisol increased with liquorice (53783 vs. 50882, p<0.05) and GFJ (60661 vs. 50882, p<0.05). Cortisol levels in serum were also elevated 2.6h after tablet ingestion (liquorice 223 vs. 186 nmol/L, p<0.05; GFJ 337 vs. 186 nmol/L, p<0.01). Liquorice increased the median urinary cortisol/cortisone-ratio (0.43 vs 0.21, p<0.00001), whereas GFJ increased the (aTHF+THF)/THE-ratio (0.55 vs 0.43, p<0.05)" - Note:  From my readings, most have too much cortisol already.  I've read where licorice increases it.  Licorice and grapefruit juice sounds like an unlikely combination but people might want to be aware of it.

The oslo health study: cheese intake was negatively associated with the metabolic syndrome - J Am Coll Nutr. 2011 Jun;30(3):182-90 - "frequency of cheese intake (FCI) ... In young (30 years), middle-aged (40 and 45 years), seniors (59-60), and old (75-76 years) subjects, there was an inverse association between FCI and MetSRisk (p ≤ 0.005, except in old men). Using regression, we found a consistent negative association (p < 0.001) between FCI and MetSRisk, SumRisk, single MetS components, and the complete MetS, prevailing after controlling for sex, age, time since last meal, intake of fruit/berries, fruit juice, fatty fish, coffee, alcohol, smoking, leisure time physical activity, years at school, and birthplace. FCI was also negatively associated with body mass index (p < 0.02), except in old women"

A multi-nutrient supplement reduced markers of inflammation and improved physical performance in active individuals of middle to older age: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study - Nutr J. 2011 Sep 7;10(1):90 - "While exercise acts to combat inflammation and aging, the ability to exercise may itself be compromised by inflammation and inflammation's impact on muscle recovery and joint inflammation. A number of nutritional supplements have been shown to reduce inflammation and improve recovery. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the effect of a multi-nutrient supplement containing branched chain amino acids, taurine, anti-inflammatory plant extracts, and B vitamins on inflammatory status, endothelial function, physical function, and mood in middle-aged individuals ...Thirty-one healthy and active men (N=16, mean age 56+/-6.0 yrs) and women (N=15, mean age=52+/-7.5 yrs) participated in this investigation. Subjects completed one 28 day cycle of placebo supplementation and one 28 day cycle of multi-nutrient supplementation (separated by a one week washout period) in a balanced, randomized, double-blind, cross-over design ... IL-6 significantly decreased in both men (from 1.2 +/- 0.2 to 0.7+/-0.4 pg * mL-1) and women (from 1.16+/-0.04 to 0.7+/-0.4 pg * mL-1). Perceived energy also improved for both men (placebo: 1.8 +/- 0.7; supplement: 3.7+/-0.8 AUC) and women (placebo: 1.2 +/- 0.7; supplement: 2.8+/-0.8 AUC). Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (from 108.9+/-38.6 to 55.5+/-22.2 ug * mL-1), Creatine Kinase (from 96+/-34 to 67+/-23 IU * L-1), general pain, and joint pain decreased in men only, while anxiety and balance (from 0.52+/-0.13 to 0.45+/-0.12 cm) improved in women only. Men showed increased performance in vertical jump power (from 2642+/-244 to 3134+/-282 W) and grip strength (from 42.1+/-5.9 to 48.5+/-4.9 kg)" - See taurine at Amazon.com and BCAA products at Amazon.com.

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