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Home > Anti-aging Research > Magnesium

Magnesium

Specific Recommendations:

News & Research:

  • Why you need to go with a supplement with the right calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper ratio such as Body Wise Essential Calcium
    • Magnesium--A Forgotten Mineral - Health & Nutrition Breakthroughs, 9/97 - "Excess calcium and phosphate also interfere with magnesium absorption. (Thus, taking calcium supplements without adding magnesium could result in magnesium deficiency.)"
    • Inhibitory effects of zinc on magnesium balance and magnesium absorption in magnesium absorption in man - J Am Coll Nutr. 1994 Oct;13(5):479-84 - "the overall effect of the high Zn intake of the three groups combined, regardless of the Ca intake, was a highly significant decrease of Mg absorption and of the Mg balance"
    • Zinc -- The Immune System's Missing Link? - Health & Nutrition Breakthroughs, 12/97 - "Supplementing with zinc is quite safe--its only significant side effect is lowered copper levels in the body tissues, since the two minerals compete for absorption. Considering zinc's safety, people should consider taking zinc supplements, especially as they age--being sure to include copper in the proper balance. Most practitioners who supplement their patients' diets with zinc also recommend taking copper at a ratio of 10 mg to 15 mg zinc for each milligram of copper."
    • Calcium, Keep What You Take - Life Extension Magazine, 3/99 - "The final study was a two-year, placebo controlled trial on 225 postmenopausal women. One group received calcium supplements only, the second group zinc, manganese and copper, the third group received calcium plus zinc, manganese and copper, while the fourth group received a placebo. After two years, the only group who experienced an improvement in bone mineral density was the group taking calcium plus zinc, manganese and copper" - [Abstract]
    • Magnesium: The Multi-Purpose Mineral - Think Muscle Newsletter - "If you take high amounts of calcium daily, you may have a magnesium deficiency. Most experts suggest that your calcium: magnesium ration should be 2:1. In other words, if you take 1500 mg of calcium daily through diet and supplementation, you should try to consume at least 750 mg of magnesium daily as well"
  • Calcium Intake and CVD Risks in Older Patients With T2DM - Medscape, 10/20/14 - "Our data indicated that 60.9% and 87.3% of our patients were Ca and Mg intakes below RDA, respectively. Patients whose Ca intake was high or low (81.2%) had significantly higher C-reactive protein (CRP) than those whose Ca intake was moderate (p = 0.043). Furthermore, patients whose Mg intake was low (87.3%) had significantly higher CRP than that of those who took adequate Mg (p = 0.025). The dietary Ca:Mg intake ratios were highly correlated with CRP, platelet counts, and red blood cell distribution (p < 0.05). A dietary Ca:Mg intake ratio of 2.0–2.5 was significantly correlated to lower CRP levels (p = 0.013)" - See Magtein at Amazon.com.
  • PPI and Diuretic Up Risk for Hypomagnesemia Hospitalization - Medscape, 9/30/14 - "Elderly patients taking proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) were at a 43% increased risk of being hospitalized with hypomagnesemia ... When the investigators stratified patients according to diuretic use, they found that those patients receiving both a PPI and a diuretic had a 73% increased risk for hospitalization (95% CI, 1.11 - 2.70) compared with those receiving neither drug" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Magnesium levels vital to brain health as population ages - Science Daily,  11/4/13 - "the human brain begins shrinking after age 25. Structural changes and loss of brain synapses lead to rapid decline in cognitive health ... magnesium deficiency in adults may play a more important role in CI, and more seriously, Alzheimer's Disease (AD), than previously thought ... elevation of brain magnesium through dietary intake of magnesium threonate exerts substantial positive effects on brain synapes in a mouse model of AD, actually restoring aging brains to their youthful conditions ... the 'gold standard' of science, demonstrates that dietary supplementation of Magtein, patented magnesium threonate, can significantly enhance human cognitive functions and decrease symptoms of cognitive impairments ... We know that as we age our bodies naturally lose magnesium. For example, drinking coffee or caffeinated products increases the loss" - See Magtein at Amazon.com.
  • New brain magnesium research and its role in reversing effects of Alzheimer’s - Nutra USA free download, 9/24/13 - "Magtein is the only magnesium compound that has been shown to effectively raise the brain’s magnesium levels, which leads to enhanced learning abilities, working memory, and short- and long-term memory in both young and aged animals. In four published preclinical studies, Magtein was found to improve memory, alleviate anxiety and help prevent the decline and reverse the symptoms of Alzheimer’s ... Here, we show that increasing brain magnesium using a newly developed magnesium compound (magnesium-L-threonate, Magtein) leads to the enhancement of learning abilities, working memory, and short- and long-term memory in rats" - See Magtein at Amazon.com.
    • Elevation of brain magnesium prevents and reverses cognitive deficits and synaptic loss in Alzheimer's disease mouse model - J Neurosci. 2013 May 8;33(19):8423-41 - "Here, we investigated whether elevation of brain magnesium by the use of a recently developed compound, magnesium-l-threonate (MgT), can ameliorate the AD-like pathologies and cognitive deficits in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, a transgenic (Tg) mouse model of AD. MgT treatment reduced Aβ plaque and prevented synapse loss and memory decline in the Tg mice. Strikingly, MgT treatment was effective even when given to the mice at the end stage of their AD-like pathological progression ... Our results suggest that elevation of brain magnesium exerts substantial synaptoprotective effects in a mouse model of AD and may have therapeutic potential for treating AD in humans"
  • Hypomagnesemia and Non-recovery of Renal Function in AKI - Medscape, 5/9/13 - "acute kidney injury (AKI) ... Hypomagnesemia was an independent risk factor for non-recovery of renal function in a cohort of critically ill AKI patients" - See Jarrow Formulas, Magnesium Optimizer Citrate at Amazon.com.
  • Magnesium may be as important to kids' bone health as calcium - Science Daily, 5/5/13 - "Lots of nutrients are key for children to have healthy bones. One of these appears to be magnesium ... Results showed that the amounts of magnesium consumed and absorbed were key predictors of how much bone children had. Dietary calcium intake, however, was not significantly associated with total bone mineral content or density"
  • CKD and Low Magnesium: Pay Attention - Medscape, 2/6/13 - "When adjusted for differences in age and sex among quartiles, the lowest magnesium group had the highest incidence of new atrial fibrillation events (9.4 episodes per 1000 person-years). The rates for the other 3 quartiles were quite similar (6.9, 7.1, and 6.3 events per 1000 person-years for the second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively). In multivariable models controlled for the multiple potential differences including glomerular filtration rate, those with the lowest levels of magnesium continued to be at highest risk for the development of atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.02- 2.14; P = .04)"
  • Hypomagnesemia Induced by Proton Pump Inhibition - Medscape, 8/29/12 - "PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia (PPIH) ... Proper identification and treatment of PPIH therefore mainly rests on three pillars: First, serum magnesium monitoring on a regular basis. In event of existing hypomagnesaemia discontinuation of PPIs should result in a rapid normalisation, which may be supported by additional magnesium and calcium supplementation.[60] This step is crucial to exclude other causes of hypomagnesaemia. Second, regular determination of serum magnesium (and concomitant other electrolytes) should be done to monitor the course of recovery. This should be accompanied by urinary magnesium measurements to assure renal magnesium retention. Third, patients with PPIH have the chance to escape hypomagnesaemia by alternative acid suppressants. Therefore, switching to H2RA should be attempted.[45] In cases of insufficient relief from acid related complains under H2RA, tapered or intermittent regimes including PPIs might be helpful. Also here, urinary magnesium monitoring is of benefit as it declines prior to the serum magnesium as an early indication.[61] In most cases reviewed here, supplementation with electrolytes could be stopped after normal serum magnesium was obtained"
  • Magnesium lowers blood pressure, study suggests - Science Daily, 3/13/12 - "In the trials, the magnesium supplementation doses ranged from 120 to 973 mg with between 3 to 24 weeks of follow-up. Although not all individual trials showed significance in blood pressure reduction, by combining the trials, the overall data indicated that magnesium supplementation reduced both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. With the best results observed at the higher dosages"
  • Magnesium linked to better blood pressure: Meta-analysis - Nutra USA, 2/13/12 - "data pooled from seven prospective studies revealed that, for every 100 mg per day increase in magnesium intake, the risk of stroke was reduced by about 9% ... magnesium supplementation was associated with a 3 to 4 mmHg reduction in systolic blood pressure and a 2-3 mmHg reduction in diastolic blood pressure, with the best results observed for doses over 370 milligrams per day"
  • Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium Intakes and Stroke Risk (printer-friendly) - Medscape, 8/2/11 - "In conclusion, findings from this prospective cohort study of women suggest that potassium and magnesium intakes are inversely associated with risk of cerebral infarction among women with hypertension. We observed no protective effect of calcium intake on stroke risk"
  • Citrate key in bone's nanostructure - Science Daily, 6/8/11 - "At this point, we feel that citrate probably also has a role in the biomineralization of the apatite ... It's also been noted in the literature that as an organism ages, the nanocrystal thickness increases and the citrate concentration goes down ... "and there's also support from clinical studies that citrate is good for bones," adding that one of the leading supplements for bone strength contains calcium citrate ... While calcium loss is a major symptom in osteoporosis, the decline of citrate concentration may also contribute to bone brittleness" - Note:  I read a long time ago that the citrate form of most minerals was absorbed better and have been using that form for some time.  For example, see the magnesium citrate in magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Magnesium supplements may ease hot flashes for breast cancer patients - Nutra USA, 6/6/11 - "400 mg per day of magnesium oxide for 4 weeks was associated with a 41.4 percent reduction in the frequency of hot flashes ... The intensity of the hot flashes was also reduced as a result of magnesium supplementation by about 50 percent" - [Abstract]
  • Magnesium deficiency: Not always a nutritional problem - Science Daily, 3/15/11
  • Long-Term PPI Use Associated With Low Magnesium - Medscape, 3/2/11 - "Long-term use of prescription proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) can be associated with hypomagnesemia, which can in turn cause serious muscle spasms (tetany), arrhythmias, and seizures, but may instead be asymptomatic ... In about 25% of cases reported to and reviewed by the FDA, magnesium supplementation alone was insufficient for correcting hypomagnesemia ... The drugs in question include esomeprazole magnesium (Nexium, AstraZeneca), dexlansoprazole (Dexilant, Takeda), omeprazole (Prilosec, Astra-Zeneca; also available OTC), omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate (Zergerid, AstraZeneca; also available OTC), lansoprazole (Prevacid, Novartis; also available OTC) pantoprazole soidum (Protonix, Wyeth/Pfizer; and generics) rabeprazole sodium (AcipHex, Eisai and Ortho-MacNeil), and esomeprazole magnesium/naproxen (Vimovo, AstraZeneca)"
  • Magnesium sulfate may offer protection from cerebral palsy - Science Daily, 2/10/11 - "The study concluded that Mg treatment significantly reduced evidence of neonatal brain injury associated with maternal LPS. These studies suggest that maternal Mg therapy may be most effective in human preterm deliveries associated with maternal/fetal inflammation"
  • Serum Magnesium and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study - Medscape, 10/19/10 - "sudden cardiac death (SCD) ... SCD was inversely associated with serum Mg (P for linear trend < .0001). Compared with the lowest quartile of Mg, the risk of SCD was 55% lower (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.31–0.67) in the highest Mg quartile and 47% lower in the second highest quartile (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.38–0.74)"
  • Magnesium may decrease colon cancer risk: Study - Nutra USA, 3/15/10 - "Intakes of the mineral of at least 327 milligrams per day were found to reduce the risk of colon cancer by 52 per cent, compared to intakes less than 238 milligrams per day, while no benefits were observed in women" - [Abstract]
  • Remember magnesium if you want to remember: Synthetic supplement improves memory and staves off age-related memory loss - Science Daily, 2/22/10 - "magnesium, a key nutrient for the functioning of memory, may be even more critical than previously thought for the neurons of children and healthy brain cells in adults ... In the study, two groups of rats ate normal diets containing a healthy amount of magnesium from natural sources. The first group was given a supplement of MgT, while the control group had only its regular diet. Behavioral tests showed that cognitive functioning improved in the rats in the first group and also demonstrated an increase of synapses in the brain -- connective nerve endings that carry memories in the form of electrical impulses from one part of the brain to the other"
  • Magnesium May Improve Memory - WebMD, 1/27/10 - "increasing brain magnesium using a newly developed compound, magnesium-L-threonate (MgT), improves learning abilities, working memory, and short- and-long-term memory in rats. The magnesium also helped older rats perform better on a battery of learning tests ... The researchers cite that only 32% of Americans get the recommended daily allowance of magnesium"
  • Most men deficient in key nutrients - MSNBC, 6/19/09 - "studies show that 77 percent of men don't take in enough magnesium, that many of us are deficient in vitamin D, and that the vitamin B12 in our diets may be undermined by a common heartburn medication. And we haven't even mentioned our problems with potassium and iodine"
  • Magnesium may benefit blood pressure in hypertensives - Nutra USA, 5/19/09 - "receive either daily supplements of 300 mg of elemental magnesium in the magnesium oxide form or placebo for 12 weeks ... At the end of the study, no significant differences were observed between the magnesium or placebo groups. However, when the researchers looked specifically at hypertensives, significant decreases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed in the magnesium group (17.1 and 3.4 mmHg, respectively), compared to placebo (6.7 and 0.8 mmHg, respectively)" - [Abstract]
  • Magnesium Supplement Reviews - ConsumerLab.com, 5/19/09 - "25% did not meet quality standards according to our magnesium tests"
  • Low magnesium levels may increase stroke risk - Nutra USA, 4/22/09 - "Blood levels of magnesium were negatively associated with the risk of stroke, they said, with levels of 1.6, 1.7, and 1.8 mEq/L linked to a 22, 30, and 25 per cent reduction in stroke, respectively, compared to 1.5 mEq/L "
  • Calcium May Only Protect Against Colorectal Cancer In Presence Of Magnesium - Science Daily, 11/16/08 - "supplementation of calcium only reduced the risk of adenoma recurrence if the ratio of calcium to magnesium was low and remained low during treatment. "The risk of colorectal cancer adenoma recurrence was reduced by 32 percent among those with baseline calcium to magnesium ratio below the median in comparison to no reduction for those above the median"
  • Magnesium linked to fewer gallstones - Nutra USA, 2/26/08 - "After adjusting the results to account for age differences, which may affect the results, Tsai and co-workers calculated that men with the highest levels of magnesium intake (454 mg/d) were 28 per cent less likely to develop gallstones, compared to men with the lowest average intake (262 mg/d)" - [Abstract]
  • Magnesium Intake May Cut Risk of Gallstones - Medscape, 2/22/08 - "Magnesium deficiency is known to cause elevated triglyceride levels and decreased HDL cholesterol levels, both of which may raise the risk of gallstones ... Compared with the lowest quintile of total magnesium intake (median 262 mg/day), the highest quintile of intake (454 mg/day) reduced the risk of gallstone disease by 33%"
  • Migraine Patients May Benefit From Magnesium or CoQ10 - Clinical Psychiatry News, 8/07 - "The most important supplement, according to Dr. Mauskop, is magnesium. “It's known that up to 50% of people with acute migraine have a magnesium deficiency. … It is much more effective to treat them with a product they're deficient in rather than using drugs,” ... Research has found that, for migraine, CoQ10 at 300 mg/day is effective, and that for Parkinson's disease 1,200 mg/day is effective"
  • Grain Fiber And Magnesium Intake Associated With Lower Risk For Diabetes - Science Daily, 5/14/07 - "those who consumed the most cereal fiber had a 33 percent lower risk of developing diabetes than those who took in the least, while those who consumed the most magnesium had a 23 percent lower risk than those who consumed the least. There was no association between fruit or vegetable fiber and diabetes risk"
  • Dietary Magnesium May Reduce Risk for Diabetes in Black Women - Medscape, 10/9/06 - "41,186 women enrolled in the Black Women's Health Study ... Higher magnesium intakes in the highest vs the lowest quintile were associated with lower incidence of diabetes mellitus with an adjusted HR of 0.69"
  • Need More Magnesium? - Dr. Weil, 6/29/06 - "a diet rich in magnesium appears to protect against metabolic syndrome, a combination of risk factors that can lead to diabetes and heart disease"
  • Magnesium Lowers Heart, Diabetes Risks - WebMD, 3/27/06 - "people in the study who consumed the most magnesium had a 31% lower risk of developing metabolic syndrome, compared with people who ate the least"
  • Magnesium Prevents Osteoporosis - Healthwell, 2/9/06 - "a higher magnesium intake was associated with greater whole-body bone mineral density, after adjusting for calcium and vitamin D intake, level of exercise, use of estrogen medication, and other factors known to be related to bone health"
  • More support for magnesium against colon cancer - Nutra USA, 1/31/06 - "The hazard ratio, a measure of the risk, was statistically 25 per cent lower for the volunteers with the highest intake of magnesium (more than 356 mg per day)"
  • Magnesium In Your Diet Could Lead To Stronger Bones - Science Daily, 12/22/05
  • Dietary Magnesium Could Lead to Stronger Bones - Doctor's Guide, 12/21/05 - "For every 100 milligram per day increase in magnesium intake, data showed a 1% increase in bone density ... this link was only true for the older white men and women"
  • Magnesium could reduce osteoporosis risk - Nutra USA, 12/8/05 - "Higher Mg intake through diet and supplements was positively associated with total-body [bone mineral density] BMD in older white men and women. For every 100 mg per day increase in Mg, there was an approximate 2 per cent increase in whole-body BMD"
  • Magnesium Intake and Bone Mineral Density - Medscape, 11/8/05 - "The mean intakes of Mg by race-sex subgroup are listed in Table 2 . Less than 26% of the cohort met the RDA for Mg ... twenty-five percent of the cohort took a Mg-containing supplement; the mean dose was 83 mg ... RDA of 420 mg/d" - See magnesium at Amazon.com.
  • Magnesium Deficiency in Obese Children May Be Linked to Insulin Resistance - Medscape, 5/9/05 - "Magnesium deficiency in obese children is associated with the development of insulin resistance"
  • Focus on Magnesium - Dr. Murray's Natural Facts, 3/3/05 - "Double-blind studies in people with CFS have shown magnesium supplementation significantly improved energy levels, better emotional state, and less pain"
  • MIT: Magnesium May Reverse Middle-age Memory Loss - Science Daily, 12/27/04 - "In the cover story of the Dec. 2 issue of Neuron, MIT researchers report a possible new role for magnesium: helping maintain memory function in middle age and beyond ... magnesium helps regulate a key brain receptor important for learning and memory"
  • What to take to keep diabetes at bay - Delicious Living, 12/04 - "Recent research suggests that magnesium keeps blood sugars from rising too high, thus staving off diabetes"
  • Magnesium in Hypertension Prevention and Control - Life Extension Magazine, 9/04 - "Magnesium is one of the body’s most important minerals. ... Magnesium is a major factor in relaxing the smooth muscles within the blood vessels, thereby reducing peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure.11-13 In addition, magnesium reduces nerve and muscle excitability, stabilizes cardiac conductivity, and influences neurochemical transmission.11,13,14 Magnesium also affects circulating levels of norepinephrine and the synthesis of serotonin and nitric oxide"
  • Americans Need More Magnesium in Diet - WebMD, 7/23/04 - "nearly two-thirds of us may not be getting enough magnesium ... Adult men need 400-420 mg/day while adult women need 310-320 mg /day"
  • Lack Energy? Maybe It's Your Magnesium Level - Science Daily, 5/10/04 - "inadequate magnesium is associated with a need for increased oxygen during exercise. They found that during moderate activity, those with low magnesium levels in muscle are likely to use more energy—and therefore to tire more quickly—than those with adequate levels"  - See magnesium at Amazon.com.
  • Magnesium may reduce risk of diabetes - MSNBC, 5/7/04 - "The conclusions of these three studies are generally supported by earlier large population studies. Laboratory studies suggest that magnesium influences the action of insulin in the body. A lack of magnesium may worsen insulin resistance, triggering the onset of diabetes" - See magnesium at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Magnesium May Help Prevent Development of Type 2 Diabetes - Medscape, 12/23/03 - "Magnesium-containing foods can prevent development of type 2 diabetes in both men and women ... Comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of total magnesium intake ... was 0.66 ... in women and 0.67 in men"
  • Low Dietary Magnesium Changes Cardiac Rhythm - Doctor's Guide, 3/4/02 - "Low intakes of dietary magnesium may increase supraventricular ectopy ... people who live in areas with soft water, who use diuretics, or who are predisposed to magnesium loss may need to take in more dietary magnesium than others ... Magnesium is central to a variety of cellular mechanisms that control activity of muscle and nerve cells. Cardiac muscle seems to have been more sensitive to this intake than was skeletal muscle ... They point out some women may habitually eat a diet similar to the one in this study and for long periods of time"
  • Got Magnesium? Those With Heart Disease Should - WebMD, 11/9/00 - "Similar magnesium supplements are available over-the-counter in the U.S., but they might not provide similar benefits. "The product we used is from Germany, where supplements of this kind are regulated and quality is monitored," Merz says. "Because that is not the case in the U.S., it is impossible to know what you are getting in a supplement, or even whether it contains any magnesium at all.""
  • More Than Half of All Women Report: 'We're Stressed!', Experts Say Diet, Supplements May Be the Answer - WebMD, 6/2/00 - ""Stress affects nutrient needs by reducing absorption, increasing excretion, [and] altering how the body uses -- or increasing the daily requirements for -- certain nutrients," she says. For example, the body releases stress hormones, such as cortisol, during stressful times, and these stress hormones deplete your body's supply of magnesium -- an element that plays a role the body's use of energy."

Abstracts:

  • Dietary magnesium intake and risk of metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis - Diabet Med. 2014 Nov;31(11):1301-9 - "reviewed the relevant literature in PubMed and EMBASE ... A weighted inverse association was found between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.59, 0.81) comparing the highest with the lowest group. For every 100-mg/day increment in magnesium intake, the overall risk of having metabolic syndrome was lowered by 17%" - See Magtein at Amazon.com.
  • Low dietary intake of magnesium is associated with increased externalising behaviours in adolescents - Public Health Nutr. 2014 Nov 6:1-7 - "Adequate Zn and Mg intakes may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of mental health problems, such as depression, anxiety and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ... using a validated FFQ ... Higher dietary intake of Mg (per sd increase) was significantly associated with reduced externalising behaviours (β=-1.45; 95 % CI -2.40, -0.50; P=0.003). There was a trend towards reduced externalising behaviours with higher Zn intake (per sd increase; β=-0.73" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com and Magtein at Amazon.com.
  • Plasma Magnesium and Risk of Ischemic Stroke Among Women - Stroke. 2014 Aug 12 - "Conditional on matching factors, women in the lowest magnesium quintile had a relative risk of 1.34 (95% confidence interval, 0.86-2.10; P trend=0.13) for total ischemic stroke compared with women in the highest quintile. Additional adjustment for risk factors and confounders did not substantially alter the risk estimates for total ischemic stroke. Women with magnesium levels <0.82 mmol/L had significantly greater risk of total ischemic stroke (multivariable relative risk, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.27; P=0.01) and thrombotic stroke (multivariable relative risk, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.65; P=0.03) compared with women with magnesium levels ≥0.82 mmol/L" - See Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
  • Serum magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium are associated with risk of incident heart failure: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jul 16 - "A total of 14,709 African Americans (27%) and whites from the ARIC cohort [aged 45-64 y at baseline (1987-1989)] were observed through 2009 ... A total of 2250 incident HF events accrued over a median follow-up of 20.6 y. Participants in the lowest (≤1.4 mEq/L) compared with the highest (≥1.8 mEq/L) category of magnesium were at greater HF risk (HR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.46, 1.99). For phosphorus, there appeared to be a threshold whereby only those in the highest quintile were at greater HF risk [HR(Q5 vs Q1): 1.34; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.54]. Higher concentrations of calcium were also associated with greater risk of HF [HR(Q5 vs Q1): 1.24; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.43] ... Low serum magnesium and high serum phosphorus and calcium were independently associated with greater risk of incident HF in this population-based cohort"
  • Effect of oral magnesium supplementation on physical performance in healthy elderly women involved in a weekly exercise program: a randomized controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jul 9 - "139 healthy women (mean ± SD age: 71.5 ± 5.2 y) attending a mild fitness program were randomly allocated to a treatment group (300 mg Mg/d; n = 62) or a control group ... Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) ... After 12 wk, the treated group had a significantly better total SPPB score (Δ = 0.41 ± 0.24 points; P = 0.03), chair stand times (Δ = -1.31 ± 0.33 s; P < 0.0001), and 4-m walking speeds (Δ = 0.14 ± 0.03 m/s; P = 0.006) than did the control group. These findings were more evident in participants with a magnesium dietary intake lower than the Recommended Dietary Allowance"
  • Dietary magnesium intake and risk of metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis - Diabet Med. 2014 Jun 26 - "A weighted inverse association was found between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.59, 0.81) comparing the highest with the lowest group. For every 100-mg/day increment in magnesium intake, the overall risk of having metabolic syndrome was lowered by 17%"
  • Dietary Magnesium Intake and Risk of Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies - Nutr Cancer. 2014 Jun 9;:1-9 - "When all studies were pooled, the relative risk (RR) of overall cancer for the highest level of dietary magnesium intake was 0.801 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.664-0.966) compared with the lowest level of dietary magnesium intake. In subgroup meta-analyses by study design, there was a significant inverse association between dietary magnesium and the risk of cancer in case-control studies (RR = 0.663, 95% CI: 0.475-0.925), whereas there was no significant association in prospective cohort studies (RR = 0.888, 95% CI: 0.745-1.060). Furthermore, there was a significant preventive effect of dietary magnesium for colorectal cancer (RR = 0.775, 95% CI: 0.655-0.919), but not for other cancer"
  • Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with serum C-reactive protein levels: meta-analysis and systematic review - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Feb 12 - "This meta-analysis and systematic review indicates that dietary Mg intake is significantly and inversely associated with serum CRP levels. The potential beneficial effect of Mg intake on chronic diseases may be, at least in part, explained by inhibiting inflammation"
  • Intakes of Potassium, Magnesium, and Calcium and Risk of Stroke - Stroke. 2014 Feb 11 - "36 094 participants aged 21 to 70 years. Dietary intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire ... 12 years of follow-up ... magnesium intake was associated with reduced stroke risk (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] per 100 mg/d, 0.80 [0.67-0.97] dietary magnesium; 0.78 [0.65-0.93] total magnesium). Potassium and calcium intakes were not associated with stroke"
  • Hypomagnesaemia in patients hospitalised in internal medicine is associated with increased mortality - Int J Clin Pract. 2014 Jan;68(1):111-6 - "Magnesium is the major intracellular divalent cation. Hypomagnesaemia is common among critically ill patients; it's prevalence is not known in patients admitted to general internal medicine ... Retrospective chart review. Hypomagnesaemic patients admitted from 1 October 2010 through 18 November 2010 compared with normomagnesaemic patients ... There was a significant difference in mortality between the normomagnesaemic group (7.2%) and the hypomagnesaemic group (17.2%)"
  • Dietary Magnesium Intake Is Inversely Associated with Mortality in Adults at High Cardiovascular Risk - J Nutr. 2013 Nov 20 - "The present study included 7216 men and women aged 55-80 y from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study, a randomized clinical trial. Participants were assigned to one of two Mediterranean diets (supplemented with nuts or olive oil) or advice on a low-fat control diet ... median follow-up of 4.8 y ... Energy-adjusted baseline magnesium intake was inversely associated with cardiovascular, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Compared with lower consumers, individuals in the highest tertile of magnesium intake had a 34% reduction in mortality risk (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.95; P < 0.01). Dietary magnesium intake was inversely associated with mortality risk in Mediterranean individuals at high risk of CVD" - See Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidant vitamins and magnesium and the risk of hearing loss in the US general population - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov 6 - "The protective effects of antioxidant vitamins on hearing loss are well established in animal studies but in few human studies. Recent animal studies suggest that magnesium intake along with antioxidants may act in synergy to prevent hearing loss ... analyzed cross-sectional data from 2592 participants aged 20-69 y from NHANES 2001-2004 ... Dietary intakes of antioxidants and magnesium are associated with lower risks of hearing loss" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com and Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Magnesium Intake Improves Insulin Resistance among Non-Diabetic Individuals with Metabolic Syndrome Participating in a Dietary Trial - Nutrients. 2013 Sep 27;5(10):3910-9 - "The dietary intervention study examined this question in 234 individuals with MetS. Magnesium intake was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls at baseline, 6, and 12 months ... After multivariate adjustment, magnesium intake was inversely associated with metabolic biomarkers of insulin resistance (P < 0.01). Further, the likelihood of elevated HOMA-IR (>3.6) over time was 71% lower [odds ratio (OR): 0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12, 0.72] in participants in the highest quartile of magnesium intake than those in the lowest quartile. For individuals meeting the RDA for magnesium, the multivariate-adjusted OR for high HOMA-IR over time was 0.37 (95% CI: 0.18, 0.77). These findings indicate that dietary magnesium intake is inadequate among non-diabetic individuals with MetS and suggest that increasing dietary magnesium to meet the RDA has a protective effect on insulin resistance"
  • Higher magnesium intake reduces risk of impaired glucose and insulin metabolism, and progression from prediabetes to diabetes in middle-aged Americans - Diabetes Care. 2013 Oct 2 - "In 2,582 community-dwelling participants 26-81 yrs old at baseline, magnesium intake and risk of incident "metabolic impairment," defined as impaired fasting glucose (≥5.6-<7.0 mmol/L), impaired glucose tolerance (2-hr postload glucose ≥7.8-<11.1 mmol/L), IR, or hyperinsulinemia (≥90th percentile of HOMA-IR or fasting insulin, respectively), was estimated among those with normal baseline status, and risk of incident diabetes was estimated among those with baseline metabolic impairment ... compared to those with the lowest magnesium intake, those with the highest intake had 37% lower risk of incident metabolic impairment (P trend=0.02), while in those with baseline metabolic impairment, higher intake was associated with 32% lower risk of incident diabetes (P trend=0.05). In the combined population, the risk in those with the highest intake was 53% (P trend=0.0004) of those with the lowest intake"
  • Magnesium intake decreases Type 2 diabetes risk through the improvement of insulin resistance and inflammation: the Hisayama Study - Diabet Med. 2013 Jun 12 - "A total of 1999 subjects without diabetes aged 40-79 years who underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test were followed up prospectively for a mean of 15.6 years ... The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of Type 2 diabetes significantly decreased with increasing magnesium intake quartile levels (≤ 148.5, 148.6-171.5, 171.6-195.5 and ≥ 195.6 mg/day, P for trend = 0.01). In multivariate analyses, after adjusting for comprehensive risk factors and other dietary factors, the hazard ratio of Type 2 diabetes was 0.67 (95% CI 0.49-0.92; P = 0.01) in the third quartile and 0.63 (95% CI 0.44-0.90; P = 0.01) in the highest quartile compared with the first quartile"
  • Circulating and dietary magnesium and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 May 29 - "systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate prospective associations of circulating and dietary magnesium with incidence of CVD, IHD, and fatal IHD ... Circulating magnesium (per 0.2 mmol/L increment) was associated with a 30% lower risk of CVD"
  • Urinary and plasma magnesium and risk of ischemic heart disease - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Mar 13 - "Urinary excretion of magnesium, an indicator of dietary magnesium uptake, might provide more consistent results ... examined 7664 adult participants free of known cardiovascular disease in the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study-a prospective population-based cohort study ... median follow-up of 10.5 y ... urinary magnesium excretion had a nonlinear relation with IHD risk (P-curvature = 0.01). The lowest sex-specific quintile (men: <2.93 mmol/24 h; women: <2.45 mmol/24 h) had an increased risk of fatal and nonfatal IHD (multivariable HR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.28, 2.00) compared with the upper 4 quintiles of urinary magnesium excretion. A similar increase in risk of the lowest quintile was observed for mortality related to IHD (HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.61) ... Low urinary magnesium excretion was independently associated with a higher risk of IHD incidence. An increased dietary intake of magnesium, particularly in those with the lowest urinary magnesium, could reduce the risk of IHD"
  • Higher Magnesium Intake Is Associated with Lower Fasting Glucose and Insulin, with No Evidence of Interaction with Select Genetic Loci, in a Meta-Analysis of 15 CHARGE Consortium Studies - J Nutr. 2013 Jan 23 - "Fifteen studies from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium provided data from up to 52,684 participants of European descent without known diabetes ... After adjustment for age, sex, energy intake, BMI, and behavioral risk factors, magnesium (per 50-mg/d increment) was inversely associated with fasting glucose [β = -0.009 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.013, -0.005), P < 0.0001] and insulin [-0.020 ln-pmol/L (95% CI: -0.024, -0.017), P < 0.0001]"
  • Low Serum Magnesium and the Development of Atrial Fibrillation in the Community: The Framingham Heart Study - Circulation. 2012 Nov 21 - "We studied 3,530 participants (mean age, 44 years; 52% women) from the Framingham Offspring Study who attended a routine examination, and were free of AF and cardiovascular disease ... 20 years of follow-up ... The age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate of AF was 9.4 per 1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval, 6.7 to 11.9) in the lowest quartile of serum magnesium (≤1.77 mg/dl), compared with 6.3 per 1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval, 4.1 to 8.4) in the highest quartile (≥1.99 mg/dl). In multivariable-adjusted models, individuals in the lowest quartile of serum magnesium were approximately 50% more likely to develop AF (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.52, 1.00 to 2.31; P=0.05), compared with those in the upper quartiles ... Because hypomagnesemia is common in the general population, a link with AF may have potential clinical implications"
  • Magnesium intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct 3 - "We performed a literature search on PubMed database through July 2012 to identify prospective studies of magnesium intake in relation to CRC risk ... On the basis of the findings of this meta-analysis, a higher magnesium intake seems to be associated with a modest reduction in the risk of CRC, in particular, colon cancer"
  • Magnesium intake and colorectal tumor risk: a case-control study and meta-analysis - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Aug 1 - "Dietary magnesium might be related to colorectal tumor risk through the pivotal roles of magnesium in cellular metabolism, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation ... A case-control study on colorectal adenomas (768 cases; 709 polyp-free control subjects) and a meta-analysis of colorectal adenomas (3 case-control studies) and carcinomas (6 prospective cohort studies) were conducted. Dietary magnesium was estimated from food-frequency questionnaires in the case-control study and most studies in the meta-analyses ... The case-control study showed a nonsignificant inverse association between dietary magnesium intake and risk of colorectal adenomas (OR for every 100-mg/d increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.06). However, inverse associations were observed only in subjects with BMI (in kg/m(2)) ≥25, in subjects aged ≥55 y, and for advanced adenomas. Associations did not vary by the calcium-to-magnesium intake ratio. In the meta-analysis, every 100-mg/d increase in magnesium intake was associated with 13% lower risk of colorectal adenomas (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00) and 12% lower risk of colorectal cancer (RR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.97)"
  • Oral magnesium supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis improves clinical and functional variables: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 May 30 - "Magnesium is one of the most important minerals in the body ... randomly assigned to receive magnesium (n = 22; 300 mg/d) or placebo (n = 22) for 8 wk with a 4-wk washout period between trials ... Shwachman-Kulczycki (SK) score ... Magnesium administration had a beneficial effect on clinical variables assessed by the SK score (change: 4.48 points after magnesium compared with -1.30 points after placebo"
  • Associations of dietary magnesium intake with mortality from cardiovascular disease: The JACC study - Atherosclerosis. 2012 Jan 28 - "Dietary magnesium intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire administered between 1988 and 1990 ... median 14.7-year follow-up ... Dietary magnesium intake was inversely associated with mortality from hemorrhagic stroke in men and with mortality from total and ischemic strokes, coronary heart disease, heart failure and total cardiovascular disease in women. The multivariable hazard ratio (95% CI) for the highest vs. the lowest quintiles of magnesium intake after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factor and sodium intake was 0.49 (0.26-0.95), P for trend=0.074 for hemorrhagic stroke in men, 0.68 (0.48-0.96), P for trend=0.010 for total stroke, 0.47 (0.29-0.77), P for trend<0.001 for ischemic stroke, 0.50 (0.30-0.84), P for trend=0.005 for coronary heart disease, 0.50 (0.28-0.87), P for trend=0.002 for heart failure and 0.64 (0.51-0.80), P for trend<0.001 for total cardiovascular disease in women"
  • Dietary magnesium intake and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective studies - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec 28 - "Seven prospective studies, with 6477 cases of stroke and 241,378 participants were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. We observed a modest but statistically significant inverse association between magnesium intake and risk of stroke. An intake increment of 100 mg Mg/d was associated with an 8% reduction in risk of total stroke (combined RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.97), without heterogeneity among studies (P = 0.66, I(2) = 0%). Magnesium intake was inversely associated with risk of ischemic stroke (RR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.87, 0.96) but not intracerebral hemorrhage (RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.10) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (RR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.14)"
  • Magnesium Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies - Diabetes Care. 2011 Sep;34(9):2116-2122 - "Meta-analysis of 13 prospective cohort studies involving 536,318 participants and 24,516 cases detected a significant inverse association between magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes (relative risk [RR] 0.78 [95% CI 0.73-0.84]). This association was not substantially modified by geographic region, follow-up length, sex, or family history of type 2 diabetes. A significant inverse association was observed in overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2)) but not in normal-weight individuals (BMI <25 kg/m(2)), although test for interaction was not statistically significant (P(interaction) = 0.13). In the dose-response analysis, the summary RR of type 2 diabetes for every 100 mg/day increment in magnesium intake was 0.86 (95% CI 0.82-0.89)"
  • Low serum magnesium concentrations predict cardiovascular and all-cause mortality - Atherosclerosis. 2011 Jun 12 - "Low serum magnesium (Mg(++)) levels are associated with future development of left ventricular hypertrophy independently of common cardiovascular risk factors, as recently demonstrated in the five-year follow-up of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). As left ventricular hypertrophy has significant prognostic implications, we hypothesized that serum Mg(++) levels are associated with cardiovascular mortality ... median duration of mortality follow-up was 10.1 years ... During the follow-up, 417 deaths occurred. Mortality in subjects with Mg(++)≤0.73mmol/l was significantly higher for all-cause deaths (10.95 death per 1000 person years), and cardiovascular deaths (3.44 deaths per 1000 person years) in comparison to higher Mg(++) concentrations (1.45 deaths from all-cause per 1000 person years, 1.53 deaths from cardiovascular cause per 1000 person years). This association remained statistically significant after adjustment for multiple cardiovascular risk factors, including arterial hypertension, and antihypertensive therapy including diuretics (log-rank-test p=0.0001 for all-cause mortality, and p=0.0174 for cardiovascular mortality)"
  • Influence of magnesium status and magnesium intake on the blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes - Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan 31 - "Magnesium status was influenced by kidney depuration and was altered in patients with type 2 diabetes, and magnesium showed to play an important role in blood glucose control"
  • Magnesium supplementation, metabolic and inflammatory markers, and global genomic and proteomic profiling: a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial in overweight individuals - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Dec 15 - "We observed that magnesium treatment significantly decreased fasting C-peptide concentrations (change: -0.4 ng/mL after magnesium treatment compared with +0.05 ng/mL after placebo treatment; P = 0.004) and appeared to decrease fasting insulin concentrations (change: -2.2 μU/mL after magnesium treatment compared with 0.0 μU/mL after placebo treatment; P = 0.25) ... Urine proteomic profiling showed significant differences in the expression amounts of several peptides and proteins after treatment" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Oral magnesium supplementation reduces insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects - a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010 Nov 18 - "Mg supplementation resulted in a significant improvement of fasting plasma glucose and some ISI compared to placebo. Blood pressure and lipid profile didn't show significant changes. The results provide significant evidence that oral Mg supplementation improves insulin sensitivity even in normomagnesemic, overweight, non-diabetic subjects emphasizing the need for an early optimisation of Mg status to prevent insulin resistance and subsequently type 2 diabetes" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Low serum magnesium concentrations predict increase in left ventricular mass over 5 years independently of common cardiovascular risk factors - Atherosclerosis. 2010 Sep 21 - "Mg(2+) at baseline (0.790+/-0.003mmol/l, mean+/-SEM) inversely correlated with the difference in LVM over 5 years (p<0.0001, females: p<0.002, males: p<0.024). In the lowest Mg(2+)-quintile (Mg(2+)<=0.73mmol/l), LVM (187.4+/-3.1g at baseline) increased by 14.9+/-1.2g, while in the highest Mg(2+)-quintile (Mg(2+)>=0.85mmol/l) LVM (186.7+/-3.4g at baseline) decreased by -0.5+/-2.8g (p<0.0001 between quintiles). By multivariable analysis including several cardiovascular risk factors and antihypertensive treatment, serum Mg(2+) was associated with the increase in LVM at a statistically high significant level (p<0.0001). LVM after 5 years was significantly higher in subjects within the lower Mg(2+)-quintiles. This association remained highly significant after adjustment for several cardiovascular risk factors including arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus"
  • Serum magnesium and risk of sudden cardiac death in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study - Am Heart J. 2010 Sep;160(3):464-70 - "sudden cardiac death (SCD) ... Individuals in the highest quartile of serum Mg were at significantly lower risk of SCD in all models. This association persisted after adjustment for potential confounding variables, with an almost 40% reduced risk of SCD (hazard ratio 0.62, 95% CI 0.42-0.93) in quartile 4 versus 1 of serum Mg observed in the fully adjusted model ... This study suggests that low levels of serum Mg may be an important predictor of SCD"
  • Magnesium Intake in Relation to Systemic Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and the Incidence of Diabetes - Diabetes Care. 2010 Aug 31 - "During 20-year follow-up, 330 incident diabetic cases were identified. Magnesium intake was inversely associated with incidence of diabetes after adjustment for potential confounders. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of diabetes for participants in the highest quintile of magnesium intake was 0.53 (95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.86; P(trend)<0.01) compared with those in the lowest quintile. Consistently, magnesium intake was significantly inversely associated with hs-CRP, IL-6, fibrinogen, and HOMA-IR; and serum magnesium levels were inversely correlated with hs-CRP and HOMA-IR"
  • Magnesium Intake and Risk of Self-Reported Type 2 Diabetes among Japanese - J Am Coll Nutr. 2010 Apr;29(2):99-106 - "Dietary intake of magnesium was inversely associated with age- and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted diabetes incidence in both sexes. In multivariable analysis that adjusted further for cardiovascular risk factors, the association was weakened in both sexes, but the association in total participants remained statistically significant. The odds ratios of diabetes with reference to the lowest quartile of magnesium intake were 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.09) for the second quartile, 0.79 (95% CI, 0.59 to 1.07) for the third quartile, and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.44 to 0.94) for the highest quartile of magnesium intake (p for trend = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary intake of magnesium was associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in Japanese populations"
  • Beneficial effects of oral magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and serum lipid profile - Med Sci Monit. 2010 Jun 1;16(6):PI13-18 - "assigned to 600 mg of pidolate Mg2+ daily ... In the Mg2+ supplementation group the OGTT-derived IS indices of Stumvoll, Matsuda and Cedercholm in were increased between baseline baseline and study-end. In contrast, none of these parameters were changed in the control group. Reductions in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels, along with a parallel increase in HDL-cholesterol levels, were evident at study-end in the intervention group, but not in the control group"
  • High Dietary Intake of Magnesium May Decrease Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Japanese Men - J Nutr. 2010 Feb 17 - "When adjusted for potential confounders, the hazard ratio and 95% CI in the highest quintile of magnesium intake compared with the lowest quintile in men were 0.65 (95% CI, 0.40-1.03) for CRC (P-trend = 0.04), 0.48 (95% CI, 0.26-0.89) for colon cancer (P-trend = 0.01), and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.47-2.02) for rectal cancer (P-trend = 0.93)"
  • Effects of magnesium on postprandial serum lipid responses in healthy human subjects - Br J Nutr. 2009 Nov 27:1-4 - "The present study indicated that Mg supplementation could inhibit fat absorption and improve postprandial hyperlipidaemia in healthy subjects"
  • Oral Magnesium Supplementation Reduces Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Patients With Mild Hypertension - Am J Hypertens. 2009 Jul 16 - "In the Mg(2+) supplementation group, small but significant reductions in mean 24-h systolic and diastolic BP levels were observed, in contrast to control group (-5.6 +/- 2.7 vs. -1.3 +/- 2.4 mm Hg, P < 0.001 and -2.8 +/- 1.8 vs. -1 +/- 1.2 mm Hg, P = 0.002, respectively)"
  • Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in normo-magnesemic nondiabetic overweight Korean adults - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009 Apr 7 - "These results suggested that magnesium supplementation does not reduce BP and enhance insulin sensitivity in normo-magnesemic nondiabetic overweight people. However, it appears that magnesium supplementation may lower BP in healthy adults with higher BP"
  • The effect of lowering blood pressure by magnesium supplementation in diabetic hypertensive adults with low serum magnesium levels: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial - J Hum Hypertens. 2008 Nov 20 - "Over 4 months, subjects in the intervention group received 2.5 g of MgCl(2) (50 ml of a solution containing 50 g of MgCl(2) per 1000 ml of solution) equivalent to 450 mg of elemental magnesium, and control subjects inert placebo ... SBP (-20.4+/-15.9 versus -4.7 +/- 12.7 mm Hg, P=0.03) and DBP (-8.7+/-16.3 versus -1.2+/-12.6 mm Hg, P=0.02) showed significant decreases, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (0.1+/-0.6 versus -0.1+/-0.7 mmol l(-1), P=0.04) a significant increase in the magnesium group compared to the placebo group. The adjusted odds ratio between serum magnesium and BP was 2.8 (95%CI: 1.4-6.9). Oral magnesium supplementation with MgCl(2) significantly reduces SBP and DBP in diabetic hypertensive adults with hypomagnesaemia"
  • Long-term effect of magnesium consumption on the risk of symptomatic gallstone disease among men - Am J Gastroenterol. 2008 Feb;103(2):375-82 - "The age-adjusted relative risks (RRs) for men with total magnesium intake and dietary magnesium, when the highest and lowest quintiles were compared, were 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59-0.77, P for trend <0.0001) and 0.67 (CI 0.59-0.76, P for trend <0.0001), respectively. After adjusting for multiple potential confounding variables, when extreme quintiles were compared, the multivariate RR of total magnesium intake (RR 0.72, CI 0.61-0.86, P for trend = 0.006) and dietary magnesium (RR 0.68, CI 0.57-0.82, P for trend = 0.0006) remained significant with a dose-response relationship ... Our findings suggest a protective role of magnesium consumption in the prevention of symptomatic gallstone disease among men"
  • Long-Term Effect of Magnesium Consumption on the Risk of Symptomatic Gallstone Disease Among Men - Am J Gastroenterol. 2007 Dec 12 - "Our findings suggest a protective role of magnesium consumption in the prevention of symptomatic gallstone disease among men"
  • Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis - J Intern Med. 2007 Aug;262(2):208-14 - "The overall relative risk for a 100 mg day(-1) increase in magnesium intake was 0.85"
  • Fiber and Magnesium Intake and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study and Meta-analysis - Arch Intern Med. 2007 May 14;167(9):956-65 - "Higher cereal fiber and magnesium intakes may decrease diabetes risk"
  • Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment - Med Hypotheses. 2006 Mar 14 - "Case histories are presented showing rapid recovery (less than 7 days) from major depression using 125-300mg of magnesium (as glycinate and taurinate) with each meal and at bedtime. Magnesium was found usually effective for treatment of depression in general use"
  • Magnesium intake and colorectal cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study - Br J Cancer. 2007 Feb 12;96(3):510-3 - "Statistically significant inverse trends in risk were observed in overweight subjects for colon and proximal colon cancer across increasing quintiles of magnesium uptake"
  • A randomized controlled study of effects of dietary magnesium oxide supplementation on bone mineral content in healthy girls - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Oct 3 - "Magnesium (300 mg elemental Mg per day in 2 divided doses) or placebo, given orally, for 12 months ... Significantly increased accrual (P = 0.05) in integrated hip BMC occurred in the Mg-supplemented vs. placebo group"
  • Potassium magnesium supplementation for four weeks improves small distal artery compliance and reduces blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension - Clin Exp Hypertens. 2006 Jul;28(5):489-97 - "magnesium, 70.8 mg/d; potassium, 217.2 mg/d ... On K+ and Mg2+ supplementation, systolic and diastolic BP decreased 7.83 +/- 1.87 mm Hg and 3.67 +/- 1.03 mm Hg"
  • Oral magnesium supplementation in asthmatic children: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun 21 - "Oral magnesium supplementation helped to reduce bronchial reactivity to methacholine, to diminish their allergen-induced skin responses and to provide better symptom control in pediatric patients with moderate persistent asthma treated with inhaled fluticasone"
  • Magnesium intake from food and supplements is associated with bone mineral density in healthy older white subjects - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005 Nov;53(11):1875-80 - "Greater magnesium intake was significantly related to higher BMD in white women and men"
  • Magnesium Intake, C-Reactive Protein, and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged and Older U.S. Women - Diabetes Care. 2005 Jun;28(6):1438-1444 - "women in the highest quintile of magnesium intake had 27% lower risk of the metabolic syndrome ... compared with those in the lowest quintile of intake"
  • Magnesium intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in women - JAMA. 2005 Jan 5;293(1):86-9 - "a high magnesium intake may reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer in women"
  • Magnesium Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men and Women - Diabetes Care. 2004 Jan;27(1):134-140 - "Our findings suggest a significant inverse association between magnesium intake and diabetes risk. This study supports the dietary recommendation to increase consumption of major food sources of magnesium, such as whole grains, nuts, and green leafy vegetables"
  • Dietary magnesium intake and the future risk of coronary heart disease (The Honolulu Heart Program) - Am J Cardiol. 2003 Sep 15;92(6):665-9 - "When adjustments were made for age and other nutrients (singly or combined), there was a 1.7- to 2.1-fold excess in the risk of CHD in the lowest versus highest quintiles ... We conclude that the intake of dietary Mg is associated with a reduced risk of CHD"
  • Oral Magnesium Supplementation Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects: A randomized double-blind controlled trial - Diabetes Care 2003 Apr;26(4):1147-52 - "At the end of the study, subjects who received magnesium supplementation showed ... fasting glucose levels (8.0 +/- 2.4 vs. 10.3 +/- 2.1 mmol/l ... Oral supplementation with MgCl(2) solution restores serum magnesium levels, improving insulin sensitivity and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients with decreased serum magnesium levels"
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