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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 6/15/11.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

Apples Top 12 Foods With Most Pesticide - WebMD, 6/13/11 - "worst overall pesticide scores: 1.Apples 2.Celery 3.Strawberries 4.Peaches 5.Spinach 6.Nectarines (imported) 7.Grapes (imported) 8.Sweet bell peppers 9.Potatoes 10.Blueberries (domestic) 11.Lettuce 12.Kale/collard greens"

Undernourishment in pregnant, lactating females found key to next generation's disease - Science Daily, 6/13/11 - "when mothers are even moderately undernourished while pregnant and breastfeeding, their offspring are consistently found to be prediabetic before adolescence. It is the first time that diabetes has been shown to have prenatal origins in a primate model ... We pass more biological milestones before we are born and in the early weeks of life than at any other time ... Poor nutrition at critical periods of development can hinder growth of essential organs such as the pancreas, which sees a significantly decrease in its ability to secrete insulin ... A fetus may also receive fewer nutrients due to teenage pregnancy, where the growing mother competes with her offspring for resources; in pregnancies complicated by maternal vascular disease, which may occur in women who become pregnant later in their reproductive life; and when placental problems exist"

Fatty Acids and Cognitive Decline in Women - Medscape, 6/13/11 - "In this cohort of older women, greater MUFA intake was associated with less cognitive decline over a 3-year period. Previous studies generally but not invariably support this association. One previous prospective study found greater dietary MUFA intake to be associated with less cognitive decline,[10] a second found a trend in the same direction,[9] a third found a trend in the same direction in restricted analyses,[6] and three others were null.[7,8,11] None of the null studies had multiple measures of diet; one assessed diet using a measure of fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes,[7] but that study assessed cognitive decline exclusively using the Mini-Mental State Examination, which is probably not as sensitive as the neuropsychological test battery used in this study ... MUFA is thought to be one of the major protective components of the traditional Mediterranean diet, in which it is derived primarily from olive oil (median 46 g/d).[10] Two recent prospective studies of the Mediterranean diet have found greater adherence to be associated with less cognitive decline and lower incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD).[31,32] One of these studies found an effect of the Mediterranean diet on an individual cognitive domain, namely memory.[31] This finding is consistent with the observed protective effect of MUFA on memory in the WHI CCW. In addition, the current study found an association between MUFA and less decline in visual–spatial abilities (copying and matching), a finding not previously made to the knowledge of the authors of the current study. Decline in visuospatial function has been associated with driving errors in older adults[33] and has also been suggested as a potential predictor (along with amnestic impairment) of transition from mild cognitive impairment to AD ... Several pathways may explain the apparent relationship between MUFA intake and cognitive function. MUFA and MUFA derivatives have antiinflammatory effects in vivo,[35,36] which may be important because chronic inflammation appears to be a precursor of symptomatic AD.[37–39] Oxidative stress has also been demonstrated in patients with mild cognitive impairment and AD,[40] and derivatives from MUFA, including low-molecular-weight phenols, have been found to have antioxidant effects.[41] MUFA may also exert their potentially beneficial effects on cognition indirectly by decreasing cardiovascular risk by reducing macrophage uptake of plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein B, and f triglycerides" - Click here for my olive oil mayonnaise recipe.

Eight substances added to U.S. Report on Carcinogens, including formaldehyde, may increase cancer risk - Science Daily, 6/10/11 - "formaldehyde are at increased risk for certain types of rare cancers, including nasopharyngeal (the nasopharnyx is the upper part of the throat behind the nose), sinonasal, as well as a specific cancer of the white blood cells known as myeloid leukemia. Formaldehyde is a colorless, flammable, strong-smelling chemical that is widely used to make resins for household items, such as composite wood products, paper product coatings, plastics, synthetic fibers, and textile finishes. Formaldehyde is also commonly used as a preservative in medical laboratories, mortuaries, and some consumer products, including some hair straightening products ... The largest use of general purpose glass wool is for home and building insulation, which appears to be less durable and less biopersistent, and thus less likely to cause cancer in humans ... Styrene is a synthetic chemical used worldwide in the manufacture of products such as rubber, plastic, insulation, fiberglass, pipes, automobile parts, food containers, and carpet backing. People may be exposed to styrene by breathing indoor air that has styrene vapors from building materials, tobacco smoke, and other products. The greatest exposure to styrene in the general population is through cigarette smoking"

N-Acetyl Cysteine Effective for Bipolar Depression - Medscape, 6/10/11 - "oxidative stress and inflammation play a role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder ... NAC is a cysteine analogue shown to effectively raise plasma levels of the primary antioxidant, glutathione. NAC also modulates cytokines, glutamates neurotransmission, and enhances neurogenesis ... significant differences (P < .001) were found between baseline and week 8 for all study measures. Minimal side effects occurred" - Note:  That seems like a high dose but I would think most would take a lower lower dose over a longer period of time which may be as effective.  See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.

B vitamins in mother's diet reduce colorectal cancer risk in offspring, animal study suggests - Science Daily, 6/9/11 - "Using a mouse model of naturally occurring colorectal cancer, the USDA HNRCA scientists examined whether a mothers' B vitamin intake impacts her offspring's cancer risk. Mothers were fed diets containing supplemental, adequate or mildly deficient quantities of vitamins B2, B6, B12 and folate prior to conception through weaning after which all of the offspring received the same adequate diet ... Although the tumor incidence was similar between offspring of deficient and adequate mothers, 54% of tumors in the deficient offspring were advanced and had invaded surrounding tissue while only 18% of tumors in the offspring of adequate mothers displayed these aggressive properties" - See prenatal supplements at Amazon.com.

Study confirms safety, cancer-targeting ability of nutrient in broccoli, other vegetables, researchers say - Science Daily, 6/9/11 - "Sulforaphane, one of the primary phytochemicals in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables that helps them prevent cancer, has been shown for the first time to selectively target and kill cancer cells while leaving normal prostate cells healthy and unaffected ... Here we show for the first time that sulforaphane selectively targets benign hyperplasia cells and cancerous prostate cells while leaving the normal prostate cells unaffected" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.

Citrate key in bone's nanostructure - Science Daily, 6/8/11 - "At this point, we feel that citrate probably also has a role in the biomineralization of the apatite ... It's also been noted in the literature that as an organism ages, the nanocrystal thickness increases and the citrate concentration goes down ... "and there's also support from clinical studies that citrate is good for bones," adding that one of the leading supplements for bone strength contains calcium citrate ... While calcium loss is a major symptom in osteoporosis, the decline of citrate concentration may also contribute to bone brittleness" - Note:  I read a long time ago that the citrate form of most minerals was absorbed better and have been using that form for some time.  For example, see the magnesium citrate in magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.

Low-fat chocolate milk can boost aerobic fitness, research - Nutra USA, 6/8/11 - "Immediately following exercise and again, two hours following exercise, participants consumed a recovery drink of low-fat chocolate milk, a calorie and fat-matched carbohydrate beverage or a non-caloric flavoured water ... chocolate milk improved cycling performance more than the other drinks, cutting at least six minutes on average off the cyclist’s ride time ... Chocolate milk was also found to increase signals for muscle protein synthesis, which leads to the repair and rebuilding of muscle proteins, more than the other drinks"

Facial Wrinkles Linked to Lower Bone Density - WebMD, 6/7/11 - "Researchers measured the number and depth of facial wrinkles and the skin firmness of 114 women who were within three years of their last menstrual period ... Women who had worse wrinkles also had lesser bone density ... Pal thinks the connection may be a protein called type 1 collagen, a building block of skin and bone tissue, which is lost with age. It is thought that this loss may be accelerated during menopause, when hormone levels drop ... The strongest association of the facial wrinkles with the bone was between the eyebrows ... When we looked at the effects of sun exposure on skin, we did not see that women who had more sun exposure had worse skin wrinkles"

Endocrine Society Issues Practice Guideline on Vitamin D - Medscape, 6/7/11 - "Based on all the evidence, at a minimum, we recommend vitamin D levels of 30 ng/mL, and because of the vagaries of some of the assays, to guarantee sufficiency, we recommend between 40 and 60 ng/mL for both children and adults ... Adults 70 years and older require at least 800 IU/day of vitamin D for bone health and fall prevention; at least 1500 to 2000 IU/day of supplemental vitamin D may be needed to keep 25(OH)D levels above 30 ng/mL ... Pregnant and lactating women need a minimum of 600 IU/day of vitamin D; 1500 IU/day may be needed to maintain blood levels of 25(OH)D higher than 30 ng/mL ... Tolerable upper limits of vitamin D, which "should not be exceeded without medical supervision," include the following: 1000 IU/day for infants aged up to 6 months ... 1500 IU/day for infants aged 6 months to 1 year old ... 2500 IU/day for children aged 1 to 3 years ... 3000 IU/day for children aged 4 to 8 years ... 4000 IU/day for everyone older than 8 years" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Link between phosphate intake and heart disease demonstrated in new study - Science Daily, 6/7/11 - "cholesterol deposits in the wall of arteries are increased following a higher phosphate diet. This leads to narrowing of the arteries, which is the cause of most heart attacks and strokes ... Food high in phosphate includes biscuits, cakes, sweets, dairy products and meats such as offal and veal" - Note:  They left out soda which is high in phosphate.

Breast cancer research: Mammary gland development of blueberry-fed lab animals studied - Science Daily, 6/7/11 - "several indicators of rat mammary gland health were improved in the offspring (pups) of mothers (dams) that had been fed 5 percent blueberry powder in their rations during pregnancy and during the weeks that they nursed their pups ... In their analysis of several biochemical indicators, the team found, for instance, that the level of the tumor-suppressing protein PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted in chromosome 10) was significantly higher in mammary tissues of offspring of dams on the 5 percent regimen. That's a plus, because PTEN is thought to help protect against cancer" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.

Fetal exposure to BPA changes development of uterus in primates, study suggests - Science Daily, 6/7/11 - "The new study used the rhesus monkey, a species that is very similar to humans in regard to pregnancy and fetal development, said Williams, a study co-author ... During a period that represented the third trimester of human pregnancy, the investigators gave BPA to 12 pregnant monkeys, each carrying a single female fetus ... In the first year of the experiment, six monkeys received BPA orally in a fruit treat, at a dose of 400 micrograms per kilogram of body weight daily, the researchers reported. During the second year, six additional pregnant monkeys received BPA through capsules implanted subcutaneously (below the skin), for a daily dose of 100 micrograms per kilogram. Both forms of BPA resulted in a BPA level in the blood that is close to levels normally found in adult women, according to the authors' abstract ... The investigators analyzed the uterus of each offspring for gene expression. Oral BPA altered expression of HOX and WNT genes that are critical for uterine development, they found. They are still analyzing the data for the animals that received subcutaneous BPA"

Older age does not cause testosterone levels to decline in healthy men - Science Daily, 6/7/11 - "The modest decline in blood testosterone among older men, usually coupled with nonspecific symptoms, such as easy fatigue and low sexual desire, may be due to symptomatic disorders that accumulate during aging, including obesity and heart disease ... It does not appear to be a hormone deficiency state" - Note: For what it's worth, I had my testosterone checked about a years ago and it was about 10% over the high number range without any testosterone supplementation.  That mayonnaise video a couple weeks ago is as lewd as I'll get on pictures but it's either the testosterone or the swimming that seems to maintain my upper body.

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

Serum Calcium Level is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in the General Population. FIN-D2D-study - Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Jun 9 - "The mean age in men was 60.3+/-8.3 years and in women 59.8+/-8.5 years. The prevalence of MetS was 50.7 % in women and 55.8 % in men. The prevalence of MetS and its components, except HDL-cholesterol, increased in a linear trend with increasing serum calcium (p<0.001), even after adjustment for age, physical activity, alcohol, vitamin D intake, calcium intake and smoking. The threshold value for serum calcium for MetS was 2.50 mmol/L in this population. The association of MetS with total serum calcium was similar even after exlusion of patients treated with hypertensive drugs. The drug treatments for hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes increased in a similar pattern. Conclusions: Serum calcium level is associated with MetS and its components, except HDL-cholesterol"

Sodium intake in men and potassium intake in women determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Japanese hypertensive patients: OMEGA Study - Hypertens Res. 2011 Jun 9 - "High sodium intake was significantly related to increased SBP (P=0.0003) and DBP (P=0.0130). Low potassium intake was significantly related to increased SBP (P=0.0057) and DBP (P=0.0005). Low soybean/fish intake was significantly related to increased SBP (P=0.0133). A significantly higher prevalence of MS was found in men in the highest quartile of sodium intake compared with the lower quartiles (P=0.0026) and in women in the lowest quartile of potassium intake compared with the higher quartiles (P=0.0038). A clear relation between dietary habits and blood pressure was found in Japanese hypertensive patients using a patient-administered questionnaire. Sodium and potassium intake affect MS prevalence. Dietary changes are warranted within hypertension treatment strategies"

A diet rich in oat bran improves blood lipids and hemostatic factors, and reduces apparent energy digestibility in young healthy volunteers - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun 8 - "Total cholesterol decreased by 14% during the oat bran period compared with 4% during the control period (P<0.001). Non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol decreased by 16% in the oat bran period compared with 3% in the control period (P<0.01), as did total triacylglycerol (21 vs 10%, P<0.05) and very-low-density lipoprotein triacylglycerol 33 vs 9%, P<0.01). Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and factor VII (fVII) levels decreased more during consumption of oat bran compared with the control period (PAI-1: 30 vs 2.3%, P<0.01; fVII: 15 vs 7.6%, <0.001). Fecal volume and dry matter were greater when consuming the oat bran diet compared with the control (P<0.001), and energy excretion was increased by 37% (1014 vs 638 kJ/day, P<0.001); however, changes in body weight did not differ (oat bran:-0.3+/-0.5 kg; control: 0.0+/-0.7 kg).Conclusions: Addition of oat bran (6 g soluble fiber/day) to a low-fiber diet lowered total and non-HDL cholesterol, as well as hemostatic factors, and may affect energy balance through reduced energy utilization"

Dietary fiber intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in the Japanese population: the Japan Public Health Center-based study cohort - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun 8 - "Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) of CVD for the third to fifth quintiles of total fiber were 0.79 (0.63-0.99), 0.70 (0.54-0.89) and 0.65 (0.48-0.87) in women, respectively, compared with the lowest quintile. Total fiber intake was inversely associated with the incidence of stroke, either cerebral infarction or intracerebral hemorrhage in women. The results for insoluble fiber in women were similar to those for total fiber, whereas those for soluble fiber were weak. An inverse association of total fiber with CVD was observed primarily in non-smokers (P for trend=0.045 and 0.001) and not in smokers (probability values for interaction between total fiber and smoking were 0.06 and 0.01 in men and women, respectively).Conclusions: Higher total dietary fiber was associated with reduced risk of CVD in Japanese non-smokers"

Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid, Ratio of Omega-6 to Omega-3 Intake, Inflammation, and Survival in Long-term Hemodialysis Patients - Am J Kidney Dis. 2011 Jun 7 - "each 1-unit higher ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 intake was associated with a 0.55-mg/L increase in serum CRP level (P = 0.03). In the fully adjusted model, death HRs for the first (1.7-<7.6), second (7.6-<9.3), third (9.3-<11.3), and fourth (11.3-17.4) quartiles of dietary omega-6 to omega-3 ratio were 0.39 (95% CI, 0.14-1.18), 0.30 (95% CI, 0.09-0.99), 0.67 (95% CI, 0.25-1.79), and 1.00 (reference), respectively (P for trend = 0.06) ... Higher dietary omega-6 to omega-3 ratio appears to be associated with both worsening inflammation over time and a trend toward higher death risk in hemodialysis patients"

Induction of Apoptosis by γ-Tocotrienol in Human Cancer Cell Lines and Leukemic Blasts From Patients: Dependency on Bid, Cytochrome c, and Caspase Pathway - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Jun 9:1 - "Tocotrienols (Toc3) have been suggested to possess anticancer effects besides antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects. Previous studies have demonstrated that Toc3 induce apoptosis in epithelial carcinoma. However, the effects of Toc3 on malignant hematopoietic cells have not yet been thoroughly investigated. We investigated Toc3-induced apoptosis in human hematological cancer cell lines. α-, δ-, and γ-Toc3 induced concentration-dependent apoptosis, and γ-Toc3 demonstrated more effective induction than the other Toc3 derivatives in HL-60 cells. γ-Toc3 may have induced apoptosis by activation of the caspase cascade, cytochrome c (Cyt.c) release, Bid cleavage, and mitochondorial membrane depolarization in HL-60, NB-4, Raji, and SY-5Y cells. Furthermore, 10-30 μM γ-Toc3 showed cytotoxicity for leukemic cells from various patients regardless of lymphoblastic, myeloblastic, or relapsed leukemia, but the cytotoxic effect was weak in normal mononuclear cells, interestingly. γ-Toc3 may have a role in cancer prevention and potential for treating hematological malignancies" - Note:  The γ is the gamma symbol.  See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.

Oral Resveratrol Therapy Inhibits Cancer-Induced Skeletal Muscle and Cardiac Atrophy In Vivo - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Jun 8:1 - "The mechanism by which cancer mediates muscle atrophy has been delineated in the past 3 decades and includes a prominent role of tumor-derived cytokines, such as IL-6, TNFα, and IL-1. These cytokines interact with their cognate receptors on muscle to activate the downstream transcription factor NF-κB and induce sarcomere proteolysis. Experimentally, inhibiting NF-κB signaling largely prevents cancer-induced muscle wasting, indicating its prominent role in muscle atrophy. Resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin found in the skin of grapes, has recently been shown to inhibit NF-κB in cancer cells, which led us to hypothesize that it might have a protective role in cancer cachexia. Therefore, we investigated whether daily oral resveratrol could protect against skeletal muscle loss and cardiac atrophy in an established mouse model. We demonstrate resveratrol inhibits skeletal muscle and cardiac atrophy induced by C26 adenocarcinoma tumors through its inhibition of NF-κB (p65) activity in skeletal muscle and heart. These studies demonstrate for the first time the utility of oral resveratrol therapy to provide clinical benefit in cancer-induced atrophy through the inhibition of NF-κB in muscle. These findings may have application in the treatment of diseases with parallel pathophysiologies such as muscular dystrophy and heart failure" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.

Vitamin D intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US men and women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun 8 - "After multivariate adjustment for age and other CVD risk factors, a higher total vitamin D intake (from foods and supplements) was associated with a decreased risk of CVD in men but not in women; the relative risks (95% CIs) for a comparison of participants who met the Dietary Reference Intake of vitamin D (≥600 IU/d) with participants whose vitamin D intake was <100 IU/d were 0.84 (0.72, 0.97; P for trend = 0.009) for men and 1.02 (0.89, 1.17; P for trend = 0.12) for women" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Red meat consumption and risk of stroke in Swedish men - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun 8 - "mean follow-up of 10.1 y ... Consumption of processed meat, but not of fresh red meat, was positively associated with risk of stroke. The multivariable relative risks (RRs) of total stroke for the highest compared with the lowest quintiles of consumption were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.40; P for trend = 0.004) for processed meat and 1.07 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.24; P for trend = 0.77) for fresh red meat. Processed meat consumption was also positively associated with risk of cerebral infarction in a comparison of the highest with the lowest quintile (RR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.38; P for trend = 0.03)"

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