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Home > Anti-aging Research > Mediterranean Diet

Mediterranean Diet

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News & Research:

  • Mediterranean Diet Improves Cognition - Medscape, 1/8/14 - "extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) ... In conclusion, an intervention with MedDiet supplemented with either EVOO or mixed nuts was associated with a better global cognitive performance after 6.5 years of follow-up compared with a control group who received advice on a lower-fat diet. Our findings support increasing evidence on the protective effects of the MedDiet on cognitive function" - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Mediterranean Diet Cuts Type 2 Diabetes Risk by a Third - Medscape, 1/6/14 - "The Mediterranean diet is high in fat (30% to 40% of total calories) from vegetable sources such as olive oil and nuts and relatively low in dairy products. The diet also commonly includes sauces with tomato, onions, garlic, and spices and moderate wine consumption ... enrolled 7447 men and women aged 55 to 80 years who did not have CVD at baseline but were at risk for it. They were randomized to 1 of 3 diets: a Mediterranean diet supplemented with either EVOO (50 mL/d) or mixed nuts (30 g/d) or a control diet with advice to reduce intake of all types of fat ... both Mediterranean diets cut the CVD event risk by as much as 30% compared with the controls at 4.8 years of follow-up ... CVD effects of the Mediterranean diet are believed to be due to its inclusion of ingredients containing various minerals, polyphenols, and other phytochemicals that combat oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance ... It's not clear why the Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts failed to show a significant diabetes reduction benefit ... Another reason may be that the foods that one eats with olive oil are better for preventing diabetes than those one eats with nuts. Or the higher monounsaturated-fat intake of the EVOO is more important than the polyunsaturated fatty acids from the nuts" - Note:  Nuts have about four times as much omega-6 as omega-3.  Olive oil is mostly omega-9.
  • Mediterranean Diet Good for Chronic Kidney Disease - Medscape, 5/21/13 - "followed 1110 Swedish men (mean age, 70 years), 506 of whom had a glomerular filtration rate below 60 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 ... Median follow-up was 9.9 years ... High adherents were 42% less likely to have kidney disease than low adherents ... high adherence was independently associated with a mortality risk that was 18% lower for every 2-point increase in Mediterranean Diet Score. For subjects with adequate dietary intake, the associations were stronger"
  • Mediterranean diet seems to boost aging brain power - Science Daily, 5/21/13 - "Participants, who were all taking part in the PREDIMED trial looking at how best to ward off cardiovascular disease, were randomly allocated to a Mediterranean diet with added olive oil or mixed nuts or a control group receiving advice to follow the low-fat diet typically recommended to prevent heart attack and stroke ... After an average of 6.5 years, they were tested for signs of cognitive decline using a Mini Mental State Exam and a clock drawing test ... The average scores on both tests were significantly higher for those following either of the Mediterranean diets compared with those on the low fat option"
  • Mediterranean Diet Might Help Stave Off Dementia - WebMD, 4/29/13 - "Eating fish, chicken, olive oil and other foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids while staying away from meats and dairy -- the so-called Mediterranean diet -- may help older adults keep their memory and thinking skills sharp ... those who followed the Mediterranean diet were 19 percent less likely to develop thinking and memory problems"
  • Mediterranean Diet Fights Heart Disease, Study Finds - ABC News, 2/25/13 - "the researchers randomly assigned 7,447 people, ages 55 to 80, to one of three diets -- a Mediterranean diet with additional extra-virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, or a control diet, which consisted essentially of advice to reduce dietary fat ... The olive-oil diet led to a 28 percent reduction in risk, compared with the control diet. The mixed nut diet led to a similar risk reduction"
  • Mediterranean Diet May Protect Brain - WebMD, 2/13/12 - "white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) ... WMHV is an indicator of small blood vessel damage in the brain and is detected by magnetic resonance screening (MRI) ... researchers compared the brain scans and diets of 966 adults with an average age of 72 ... those who most closely followed a Mediterranean diet had a lower measure of WMHV than those who did not. Each increase in the Mediterranean diet score was associated with a corresponding decrease in white matter hyperintensity volume score ... the aspect of the Mediterranean diet that seemed to matter most was the ratio of monounsaturated fat to saturated fat"
  • Mediterranean diet gives longer life, Swedish study suggests - Science Daily, 12/20/11 - "A Mediterranean diet with large amounts of vegetables and fish gives a longer life. This is the unanimous result of four studies to be published by the Sahlgrenska Academy ... The results show that those who eat a Mediterranean diet have a 20% higher chance of living longer"
  • Mediterranean Diet Adherence in Relation to ACS and Stroke - Medscape, 11/15/11 - "Since the Seven Countries Study[5] in the 1970s and the randomized clinical trial Lyon Heart Study[25] in the 1990s, many studies have supported the beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet on the development of CVD and, particularly, CHD.[6] The CARDIO2000 study, a case-control study with 848 patients with ACS and 1,078 age- and sex-matched control subjects, showed that a 10-unit increase of the MedDietScore was associated with a roughly 30% lower likelihood of having an ACS.[26] Trichopoulou et al[27] showed that adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with a 33% (95% CI 0.47–0.94) lower mortality from CHD. In addition, recent results of the large-scale, multinational INTERHEART study, including 27,098 participants from 52 countries, highlighted the important role of unhealthy dietary habits as a risk factor for myocardial infarction. Most importantly, the population attributable risk of an unhealthy diet was approximately 27% in men and 26% in women;[28] suggesting that most CHD evens could have been avoided by adopting a healthier dietary pattern. In the present work, the estimated attributable risk for the lowest tertile of adherence to the Mediterranean pattern was 40% for ACS ... Despite the plethora of studies as regards Mediterranean diet and CHD, few studies have examined the role of the diet on the development of stroke. The Nurses' Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 74,886 female participants, showed that adherence to this pattern exerts a protective effect regarding the development of stroke (relative risk of highest compared with lowest quintile: 0.87, 95% CI 0.73–1.02).[13] Furthermore, a recent case-control study of only 48 patients with stroke and 47 age- and sex-matched controls reported that adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with a 91% lower likelihood of ischemic stroke (95% CI 0.02–0.40).[14] In addition, results of the INTERSTROKE case-control study suggested that unhealthy dietary habits were associated with a 34% higher likelihood of ischemic stroke (95% CI 1.09–1.65, highest vs lowest tertile), whereas the population attributable risk was 17.3% (95% CI 9.4–29.6).[29] In the present work, similar to the 2 aforementioned studies, it was observed that a greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with a lower likelihood of having an ischemic stroke event, whereas the estimated attributable risk for the lowest tertile of adherence to the Mediterranean pattern was 37% ... It is widely known that oxidative stress and chronic inflammation play a crucial role for the development of atherosclerosis, influencing endothelial and vascular function. Not surprisingly, the protective role of the Mediterranean dietary pattern regarding CVD has been mainly attributed to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of this pattern. The basic components of this diet—olive oil, red wine, fruits and vegetables, and fish—are foods rich in vitamins, antioxidants, polyphenols, phytochemicals, and omega-3 fatty acids. Results of epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have shown that subjects following closer the Mediterranean diet had a higher total antioxidant capacity[11] and lower inflammatory and coagulation markers: C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, homocysteine, white blood cell, and fibrinogen levels.[12, 30] Furthermore, latest studies have shown the beneficial role of this diet on endothelial function.[30] In particular, adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been associated not only with a reduction in endothelial damage and dysfunction but also with improvement in the degenerative activity of the endothelium"
  • Fatty Acids and Cognitive Decline in Women - Medscape, 6/13/11 - "In this cohort of older women, greater MUFA intake was associated with less cognitive decline over a 3-year period. Previous studies generally but not invariably support this association. One previous prospective study found greater dietary MUFA intake to be associated with less cognitive decline,[10] a second found a trend in the same direction,[9] a third found a trend in the same direction in restricted analyses,[6] and three others were null.[7,8,11] None of the null studies had multiple measures of diet; one assessed diet using a measure of fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes,[7] but that study assessed cognitive decline exclusively using the Mini-Mental State Examination, which is probably not as sensitive as the neuropsychological test battery used in this study ... MUFA is thought to be one of the major protective components of the traditional Mediterranean diet, in which it is derived primarily from olive oil (median 46 g/d).[10] Two recent prospective studies of the Mediterranean diet have found greater adherence to be associated with less cognitive decline and lower incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD).[31,32] One of these studies found an effect of the Mediterranean diet on an individual cognitive domain, namely memory.[31] This finding is consistent with the observed protective effect of MUFA on memory in the WHI CCW. In addition, the current study found an association between MUFA and less decline in visual–spatial abilities (copying and matching), a finding not previously made to the knowledge of the authors of the current study. Decline in visuospatial function has been associated with driving errors in older adults[33] and has also been suggested as a potential predictor (along with amnestic impairment) of transition from mild cognitive impairment to AD ... Several pathways may explain the apparent relationship between MUFA intake and cognitive function. MUFA and MUFA derivatives have antiinflammatory effects in vivo,[35,36] which may be important because chronic inflammation appears to be a precursor of symptomatic AD.[37–39] Oxidative stress has also been demonstrated in patients with mild cognitive impairment and AD,[40] and derivatives from MUFA, including low-molecular-weight phenols, have been found to have antioxidant effects.[41] MUFA may also exert their potentially beneficial effects on cognition indirectly by decreasing cardiovascular risk by reducing macrophage uptake of plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein B, and f triglycerides" - Click here for my olive oil mayonnaise recipe.
  • Mediterranean diet: Alarmingly high cardiovascular risk factors found in Mediterranean people - Science Daily, 1/10/11 - "The myth that the Mediterranean diet and lifestyle is so healthy is based on 40-year old data from rural areas and so much has changed during those four decades"
  • Science strengthens for olive extract’s bone benefits - Nutra USA, 9/14/10 - “Our data suggest that oleuropein, highly abundant in olive tree products included in the traditional Mediterranean diet, could prevent age-related bone loss and osteoporosis" - [Abstract] - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Virgin olive oil and a Mediterranean diet fight heart disease by changing how our genes function - Science Daily, 6/30/10 - "The first group consumed a traditional Mediterranean diet with virgin olive oil rich in polyphenols. The second group consumed a traditional Mediterranean diet with an olive oil low in polyphenols. The third group followed their habitual diet. After three months, the first group had a down-regulation in the expression of atherosclerosis-related genes in their peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Additionally, the olive oil polyphenols made a significant impact on the expression of genetic changes influencing coronary heart disease. Results also showed that the consumption of virgin olive oil in conjunction with a Mediterranean diet can positively impact lipid and DNA oxidation, insulin resistance, inflammation, carcinogenesis, and tumor suppression ... olive oil and a Mediterranean diet affect our bodies in a far more significant way than previously believed" - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Mediterranean-style diet improves heart function, twin study shows - Science Daily, 6/15/10 - "heart rate variability (HRV) ... Eating a Mediterranean-style diet -- one characterized by low saturated fats and high in fish, fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, olive oil, cereals and moderate alcohol consumption -- reduces a person's heart disease risk ... the higher a person's diet score, the more variable the heart beat-to-beat time interval -- 10 percent to 58 percent (depending on the HRV measure considered) for men in the top Mediterranean diet score quarter compared to those in the lowest quarter; this equates to a 9 percent to 14 percent reduction in heart-related death"
  • Mediterranean diet may lower risk of brain damage that causes thinking problems - Science Daily, 2/8/10
  • Mediterranean Diet Linked to Lower Risk for Stomach Cancer - Medscape, 12/29/09 - "For every 1-unit increase in relative Mediterranean diet score, the risk for gastric adenocarcinoma decreased by 5% to 7%"
  • Mediterranean Diet May Fight Depression - WebMD, 10/5/09
  • Mediterranean Diet May Boost Eye Health - WebMD, 5/11/09 - "people who ate one serving of fish per week had a 31% lower risk of early signs of AMD. Those who ate one to two servings of nuts rich in omega-3 fatty acids had a 35% lower risk" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Mediterranean diet may lower blood pressure: Study - Nutra USA, 5/11/09
  • Mediterranean Diet May Preserve Memory - WebMD, 2/9/09 - "The Mediterranean diet consists of larger doses of fish, vegetables, legumes, fruits, cereals, and unsaturated fatty acids; low amounts of dairy products, meat, and saturated fats; and a moderate amount of alcohol ... average 4.5 year follow-up period. Those in the top one-third of Mediterranean diet scores had a 28% lower risk (compared to those in the bottom third) of developing a cognitive impairment"
  • Mediterranean Diet Reduces Long-term Risk Of Subsequent Weight Gain And Obesity Among Adults - Science Daily, 1/22/09 - "increased fruit and vegetable intake was associated with significantly lower risk of a medium WG (3,41 kg) over 10 years among adults of a Spanish Mediterranean population. Dietary strategies to increase fruit and vegetable intake to prevent and control overweight and obesity should be promoted more vigorously"
  • Metabolic Syndrome? Nuts! - WebMD, 12/8/08 - "A group that was given personalized advice on the Mediterranean diet and about 2 tablespoons of mixed nuts (1/2 walnuts, 1/4 almonds, and 1/4 hazelnuts) each day ... A year later, nobody lost weight. And about the same number of people developed newly diagnosed metabolic syndrome in each group ... But among patients who already had metabolic syndrome, those in the nut group were 70% more likely to have reversal of metabolic syndrome than those in the control group"
  • Accolades for Mediterranean Diet - WebMD, 9/11/08 - "people who followed a strict Mediterranean diet were: ... 9% less likely to die from heart disease or other cardiovascular problems ... 6% less likely to develop cancer or die from it ... 13% less likely to have Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease"
  • Ornish: Why Atkins Still Doesn't Beat Low-Fat Diet -  Newsweek, 7/16/08 - "A new study comparing the Atkins diet, a Mediterranean diet and a low-fat diet published on July 17 in The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), is likely to inspire headlines saying that the Atkins diet is better for your waistline and your health than a low-fat diet ... I believe this study is extremely flawed. Here's why: ... funded in part by the Atkins Foundation ... quality of data in this study ..."
  • The Traditional Mediterranean Diet Protects Against Diabetes, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 5/30/08 - "A high adherence to the diet was associated with an 83% relative reduction in the risk of developing diabetes"
  • Med diet linked to longer life - study - Nutra USA, 12/12/07 - "greater adherence to a Med-style diet reduced the risk of death from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer by 22 and 17 per cent in men, and 12 per cent for women ... so-called all-cause mortality (death from all causes) was reduced by 21 per cent among men and 20 per cent among women with the greatest adherence ... The Mediterranean diet also includes other important dietary constituents such as fiber and a low omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio, both of which potentially prevent cancer initiation and progression" - [Abstract]
  • Mediterranean Diet May Help Alzheimer's Patients Live Longer - Science Daily, 9/10/07 - "Alzheimer's patients who adhered to the diet to a moderate degree lived an average 1.3 years longer than those people who least adhered to the diet. And those Alzheimer's patients who followed the diet very religiously lived an average four years longer"
  • Mediterranean Diet Halves Risk Of Progressive Lung Disease - Science Daily, 5/15/07
  • Diet May Influence Alzheimer's Risk - WebMD, 10/9/06 - "Long suspected of lowering the risk of heart disease and diabetes, the Mediterranean diet consists of large amounts of fruits, vegetables, beans, grains, and nuts. Red meats are eaten only rarely and poultry, eggs, and dairy products are eaten in moderation. Olive oil and fatty fish are the main sources of fat in the diet ... People who most closely adhered to the diet had an Alzheimer's risk that was 40% to 65% lower than people who were least likely to follow the diet"
  • Erectile Function in Subjects With the Metabolic Syndrome - Medscape, 7/19/06 - "consumption of a Mediterranean-style diet in men with the metabolic syndrome and ED at baseline produced significant improvement of erectile and endothelial functions, together with a significant reduction of systemic vascular inflammation, as indicated by the reduced levels of CRP"
  • Mediterranean Beats Low-Fat Diet - WebMD, 6/5/06 - "Compared with the low-fat group, the two Mediterranean diet groups had bigger improvements in blood pressure, insulin resistance (a problem which accompanies or precedes type 2 diabetes), markers of inflammation, and levels of cholesterol and other lipids (blood fats)"
  • Mediterranean Diet May Cut Alzheimer's - WebMD, 4/18/06 - "Scores ranged from 0-9, with higher scores showing greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet ... those with middle scores were 15% less likely to have been found to have developed Alzheimer's disease, and those with the highest scores were 40% less likely to have been found to have Alzheimer's disease"
  • Olive oil—key to Mediterranean diet's benefits - MSNBC, 3/10/06
  • Tufts Expert Examines The Cardiovascular Benefits Of A Mediterranean-style Diet - Science Daily, 2/7/06
  • The Disease-Preventive Power of the Mediterranean Diet - Life Extension Magazine, 7/05
  • Mediterranean Diet Linked to Longer Life - WebMD, 4/7/05 - "a healthy man of 60 who follows the diet, which is rich in fruits and vegetables and low in meat and dairy, can expect to live a year longer than a man of the same age who doesn't follow the diet ... The Mediterranean diet was nearly vegetarian, with fish and very little meat, and was rich in green vegetables"
  • Mediterranean Diet Helps Lower Death Rates - WebMD, 12/9/04 - "those seniors adhering to the Mediterranean diet had a 23% lower risk of death from all causes ... seniors who exercised at least 30 minutes every day lowered their risk of death by 37%. Nonsmoking seniors reduced their risk by 35%. Seniors who drank alcohol moderately reduced their risk by 22% ... a senior who adhered to all of these lifestyle changes reduced his risk of death by 65%"
  • More good news about the Mediterranean diet - MSNBC, 10/29/04 - "people who ate a mostly Mediterranean diet, exercised moderately, drank little to moderate amounts of alcohol, and didn’t smoke had 65 percent fewer deaths than those who followed none or only one of these healthy habits"
  • Is the Mediterranean Diet Really Healthier? - Dr. Weil, 10/8/04
  • Mediterranean Diet May Be Effective in Reducing Metabolic Syndrome and Associated Symptoms - Doctor's Guide, 9/22/04 - "after 2 years, patients in the Mediterranean diet intervention group had significant decreases in body weight, blood pressure, levels of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, and triglycerides and a significant increase in levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ... Serum concentrations of interleukins 6 (IL-6), 7 (IL-7), and 18 (IL-18) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were significantly reduced in patients in the intervention group"
  • Mediterranean Diet Improves Survival in Elderly - Medscape, 9/21/04 - "Among 70- to 90-year-olds, adherence to a Mediterranean diet and healthful lifestyle is associated with a more than 50% lower rate of all-cause and cause-specific mortality"
  • A Lifestyle Blueprint for Long Life - WebMD, 9/21/04
  • Is It Better to Eat Like the French? - Dr. Weil, 8/3/04
  • Mediterranean Diet Fights Heart Disease - WebMD, 11/11/03
  • Mediterranean Diet Lowers C-reactive Protein Levels - Medscape, 11/11/03 - "For each 10-point increase in diet score, there was a corresponding 0.22 mg/dL reduction in C-reactive protein levels, a 0.21 pg/ml reduction in interleukin-6, a 12.5 mg/dL decrease in fibrinogen, and a 0.87 mmol/L decrease in homocysteine levels (P < .05), he said. Also, white blood cell count decreased significantly"
  • Mediterranean Diet Independently Lowers Cardiovascular Disease Risk - Doctor's Guide, 11/10/03
  • Mediterranean diet evidence - jr2.ox.ac.uk. 8/03
  • Mediterranean diet 'extends life' - bbc.co.uk. 8/24/03 - "The[y] found that quercetin, which is abundant in olive oil, has a similar effect"
  • Mastering the Mediterranean Diet? - Dr. Weil, 8/14/03
  • Add 1 lb. of veggies, olive oil - USA Today, 6/25/03 - "participants were rated on a scale of 0 to 9, based on how closely they stuck to the traditional Mediterranean diet. The higher the score, the better the adherence ... A two-point increase in the adherence score was associated with a 25% reduced risk of death from all causes, a 33% reduced risk of death from heart disease and a 24% reduced risk of death from cancer ... People in Greece eat about a pound of vegetables a day, mostly cooked ... Salads are served with fish, and vegetables like zucchini and spinach are boiled and seasoned with lemon and olive oil"
  • Mediterranean Diet: More Than Olive Oil - WebMD, 6/25/03 - "In addition to having olive oil with most meals, the typical Mediterranean diet is very high in vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, and cereals; moderate in fish intake; and has lower amounts of meat and dairy than the typical American diet. Drinking alcohol is also a frequently practiced dining ritual"
  • Mediterranean Diet Cuts Risk Of Cancer In Half - Doctor's Guide, 6/16/98

Abstracts:

  • Mediterranean Diet and Red Yeast Rice Supplementation for the Management of Hyperlipidemia in Statin-Intolerant Patients with or without Type 2 Diabetes - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:743473 - "for 24 weeks ... We studied 171 patients: 46 type 2 diabetic patients treated with MD alone (Group 1), 44 type 2 diabetic patients treated with MD associated with RYR (Group 2), 38 dyslipidemic patients treated with MD alone (Group 3), and 43 dyslipidemic patients treated with MD plus RYR (Group 4). The mean percentage changes in LDL cholesterol from the baseline were -7.34 ± 3.14% (P < 0.05) for Group 1; -21.02 ± 1.63% (P < 0.001) for Group 2; -12.47 ± 1.75% (P < 0.001) for Group 3; and -22 ± 2.19% (P < 0.001) for Group 4 with significant intergroup difference (Group 1 versus Group 2, P < 0.001; Group 3 versus Group 4, P > 0.05). No significant increase in AST, ALT, and CPK levels was observed in all groups. Our results indicate that MD alone is effective in reducing LDL cholesterol levels in statin-intolerant patients with a presumably low cardiovascular risk, but associating MD with the administration of RYR improves patients' LDL cholesterol levels more, and in patients with type 2 diabetes" - See red yeast rice at Amazon.com.

    type 2 diabetic patients treated with MD alone (Group 1) -7.34
    type 2 diabetic patients treated with MD associated with RYR (Group 2) -21.02
    dyslipidemic patients treated with MD alone (Group 3) -12.47
    dyslipidemic patients treated with MD plus RYR (Group 4) -22.00
  • Index-based dietary patterns and risk of head and neck cancer in a large prospective study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jan 8 - "We prospectively evaluated the association between 2 index-based dietary patterns [ie, the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) and alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED)] and risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma ... included 494,967 participants from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health study (1995-2006) ... Higher HEI-2005 scores were associated with reduced risk of HNC in men [HR: 0.74 (95% CI: 0.61, 0.89) for highest compared with lowest quintiles ... High aMED scores were also associated with lower HNC risk in men (HR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.01; P-trend = 0.002) and women (HR: 0.42"
  • Cognition and nutrition - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2014 Jan;17(1):1-4 - "An increasing body of evidence has supported the role of the Mediterranean diet and extra-virgin olive oil in protecting cognition. A number of nutritional formulations to improve deteriorating memory are being studied. Undernutrition is associated with cognitive decline. Hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia cause cognitive impairment"
  • Prospective study of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension- and Mediterranean-style dietary patterns and age-related cognitive change: the Cache County Study on Memory, Health and Aging - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Sep 18 - "Participants included 3831 men and women ≥65 y of age who were residents of Cache County, UT, in 1995 ... Higher levels of accordance to both the DASH and Mediterranean dietary patterns were associated with consistently higher levels of cognitive function in elderly men and women over an 11-y period. Whole grains and nuts and legumes were positively associated with higher cognitive functions and may be core neuroprotective foods common to various healthy plant-centered diets around the globe"
  • Mediterranean Diet Adherence in Individuals with Prediabetes and Unknown Diabetes: The Di@bet.es Study - Ann Nutr Metab. 2013 Jul 2;62(4):339-346 - "We investigated MedDiet adherence in individuals with prediabetes and unknown (PREDM/UKDM) or known diabetes (KDM) compared to those with normal glucose metabolism (NORMAL) ... qualitative food frequency questionnaire ... Higher age-adjusted adherence to MedDiet (5-unit increment in the MedScore) was associated with lower and nondifferent odds (OR, 95% CI) of prevalent PREDM/UKDM (0.88, 0.81-0.96, p = 0.001) and KDM (0.97, 0.87-1.07, p = 0.279), respectively, compared to individuals in the NORMAL group ... reverse causation bias cannot be ruled out in cross-sectional studies"
  • The Mediterranean diet in relation to mortality and CVD: a Danish cohort study - Br J Nutr. 2013 Jul 3:1-9 - "Analyses were performed on 1849 men and women sampled during the 1982-83 Danish MONICA (MONItoring trends and determinants of Cardiovascular disease) population study, whose diet was assessed by means of a validated 7 d food record ... the MDS was inversely associated with total mortality and with cardiovascular and MI incidence and mortality, but not with stroke incidence or mortality"
  • Mediterranean Diet and Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults over Time - J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(5):441-5 - "Community-dwelling participants (n=3502) of the Chicago Health and Aging Project aged 65+ years (59% African American) who had no evidence of depression at the baseline ... Our results support the hypothesis that adherence to a diet comprised of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fish, and legumes may protect against the development of depressive symptoms in older age"
  • Mediterranean diet and CHD: the Greek European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort - Br J Nutr. 2012 Aug;108(4):699-709 - "In a general population sample of 23 929 adult men and women with no CVD or cancer at enrolment, a validated FFQ was interviewer-administered, sociodemographic, physical activity and other characteristics were recorded, and arterial blood pressure and anthropometric characteristics were measured. In a median period of 10 years, 636 incident CHD cases and 240 CHD deaths were recorded. Associations of adherence to the MD, operationalised through a nine-component score (0, poor; 9, excellent), with CHD incidence and mortality were evaluated through Cox regression controlling for potentially confounding variables. A two-point increase in the MD score was associated with lower CHD mortality by 25 % (95 % CI 0.57, 0.98) among women and 19 % (95 % CI 0.67, 0.99) among men. The association of adherence to the MD with CHD incidence was again inverse, but weaker (hazard ratios 0.85 (95 % CI 0.71, 1.02) among women and 0.98 (95 % CI 0.87, 1.10) among men). With respect to score components, only meat among men (positively) and fruits and nuts among women (inversely) were associated with both the incidence of and mortality from CHD"
  • Diet Quality Is Associated with All-Cause Mortality in Adults Aged 65 Years and Older - J Nutr. 2011 Dec 21 - "Three measures of diet quality were used: the Healthy Diet Score (HDS), the Recommended Food Score (RFS), and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) ... After adjustment for confounders, the MDS was significantly associated with mortality [highest vs. lowest quartile; HR = 0.78 (95% CI = 0.62-0.98)]. Similarly, the RFS was also associated with mortality [HR = 0.67 (95 % CI = 0.52-0.86)]; however, there were no significant associations for the HDS [HR = 0.99 (95% CI = 0.79-1.24)]"
  • Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and quality of life in the SUN Project - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Aug 17 - "Health-related quality of life (HRQL) ... Multivariate-adjusted models revealed a significant direct association between adherence to Mediterranean diet and all the physical and most mental health domains (vitality, social functioning and role emotional). Vitality (β=0.50, 95% CI=0.32-0.68) and general health (β=0.45, 95% CI=0.26-0.62) showed the highest coefficients. Mean values for physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain, general health and vitality domains were significantly better with increasing adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Those having improved their initial high diet scores have better scores in physical functioning, general health and vitality. Conclusions: Adherence to the Mediterranean diet seems to be a factor importantly associated with a better HRQL" - Note:  For me, quality of life has always been more important mortality.  For example, you may live longer (that's debatable) with calorie restriction but is it worth being cranky your entire life?
  • The impact of a Mediterranean diet and healthy lifestyle on premature mortality in men and women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul 27 - "Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was significantly related to lower mortality in women but not significantly in men. The healthy lifestyle score was strongly inversely related to mortality in women and men. When the least-healthy to the healthiest lifestyle scores were compared, HRs of 4.07 (95% CI: 2.59, 6.40; P-trend <0.001) and 2.61 (95% CI: 1.79, 3.80; P-trend <0.001) were shown in women and men, respectively. For the same comparison, the mortality rate advancement period ("aging effect") was 15.1 y (95% CI: 9.9, 20.2 y) in women and 8.4 y (95% CI: 5.0, 11.8 y) in men ... This study suggests that adherence to 4 modifiable healthy lifestyle factors can substantially reduce premature mortality in women and men"
  • Adherence to the Mediterranean diet reduces mortality in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain) - Br J Nutr. 2011 May 17:1-11 - "Epidemiological studies show that adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) increases longevity; however, few studies are restricted to Mediterranean populations or explore the effect of a MD pattern that directly incorporates olive oil. Therefore the relationship between adherence to the MD and mortality was studied within the the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain) ... Risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality was assessed according to the level of adherence to a relative MD (rMED) score, measured using an 18-unit scale incorporating nine selected dietary components. A high compared with a low rMED score was associated with a significant reduction in mortality from all causes (hazard ratio (HR) 0.79; 95 % CI 0.69, 0.91), from CVD (HR 0.66; 95 % CI 0.49, 0.89), but not from overall cancer (HR 0.92; 95 % CI 0.75, 1.12). A 2-unit increase in rMED score was associated with a 6 % (P < 0.001) decreased risk of all-cause mortality. A high olive oil intake and moderate alcohol consumption contributed most to this association. In this Spanish cohort, following an olive oil-rich MD was related to a significant reduction in all-cause mortality, and reduced the risk of mortality from CVD. These results support the important role that the MD pattern has on reducing mortality in Mediterranean countries" - Click here for my olive oil mayonnaise recipe.
  • Effect of a traditional Mediterranean diet on apolipoproteins B, A-I, and their ratio: A randomized, controlled trial - Atherosclerosis. 2011 May 6 - "Apolipoprotein (Apo)B, ApoA-I, and their ratio could predict coronary heart disease (CHD) risk more accurately than conventional lipid measurements. Our aim was to assess the effect of a traditional Mediterranean diet (TMD) on apolipoproteins ... Participants assigned to a low-fat diet (control) (n=177), or TMDs (TMD+virgin olive oil (VOO), n=181 or TMD+nuts, n=193) received nutritional education and either free VOO (ad libitum) or nuts (dose: 30g/day). A 3-month evaluation was performed ... Both TMDs promoted beneficial changes on classical cardiovascular risk factors. ApoA-I increased, and ApoB and ApoB/ApoA-I ratio decreased after TMD+VOO, the changes promoting a lower cardiometabolic risk. Changes in TMD+VOO versus low-fat diet were -2.9mg/dL (95% CI, -5.6 to -0.08), 3.3mg/dL (95% CI, 0.84 to 5.8), and -0.03mg/dL (-0.05 to -0.01) for ApoB, ApoA-I, and ApoB/ApoA-I ratio, respectively ... Individuals at high-cardiovascular risk who improved their diet toward a TMD pattern rich in virgin olive oil, reduced their Apo B and ApoB/ApoA-I ratio and improved ApoA-I concentrations" - The question is; is it the polyphenols or the omega-9 or both in the virgin olive oil responsible for the benefit? See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Adherence to a Mediterranean-type dietary pattern and cognitive decline in a community population - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Dec 22 - "investigated whether adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern or to the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) is associated with cognitive change in older adults ... For both scoring systems, higher scores connote greater adherence ... Mean (+/-SD) scores for participants were 28.2 +/- 0.1 for the MedDiet and 61.2 +/- 9.6 for the HEI-2005. White participants had higher energy-adjusted MedDiet scores but lower HEI-2005 scores than did black participants. Higher MedDiet scores were associated with slower rates of cognitive decline (β = +0.0014 per 1-point increase, SEE = 0.0004, P = 0.0004) after adjustment for age, sex, race, education, participation in cognitive activities, and energy. No such associations were observed for HEI-2005 scores"
  • Can the Mediterranean diet lower HbA1c in type 2 diabetes? Results from a randomized cross-over study - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Jul 29 - "Compared with usual diet, on the ad libitum Mediterranean intervention diet glycosylated haemoglobin fell from 7.1% (95% CI: 6.5-7.7) to 6.8%"
  • Oleuropein enhances osteoblastogenesis and inhibits adipogenesis: the effect on differentiation in stem cells derived from bone marrow - Osteoporos Int. 2010 May 21 - "Our data suggest that oleuropein, highly abundant in olive tree products included in the traditional Mediterranean diet, could prevent age-related bone loss and osteoporosis" - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Are there specific treatments for the metabolic syndrome? - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan;87(1):8-11 - "Although there is no "all-inclusive" diet yet, it seems plausible that a Mediterranean-style diet has most of the desired attributes, including a lower content of refined carbohydrates, a high content of fiber, a moderate content of fat (mostly unsaturated), and a moderate-to-high content of vegetable proteins"
  • Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Is Inversely Associated With Circulating Interleukin-6 Among Middle-Aged Men. A Twin Study - Circulation. 2007 Dec 17 - "A 1-unit within-pair absolute difference in the diet score was associated with a 9% (95% CI, 4.5 to 13.6) lower interleukin-6 level"
  • Mediterranean Dietary Pattern and Prediction of All-Cause Mortality in a US Population: Results From the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study - Arch Intern Med. 2007 Dec 10;167(22):2461-8 - "The Mediterranean diet was associated with reduced all-cause and cause-specific mortality. In men, the multivariate HRs comparing high to low conformity for all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality were 0.79 (95% CI, 0.76-0.83), 0.78 (95% CI, 0.69-0.87), and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.76-0.91), respectively. In women, an inverse association was seen with high conformity with this pattern: decreased risks that ranged from 12% for cancer mortality to 20% for all-cause mortality (P = .04 and P < .001, respectively, for the trend)"
  • Mediterranean Diet, Alzheimer Disease, and Vascular Mediation - Arch Neurol, 10/9/06 - "Higher adherence to the MeDi was associated with lower risk for AD (odds ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.87; P<.001). Compared with subjects in the lowest MeDi tertile, subjects in the middle MeDi tertile had an odds ratio of 0.47 (95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.76) and those at the highest tertile an odds ratio of 0.32 (95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.59) for AD"
  • Mediterranean diet improves erectile function in subjects with the metabolic syndrome - Int J Impot Res. 2006 Jan 5 - "Mediterranean-style diet rich in whole grain, fruits, vegetables, legumes, walnut, and olive oil might be effective per se in reducing the prevalence of ED in men with the metabolic syndrome"
  • Effect of a mediterranean-style diet on endothelial dysfunction and markers of vascular inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial - JAMA. 2004 Sep 22;292(12):1440-6 - "A Mediterranean-style diet might be effective in reducing the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its associated cardiovascular risk"
  • Metabolic syndrome: dietary interventions - Curr Opin Cardiol. 2004 Sep;19(5):473-9 - "Although there is no "all-inclusive" diet yet, it seems plausible that a Mediterranean-style diet exhibits most of the desired attributes"
  • Mediterranean diet improves lipid profiles over three months - Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004;13(Suppl):S138 - "A Mediterranean diet is effective for weight loss over three months and has early favourable effect on HDL and Triglyceride levels and a neutral effect on TC and LDL levels"
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