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Anti-aging Research > Magnesium
News & Research:
- Why you need to go with a supplement with the right calcium, magnesium,
zinc, copper ratio such as Body Wise
Magnesium--A Forgotten Mineral - Health & Nutrition Breakthroughs, 9/97
"Excess calcium and phosphate also interfere with
magnesium absorption. (Thus, taking calcium supplements without adding
magnesium could result in magnesium deficiency.)"
Inhibitory effects of zinc on magnesium balance and magnesium absorption in
magnesium absorption in man - J Am Coll Nutr. 1994 Oct;13(5):479-84 -
"the overall effect of the high Zn intake of the three groups combined,
regardless of the Ca intake, was a highly significant decrease of Mg
absorption and of the Mg balance"
Zinc -- The Immune System's Missing Link? - Health & Nutrition
Breakthroughs, 12/97 -
"Supplementing with zinc is quite safe--its only
significant side effect is lowered copper levels in the body tissues, since
the two minerals compete for absorption. Considering zinc's safety, people
should consider taking zinc supplements, especially as they age--being sure
to include copper in the proper balance. Most practitioners who supplement
their patients' diets with zinc also recommend taking copper at a ratio of
10 mg to 15 mg zinc for each milligram of copper."
Calcium, Keep What You Take - Life Extension Magazine, 3/99 -
"The final study was a two-year, placebo controlled
trial on 225 postmenopausal women. One group received calcium supplements
only, the second group zinc, manganese and copper, the third group received
calcium plus zinc, manganese and copper, while the fourth group received a
placebo. After two years, the only group who experienced an improvement in
bone mineral density was the group taking calcium plus zinc, manganese and
copper" - [Abstract]
Magnesium: The Multi-Purpose Mineral - Think Muscle Newsletter -
"If you take high amounts of calcium daily, you may
have a magnesium deficiency. Most experts suggest that your calcium:
magnesium ration should be 2:1. In other words, if you take 1500 mg of
calcium daily through diet and supplementation, you should try to consume at
least 750 mg of magnesium daily as well"
Should We Target Magnesium
Levels in Patients With CKD? - Medscape, 8/14/15 -
"Magnesium is a natural calcium antagonist; both human and animal studies have
shown that low circulating levels of magnesium are associated with enhanced
vascular calcification. In vitro and animal studies have suggested that
magnesium plays a protective role through multiple molecular mechanisms ... In
summary, a growing evidentiary base suggests that magnesium may be beneficial
with respect to vascular calcification and survival in patients with CKD and
ESRD. These potential benefits include delay of arterial calcification or
reduction in carotid artery intima/media thickness. Observational studies
complement these findings, demonstrating that low serum magnesium levels may be
an independent risk factor for premature death in patients with CKD, and that
patients with mildly elevated serum magnesium levels have lower mortality rates
related to noncardiovascular causes" - See
Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
Magnesium Deficiency: The
Real Emperor of All Maladies? - Medscape, 5/11/15 -
"Magnesium deficiency has been blamed for various arrhythmias, hypertension,
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, seizures, leg cramps,
restless legs syndrome, kidney stones, myocardial infarction, headaches,
premenstrual syndrome, fibromyalgia, chest pain, osteoporosis, altitude
sickness, diabetes, fatigue, weakness, and other maladies ... Whoaaa. Really?
That is almost everything. Can that be true? Because of the vital nature of
magnesium in so many cellular functions, it actually could be true. We simply do
not know" - See
magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
Magnesium Intake and
Depression in Adults - Medscape, 5/4/15 - "We found
a significant association between very low magnesium intake and depression,
especially in younger adults" - See
Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
nutrients to protect the aging brain - Science Daily, 4/15/15 -
"Magnesium supplements are often recommended for those
who experienced serious concussions. Magnesium-rich foods include avocado, soy
beans, bananas and dark chocolate"
Magnesium, the invisible deficiency that hurts health - CNN.com, 12/31/14 -
"Magnesium is involved in over 300 biochemical reactions
in your body. It affects everything from your heartbeat to your muscles to your
hormones ... only about 25% of U.S. adults are at or above the recommended daily
amount of 310 to 320 milligrams for women and 400 to 420 for men ... at least
half of the U.S. population had inadequate intakes of magnesium ... a magnesium
deficiency may eventually cause noticeable problems with your muscle and nerve
function such as tingling, cramping, numbness and contractions (like that
annoying eye twitch you just can't shake). In its worst stages, magnesium
deficiency could even cause seizures, personality changes, or abnormal heart
rhythms ... Since only 1% of magnesium is found in your blood (most is in your
bones or organs), a simple needle prick often won't help determine your levels"
Calcium Intake and CVD
Risks in Older Patients With T2DM - Medscape, 10/20/14 -
"Our data indicated that 60.9% and 87.3% of our patients
were Ca and Mg intakes below RDA, respectively. Patients whose Ca intake was
high or low (81.2%) had significantly higher C-reactive protein (CRP) than those
whose Ca intake was moderate (p = 0.043). Furthermore, patients whose Mg intake
was low (87.3%) had significantly higher CRP than that of those who took
adequate Mg (p = 0.025). The dietary Ca:Mg intake ratios were highly correlated
with CRP, platelet counts, and red blood cell distribution (p < 0.05). A dietary
Ca:Mg intake ratio of 2.0–2.5 was significantly correlated to lower CRP levels
(p = 0.013)"
PPI and Diuretic Up Risk
for Hypomagnesemia Hospitalization - Medscape, 9/30/14 -
"Elderly patients taking proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs)
were at a 43% increased risk of being hospitalized with hypomagnesemia ... When
the investigators stratified patients according to diuretic use, they found that
those patients receiving both a PPI and a diuretic had a 73% increased risk for
hospitalization (95% CI, 1.11 - 2.70) compared with those receiving neither
Magnesium levels vital to brain health as population ages - Science Daily,
11/4/13 - "the human brain begins shrinking after age
25. Structural changes and loss of brain synapses lead to rapid decline in
cognitive health ... magnesium deficiency in adults may play a more important
role in CI, and more seriously, Alzheimer's Disease (AD), than previously
thought ... elevation of brain magnesium through dietary intake of magnesium
threonate exerts substantial positive effects on brain synapes in a mouse model
of AD, actually restoring aging brains to their youthful conditions ... the
'gold standard' of science, demonstrates that dietary supplementation of
Magtein, patented magnesium threonate, can significantly enhance human cognitive
functions and decrease symptoms of cognitive impairments ... We know that as we
age our bodies naturally lose magnesium. For example, drinking coffee or
caffeinated products increases the loss"
magnesium research and its role in reversing effects of Alzheimer’s - Nutra
USA free download, 9/24/13 - "Magtein is the only
magnesium compound that has been shown to effectively raise the brain’s
magnesium levels, which leads to enhanced learning abilities, working memory,
and short- and long-term memory in both young and aged animals. In four
published preclinical studies, Magtein was found to improve memory, alleviate
anxiety and help prevent the decline and reverse the symptoms of Alzheimer’s ...
Here, we show that increasing brain magnesium using a newly developed magnesium
compound (magnesium-L-threonate, Magtein) leads to the enhancement of learning
abilities, working memory, and short- and long-term memory in rats"
Elevation of brain magnesium prevents and reverses cognitive deficits
and synaptic loss in Alzheimer's disease mouse model - J Neurosci.
2013 May 8;33(19):8423-41 - "Here, we
investigated whether elevation of brain magnesium by the use of a
recently developed compound, magnesium-l-threonate (MgT), can ameliorate
the AD-like pathologies and cognitive deficits in the APPswe/PS1dE9
mice, a transgenic (Tg) mouse model of AD. MgT treatment reduced Aβ
plaque and prevented synapse loss and memory decline in the Tg mice.
Strikingly, MgT treatment was effective even when given to the mice at
the end stage of their AD-like pathological progression ... Our results
suggest that elevation of brain magnesium exerts substantial
synaptoprotective effects in a mouse model of AD and may have
therapeutic potential for treating AD in humans"
Non-recovery of Renal Function in AKI - Medscape, 5/9/13 -
"acute kidney injury (AKI) ... Hypomagnesemia was an
independent risk factor for non-recovery of renal function in a cohort of
critically ill AKI patients"
Magnesium may be as important to kids' bone health as calcium - Science
Daily, 5/5/13 - "Lots of nutrients are key for
children to have healthy bones. One of these appears to be magnesium ...
Results showed that the amounts of magnesium consumed and absorbed were key
predictors of how much bone children had. Dietary calcium intake, however,
was not significantly associated with total bone mineral content or density"
CKD and Low
Magnesium: Pay Attention - Medscape, 2/6/13 -
"When adjusted for differences in age and sex among quartiles, the lowest
magnesium group had the highest incidence of new atrial fibrillation events
(9.4 episodes per 1000 person-years). The rates for the other 3 quartiles
were quite similar (6.9, 7.1, and 6.3 events per 1000 person-years for the
second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively). In multivariable models
controlled for the multiple potential differences including glomerular
filtration rate, those with the lowest levels of magnesium continued to be
at highest risk for the development of atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio,
1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.02- 2.14; P = .04)"
Induced by Proton Pump Inhibition - Medscape, 8/29/12 -
"PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia (PPIH) ... Proper
identification and treatment of PPIH therefore mainly rests on three
pillars: First, serum magnesium monitoring on a regular basis. In event of
existing hypomagnesaemia discontinuation of PPIs should result in a rapid
normalisation, which may be supported by additional magnesium and calcium
supplementation. This step is crucial to exclude other causes of
hypomagnesaemia. Second, regular determination of serum magnesium (and
concomitant other electrolytes) should be done to monitor the course of
recovery. This should be accompanied by urinary magnesium measurements to
assure renal magnesium retention. Third, patients with PPIH have the chance
to escape hypomagnesaemia by alternative acid suppressants. Therefore,
switching to H2RA should be attempted. In cases of insufficient relief
from acid related complains under H2RA, tapered or intermittent regimes
including PPIs might be helpful. Also here, urinary magnesium monitoring is
of benefit as it declines prior to the serum magnesium as an early
indication. In most cases reviewed here, supplementation with
electrolytes could be stopped after normal serum magnesium was obtained"
Magnesium lowers blood pressure, study suggests - Science Daily, 3/13/12
- "In the trials, the magnesium supplementation
doses ranged from 120 to 973 mg with between 3 to 24 weeks of follow-up.
Although not all individual trials showed significance in blood pressure
reduction, by combining the trials, the overall data indicated that
magnesium supplementation reduced both systolic and diastolic blood
pressure. With the best results observed at the higher dosages"
Magnesium linked to better blood pressure: Meta-analysis - Nutra USA,
2/13/12 - "data pooled from seven prospective
studies revealed that, for every 100 mg per day increase in magnesium
intake, the risk of stroke was reduced by about 9% ... magnesium
supplementation was associated with a 3 to 4 mmHg reduction in systolic
blood pressure and a 2-3 mmHg reduction in diastolic blood pressure, with
the best results observed for doses over 370 milligrams per day"
Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium Intakes and Stroke Risk (printer-friendly)
- Medscape, 8/2/11 - "In conclusion, findings from this
prospective cohort study of women suggest that potassium and magnesium intakes
are inversely associated with risk of cerebral infarction among women with
hypertension. We observed no protective effect of calcium intake on stroke risk"
Citrate key in bone's nanostructure - Science Daily, 6/8/11 -
"At this point, we feel that citrate probably also has a
role in the biomineralization of the apatite ... It's also been noted in the
literature that as an organism ages, the nanocrystal thickness increases and the
citrate concentration goes down ... "and there's also support from clinical
studies that citrate is good for bones," adding that one of the leading
supplements for bone strength contains calcium citrate ... While calcium loss is
a major symptom in osteoporosis, the decline of citrate concentration may also
contribute to bone brittleness" - Note: I read a long time ago that the
citrate form of most minerals was absorbed better and have been using that form
for some time. For example, see the magnesium citrate in
magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
Magnesium supplements may ease hot flashes for breast cancer patients -
Nutra USA, 6/6/11 - "400 mg per day of magnesium oxide
for 4 weeks was associated with a 41.4 percent reduction in the frequency of hot
flashes ... The intensity of the hot flashes was also reduced as a result of
magnesium supplementation by about 50 percent" - [Abstract]
Magnesium deficiency: Not always a nutritional problem - Science Daily,
Long-Term PPI Use Associated With Low Magnesium - Medscape, 3/2/11 -
"Long-term use of prescription proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) can be associated
with hypomagnesemia, which can in turn cause serious muscle spasms (tetany),
arrhythmias, and seizures, but may instead be asymptomatic ... In about 25% of
cases reported to and reviewed by the FDA, magnesium supplementation alone was
insufficient for correcting hypomagnesemia ... The drugs in question include
esomeprazole magnesium (Nexium, AstraZeneca), dexlansoprazole (Dexilant,
Takeda), omeprazole (Prilosec, Astra-Zeneca; also available OTC),
omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate (Zergerid, AstraZeneca; also available OTC),
lansoprazole (Prevacid, Novartis; also available OTC) pantoprazole soidum
(Protonix, Wyeth/Pfizer; and generics) rabeprazole sodium (AcipHex, Eisai and
Ortho-MacNeil), and esomeprazole magnesium/naproxen (Vimovo, AstraZeneca)"
Magnesium sulfate may offer protection from cerebral palsy - Science Daily,
2/10/11 - "The study concluded that Mg treatment
significantly reduced evidence of neonatal brain injury associated with maternal
LPS. These studies suggest that maternal Mg therapy may be most effective in
human preterm deliveries associated with maternal/fetal inflammation"
Serum Magnesium and
Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC)
Study - Medscape, 10/19/10 - "sudden cardiac death
(SCD) ... SCD was inversely associated with serum Mg (P for linear trend <
.0001). Compared with the lowest quartile of Mg, the risk of SCD was 55% lower
(HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.31–0.67) in the highest Mg quartile and 47% lower in the
second highest quartile (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.38–0.74)"
Magnesium may decrease colon cancer risk: Study - Nutra USA, 3/15/10 -
"Intakes of the mineral of at least 327 milligrams
per day were found to reduce the risk of colon cancer by 52 per cent, compared
to intakes less than 238 milligrams per day, while no benefits were observed in
women" - [Abstract]
Remember magnesium if you want to remember: Synthetic supplement improves
memory and staves off age-related memory loss - Science Daily, 2/22/10 -
"magnesium, a key nutrient for the functioning of
memory, may be even more critical than previously thought for the neurons of
children and healthy brain cells in adults ... In the study, two groups of
rats ate normal diets containing a healthy amount of magnesium from natural
sources. The first group was given a supplement of MgT, while the control
group had only its regular diet. Behavioral tests showed that cognitive
functioning improved in the rats in the first group and also demonstrated an
increase of synapses in the brain -- connective nerve endings that carry
memories in the form of electrical impulses from one part of the brain to
Magnesium May Improve Memory - WebMD, 1/27/10 -
"increasing brain magnesium using a newly developed compound,
magnesium-L-threonate (MgT), improves learning abilities, working memory,
and short- and-long-term memory in rats. The magnesium also helped older
rats perform better on a battery of learning tests ... The researchers cite
that only 32% of Americans get the recommended daily allowance of magnesium"
men deficient in key nutrients - MSNBC, 6/19/09 -
"studies show that 77 percent of men don't take in
enough magnesium, that many of us are deficient in vitamin D, and that the
vitamin B12 in our diets may be undermined by a common heartburn medication.
And we haven't even mentioned our problems with potassium and iodine"
Magnesium may benefit blood pressure in hypertensives - Nutra USA,
5/19/09 - "receive either daily supplements of 300
mg of elemental magnesium in the magnesium oxide form or placebo for 12
weeks ... At the end of the study, no significant differences were observed
between the magnesium or placebo groups. However, when the researchers
looked specifically at hypertensives, significant decreases in both systolic
and diastolic blood pressure were observed in the magnesium group (17.1 and
3.4 mmHg, respectively), compared to placebo (6.7 and 0.8 mmHg,
respectively)" - [Abstract]
Magnesium Supplement Reviews - ConsumerLab.com, 5/19/09 -
"25% did not meet quality standards according to our
Low magnesium levels may increase stroke risk - Nutra USA, 4/22/09 -
"Blood levels of magnesium were negatively
associated with the risk of stroke, they said, with levels of 1.6, 1.7, and
1.8 mEq/L linked to a 22, 30, and 25 per cent reduction in stroke,
respectively, compared to 1.5 mEq/L "
Calcium May Only Protect Against Colorectal Cancer In Presence Of Magnesium
- Science Daily, 11/16/08 - "supplementation of
calcium only reduced the risk of adenoma recurrence if the ratio of calcium
to magnesium was low and remained low during treatment. "The risk of
colorectal cancer adenoma recurrence was reduced by 32 percent among those
with baseline calcium to magnesium ratio below the median in comparison to
no reduction for those above the median"
Magnesium linked to fewer gallstones - Nutra USA, 2/26/08 -
"After adjusting the results to account for age
differences, which may affect the results, Tsai and co-workers calculated
that men with the highest levels of magnesium intake (454 mg/d) were 28 per
cent less likely to develop gallstones, compared to men with the lowest
average intake (262 mg/d)" - [Abstract]
Magnesium Intake May Cut Risk of Gallstones - Medscape, 2/22/08 -
"Magnesium deficiency is known to cause elevated
triglyceride levels and decreased HDL cholesterol levels, both of which may
raise the risk of gallstones ... Compared with the lowest quintile of total
magnesium intake (median 262 mg/day), the highest quintile of intake (454
mg/day) reduced the risk of gallstone disease by 33%"
Migraine Patients May Benefit From Magnesium or CoQ10 - Clinical
Psychiatry News, 8/07 - "The most important
supplement, according to Dr. Mauskop, is magnesium. “It's known that up to
50% of people with acute migraine have a magnesium deficiency. … It is much
more effective to treat them with a product they're deficient in rather than
using drugs,” ... Research has found that, for migraine, CoQ10 at 300 mg/day
is effective, and that for Parkinson's disease 1,200 mg/day is effective"
Grain Fiber And Magnesium Intake Associated With Lower Risk For Diabetes
- Science Daily, 5/14/07 - "those who consumed the
most cereal fiber had a 33 percent lower risk of developing diabetes than
those who took in the least, while those who consumed the most magnesium had
a 23 percent lower risk than those who consumed the least. There was no
association between fruit or vegetable fiber and diabetes risk"
Dietary Magnesium May Reduce Risk for Diabetes in Black Women -
Medscape, 10/9/06 - "41,186 women enrolled in the
Black Women's Health Study ... Higher magnesium intakes in the highest vs
the lowest quintile were associated with lower incidence of diabetes
mellitus with an adjusted HR of 0.69"
- Need More Magnesium?
- Dr. Weil, 6/29/06 -
"a diet rich in magnesium appears to protect against
metabolic syndrome, a combination of risk factors that can lead to diabetes
and heart disease"
Lowers Heart, Diabetes Risks - WebMD, 3/27/06 -
"people in the study who consumed the most magnesium
had a 31% lower risk of developing metabolic syndrome, compared with people
who ate the least"
Magnesium Prevents Osteoporosis - Healthwell, 2/9/06 -
"a higher magnesium intake was associated with
greater whole-body bone mineral density, after adjusting for calcium and
vitamin D intake, level of exercise, use of estrogen medication, and other
factors known to be related to bone health"
More support for magnesium against colon cancer - Nutra USA, 1/31/06 -
"The hazard ratio, a measure of the risk, was
statistically 25 per cent lower for the volunteers with the highest intake
of magnesium (more than 356 mg per day)"
Magnesium In Your Diet Could Lead To Stronger Bones - Science Daily,
Dietary Magnesium Could Lead to Stronger Bones
- Doctor's Guide, 12/21/05 -
"For every 100 milligram per day increase in magnesium
intake, data showed a 1% increase in bone density ... this link was only true
for the older white men and women"
Magnesium could reduce osteoporosis risk - Nutra USA, 12/8/05 -
"Higher Mg intake through diet and supplements was
positively associated with total-body [bone mineral density] BMD in older
white men and women. For every 100 mg per day increase in Mg, there was an
approximate 2 per cent increase in whole-body BMD"
and Bone Mineral Density - Medscape, 11/8/05 -
"The mean intakes of Mg by race-sex subgroup are
listed in Table 2 . Less than 26% of the cohort met the RDA for Mg ...
twenty-five percent of the cohort took a Mg-containing supplement; the mean
dose was 83 mg ... RDA of 420 mg/d" - See
magnesium at Amazon.com.
Magnesium Deficiency in Obese Children May Be Linked to Insulin Resistance
- Medscape, 5/9/05 - "Magnesium deficiency in obese
children is associated with the development of insulin resistance"
- Focus on
Magnesium - Dr. Murray's Natural Facts, 3/3/05 -
"Double-blind studies in people with CFS have shown
magnesium supplementation significantly improved energy levels, better
emotional state, and less pain"
MIT: Magnesium May Reverse Middle-age Memory Loss
- Science Daily, 12/27/04 - "In the cover story of
the Dec. 2 issue of Neuron, MIT researchers report a possible new role for
magnesium: helping maintain memory function in middle age and beyond ...
magnesium helps regulate a key brain receptor important for learning and
What to take to keep diabetes at bay - Delicious Living, 12/04 -
"Recent research suggests that magnesium keeps blood
sugars from rising too high, thus staving off
Magnesium in Hypertension Prevention and Control - Life Extension
Magazine, 9/04 - "Magnesium is one of the body’s
most important minerals. ... Magnesium is a major factor in relaxing the
smooth muscles within the blood vessels, thereby reducing peripheral
vascular resistance and blood pressure.11-13 In addition, magnesium reduces
nerve and muscle excitability, stabilizes cardiac conductivity, and
influences neurochemical transmission.11,13,14 Magnesium also affects
circulating levels of norepinephrine and the synthesis of serotonin and
- Americans Need
More Magnesium in Diet - WebMD, 7/23/04 -
"nearly two-thirds of us may not be getting enough magnesium ... Adult men
need 400-420 mg/day while adult women need 310-320 mg /day"
Lack Energy? Maybe It's Your Magnesium Level
- Science Daily, 5/10/04 - "inadequate magnesium is
associated with a need for increased oxygen during exercise. They found that
during moderate activity, those with low magnesium levels in muscle are
likely to use more energy—and therefore to tire more quickly—than those with
adequate levels" - See
magnesium at Amazon.com.
- Magnesium may reduce risk of
diabetes - MSNBC, 5/7/04 - "The conclusions of
these three studies are generally supported by earlier large population
studies. Laboratory studies suggest that magnesium influences the action of
insulin in the body. A lack of magnesium may worsen insulin resistance,
triggering the onset of diabetes" - See
magnesium at Amazon.com.
- Dietary Magnesium May
Help Prevent Development of Type 2 Diabetes
- Medscape, 12/23/03 -
"Magnesium-containing foods can prevent development
of type 2
diabetes in both men and women ... Comparing the highest with the lowest
quintile of total magnesium intake ... was 0.66 ... in women and 0.67 in
Low Dietary Magnesium Changes Cardiac Rhythm - Doctor's Guide, 3/4/02 -
"Low intakes of dietary magnesium may increase supraventricular ectopy ...
people who live in areas with soft water, who use diuretics, or who are
predisposed to magnesium loss may need to take in more dietary magnesium
than others ... Magnesium is central to a variety of cellular mechanisms
that control activity of muscle and nerve cells. Cardiac muscle seems to
have been more sensitive to this intake than was skeletal muscle ... They
point out some women may habitually eat a diet similar to the one in this
study and for long periods of time"
- Got Magnesium?
Those With Heart Disease Should - WebMD, 11/9/00 -
"Similar magnesium supplements are available over-the-counter in the U.S.,
but they might not provide similar benefits. "The product we used is from
Germany, where supplements of this kind are regulated and quality is
monitored," Merz says. "Because that is not the case in the U.S., it is
impossible to know what you are getting in a supplement, or even whether it
contains any magnesium at all.""
- More Than Half of
All Women Report: 'We're Stressed!', Experts Say Diet, Supplements May Be
the Answer - WebMD, 6/2/00 -
""Stress affects nutrient needs by reducing
absorption, increasing excretion, [and] altering how the body uses -- or
increasing the daily requirements for -- certain nutrients," she says. For
example, the body releases stress hormones, such as cortisol, during
stressful times, and these stress hormones deplete your body's supply of
magnesium -- an element that plays a role the body's use of energy."
Magnesium status and the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and
meta-analysis - Nutrition, 2015 Oct 22 - "higher
consumption of Mg is associated with lower risk of MetS (OR=0. 73, CI: 0.62,
0.86, P<0.001); we also could find a significant but heterogeneous association
between serum Mg and MetS (Mean difference (MD): -0.19" - [Nutra
USA] - See
magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
magnesium is associated with coronary artery calcification in a Korean
population at low risk for cardiovascular disease - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc
Dis. 2015 Aug 13 - "low < 1.9 mg/dL (n = 931), normal =
1.9-2.3 mg/dL (n = 32,341), and high > 2.3 mg/dL ... The odds ratio for CAC in
the low serum magnesium group compared to the normal group was 2.10 (1.40-3.15,
P < 0.001) ... CONCLUSION: Low serum magnesium level is associated with CAC in a
Korean population at low risk for cardiovascular disease. Further studies are
needed to generalize this finding and to verify the causal relationship between
low serum magnesium and CAC"
Prevention and Therapy - Nutrients. 2015 Sep 23 -
"Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. It has been
recognized as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions, where it is
crucial for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism. Magnesium is required for
DNA and RNA synthesis, reproduction, and protein synthesis. Moreover, magnesium
is essential for the regulation of muscular contraction, blood pressure, insulin
metabolism, cardiac excitability, vasomotor tone, nerve transmission and
neuromuscular conduction. Imbalances in magnesium status-primarily
hypomagnesemia as it is seen more common than hypermagnesemia-might result in
unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Based on magnesium's many
functions within the human body, it plays an important role in prevention and
treatment of many diseases. Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a
number of chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, insulin resistance and
type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (e.g., stroke),
migraine headaches, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)"
between magnesium intake and risk of colorectal cancer among postmenopausal
women - Cancer Causes Control. 2015 Sep 21 - "After
adjustment for potential confounding variables, an inverse association was
observed in the highest quintile of total magnesium intake compared to the
lowest quintile for risk of CRC (HR 0.79, 95 % CI 0.67, 0.94, p trend < 0.0001)
and colon cancer (HR 0.80" - See
Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
Magnesium Is Positively Associated with Skeletal Muscle Power and Indices of
Muscle Mass and May Attenuate the Association Between Circulating C-Reactive
Protein and Muscle Mass in Women - J Bone Miner Res. 2015 Aug 19 -
"Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength
are risk factors for sarcopenia, osteoporosis, falls, fractures, frailty and
mortality. Dietary magnesium (Mg) could play a role in prevention of age-related
loss of skeletal muscle mass, power and strength directly through physiological
mechanisms or indirectly through an impact on chronic low-grade inflammation,
itself a risk factor for loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength ... Our
results suggest that dietary magnesium may aid conservation of age-related loss
of skeletal muscle mass and power in women of all ages"
Dietary intake of calcium
and magnesium and the metabolic syndrome in the National Health and Nutrition
Examination (NHANES) 2001-2010 data - Br J Nutr. 2015 Aug 11:1-12 -
"Higher dietary intakes of Mg and Ca, individually, have
been associated with a decreased risk for the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) ... We
found an inverse association between the highest (>355 mg/d) v. the lowest (<197
mg/d) quartile of Mg and MetSyn (OR 0·70; 95 % CI 0·57, 0·86). Women who met the
RDA for both Mg (310-320 mg/d) and Ca (1000-1200 mg/d) had the greatest reduced
odds of MetSyn (OR 0·59; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·76). In men, meeting the RDA for Mg
(400-420 mg/d) and Ca (1000-1200 mg/d), individually or in combination, was not
associated with MetSyn; however, men with intakes in the highest quartile for Mg
(≥386 mg/d) and Ca (≥1224 mg/d) had a lower odds of MetSyn (OR 0·74; 95 % CI
0·59, 0·93). Our results suggest that women who meet the RDA for Mg and Ca have
a reduced odds of MetSyn but men may require Ca levels higher than the RDA to be
protected against MetSyn" - [Nutra
Oral magnesium supplementation improves glycaemic status in subjects with
prediabetes and hypomagnesaemia: A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized
trial - Diabetes Metab. 2015 Jun;41(3):202-7 - "At
baseline, there were no significant statistical differences in terms of
anthropometric and biochemical variables between individuals in the supplement
and placebo groups. At the end of follow-up, fasting (86.9±7.9 and 98.3±4.6mg/dL,
respectively; P=0.004) and post-load glucose (124.7±33.4 and 136.7±23.9mg/dL,
respectively; P=0.03) levels, HOMA-IR indices (2.85±1.0 and 4.1±2.7,
respectively; P=0.04) and triglycerides (166.4±90.6 and 227.0±89.7,
respectively; P=0.009) were significantly decreased, whereas HDL cholesterol
(45.6±10.9 and 46.8±9.2mg/dL, respectively; P=0.04) and serum magnesium
(1.96±0.27 and 1.60±0.26mg/dL, respectively; P=0.005) levels were significantly
increased" - [Nutra
USA] - See
magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
between intakes of magnesium, potassium, and calcium and risk of stroke: 2
cohorts of US women and updated meta-analyses - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 May 6 -
"Pooled multivariate RRs of total stroke for women in
highest compared with lowest quintiles were 0.87 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.97) for total
magnesium, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.99) for total potassium, and 0.97 (95% CI:
0.87, 1.09) for total calcium intake. Pooled RRs for women in highest compared
with lowest quintiles of a combined mineral diet score were 0.72 (95% CI: 0.65,
0.81) for total stroke, 0.78 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.92) for ischemic stroke, and 0.80
(95% CI: 0.61, 1.04) for hemorrhagic stroke. In the updated meta-analyses of all
prospective studies to date, the combined RR of total stroke was 0.87 (95% CI:
0.83, 0.92) for a 100-mg/d increase of magnesium intake, 0.91 (95% CI: 0.88,
0.94) for a 1000-mg/d increase of potassium intake, and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.94,
1.02) for a 300-mg/d increase of calcium intake"
of Prehypertension in Mexico and Its Association With Hypomagnesemia - Am J
Hypertens. 2015 Jan 23 - "The prevalence of preHTN in
the Mexican population is 37.5%, and hypomagnesemia is strongly associated with
magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome in the adult population: dose-response
meta-analysis and meta-regression - Nutrients. 2014 Dec 22 -
"Based on eight cross-sectional studies and two
prospective cohort studies, the pooled relative risks of metabolic syndrome per
150 mg/day increment in magnesium intake was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.93; I2 =
36.3%). The meta-regression model showed a generally linear, inverse
relationship between magnesium intake (mg/day) and metabolic syndrome. This
dose-response meta-analysis indicates that dietary magnesium intake is
significantly and inversely associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome"
Dietary magnesium intake
and risk of metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis - Diabet Med. 2014
Nov;31(11):1301-9 - "reviewed the relevant literature in
PubMed and EMBASE ... A weighted inverse association was found between dietary
magnesium intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 0.69, 95% CI
0.59, 0.81) comparing the highest with the lowest group. For every 100-mg/day
increment in magnesium intake, the overall risk of having metabolic syndrome was
lowered by 17%" - See
Magtein at Amazon.com.
intake of magnesium is associated with increased externalising behaviours in
adolescents - Public Health Nutr. 2014 Nov 6:1-7 -
"Adequate Zn and Mg intakes may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment
of mental health problems, such as depression, anxiety and attention-deficit
hyperactivity disorder ... using a validated FFQ ... Higher dietary intake of Mg
(per sd increase) was significantly associated with reduced externalising
behaviours (β=-1.45; 95 % CI -2.40, -0.50; P=0.003). There was a trend towards
reduced externalising behaviours with higher Zn intake (per sd increase;
β=-0.73" - See
Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com
Magtein at Amazon.com.
Magnesium and Risk of Ischemic Stroke Among Women - Stroke. 2014 Aug 12 -
"Conditional on matching factors, women in the lowest magnesium quintile had a
relative risk of 1.34 (95% confidence interval, 0.86-2.10; P trend=0.13) for
total ischemic stroke compared with women in the highest quintile. Additional
adjustment for risk factors and confounders did not substantially alter the risk
estimates for total ischemic stroke. Women with magnesium levels <0.82 mmol/L
had significantly greater risk of total ischemic stroke (multivariable relative
risk, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.27; P=0.01) and thrombotic stroke
(multivariable relative risk, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.65; P=0.03)
compared with women with magnesium levels ≥0.82 mmol/L" - See
Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium are associated with risk of incident heart
failure: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study - Am J Clin
Nutr. 2014 Jul 16 - "A total of 14,709 African Americans
(27%) and whites from the ARIC cohort [aged 45-64 y at baseline (1987-1989)]
were observed through 2009 ... A total of 2250 incident HF events accrued over a
median follow-up of 20.6 y. Participants in the lowest (≤1.4 mEq/L) compared
with the highest (≥1.8 mEq/L) category of magnesium were at greater HF risk (HR:
1.71; 95% CI: 1.46, 1.99). For phosphorus, there appeared to be a threshold
whereby only those in the highest quintile were at greater HF risk [HR(Q5 vs
Q1): 1.34; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.54]. Higher concentrations of calcium were also
associated with greater risk of HF [HR(Q5 vs Q1): 1.24; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.43] ...
Low serum magnesium and high serum phosphorus and calcium were independently
associated with greater risk of incident HF in this population-based cohort"
oral magnesium supplementation on physical performance in healthy elderly women
involved in a weekly exercise program: a randomized controlled trial - Am J
Clin Nutr. 2014 Jul 9 - "139 healthy women (mean ± SD
age: 71.5 ± 5.2 y) attending a mild fitness program were randomly allocated to a
treatment group (300 mg Mg/d; n = 62) or a control group ... Short Physical
Performance Battery (SPPB) ... After 12 wk, the treated group had a
significantly better total SPPB score (Δ = 0.41 ± 0.24 points; P = 0.03), chair
stand times (Δ = -1.31 ± 0.33 s; P < 0.0001), and 4-m walking speeds (Δ = 0.14 ±
0.03 m/s; P = 0.006) than did the control group. These findings were more
evident in participants with a magnesium dietary intake lower than the
Recommended Dietary Allowance"
magnesium intake and risk of metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis - Diabet
Med. 2014 Jun 26 - "A weighted inverse association was
found between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome (odds
ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.59, 0.81) comparing the highest with the lowest group. For
every 100-mg/day increment in magnesium intake, the overall risk of having
metabolic syndrome was lowered by 17%"
Magnesium Intake and Risk of Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies
- Nutr Cancer. 2014 Jun 9;:1-9 - "When all studies were
pooled, the relative risk (RR) of overall cancer for the highest level of
dietary magnesium intake was 0.801 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.664-0.966)
compared with the lowest level of dietary magnesium intake. In subgroup
meta-analyses by study design, there was a significant inverse association
between dietary magnesium and the risk of cancer in case-control studies (RR =
0.663, 95% CI: 0.475-0.925), whereas there was no significant association in
prospective cohort studies (RR = 0.888, 95% CI: 0.745-1.060). Furthermore, there
was a significant preventive effect of dietary magnesium for colorectal cancer
(RR = 0.775, 95% CI: 0.655-0.919), but not for other cancer"
magnesium intake is inversely associated with serum C-reactive protein levels:
meta-analysis and systematic review - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Feb 12 -
"This meta-analysis and systematic review indicates that
dietary Mg intake is significantly and inversely associated with serum CRP
levels. The potential beneficial effect of Mg intake on chronic diseases may be,
at least in part, explained by inhibiting inflammation"
Potassium, Magnesium, and Calcium and Risk of Stroke - Stroke. 2014 Feb 11 -
"36 094 participants aged 21 to 70 years. Dietary intake
was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire ... 12 years of follow-up ...
magnesium intake was associated with reduced stroke risk (hazard ratio [95%
confidence interval] per 100 mg/d, 0.80 [0.67-0.97] dietary magnesium; 0.78
[0.65-0.93] total magnesium). Potassium and calcium intakes were not associated
Hypomagnesaemia in patients hospitalised in internal medicine is associated with
increased mortality - Int J Clin Pract. 2014 Jan;68(1):111-6 -
the major intracellular divalent cation. Hypomagnesaemia is common among
critically ill patients; it's prevalence is not known in patients admitted to
general internal medicine ... Retrospective chart review. Hypomagnesaemic
patients admitted from 1 October 2010 through 18 November 2010 compared with
normomagnesaemic patients ... There was a significant difference in mortality
between the normomagnesaemic group (7.2%) and the hypomagnesaemic group (17.2%)"
Magnesium Intake Is Inversely Associated with Mortality in Adults at High
Cardiovascular Risk - J Nutr. 2013 Nov 20 - "The
present study included 7216 men and women aged 55-80 y from the PREDIMED
(Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study, a randomized clinical trial.
Participants were assigned to one of two Mediterranean diets (supplemented with
nuts or olive oil) or advice on a low-fat control diet ... median follow-up of
4.8 y ... Energy-adjusted baseline magnesium intake was inversely associated
with cardiovascular, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Compared with lower
consumers, individuals in the highest tertile of magnesium intake had a 34%
reduction in mortality risk (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.95; P < 0.01). Dietary
magnesium intake was inversely associated with mortality risk in Mediterranean
individuals at high risk of CVD" - See
Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
vitamins and magnesium and the risk of hearing loss in the US general population
- Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov 6 - "The protective effects
of antioxidant vitamins on hearing loss are well established in animal studies
but in few human studies. Recent animal studies suggest that magnesium intake
along with antioxidants may act in synergy to prevent hearing loss ... analyzed
cross-sectional data from 2592 participants aged 20-69 y from NHANES 2001-2004
... Dietary intakes of antioxidants and magnesium are associated with lower
risks of hearing loss" - See
Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com
Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
Dietary Magnesium Intake
Improves Insulin Resistance among Non-Diabetic Individuals with Metabolic
Syndrome Participating in a Dietary Trial - Nutrients. 2013 Sep
27;5(10):3910-9 - "The dietary intervention study
examined this question in 234 individuals with MetS. Magnesium intake was
assessed using 24-h dietary recalls at baseline, 6, and 12 months ... After
multivariate adjustment, magnesium intake was inversely associated with
metabolic biomarkers of insulin resistance (P < 0.01). Further, the likelihood
of elevated HOMA-IR (>3.6) over time was 71% lower [odds ratio (OR): 0.29; 95%
confidence interval (CI): 0.12, 0.72] in participants in the highest quartile of
magnesium intake than those in the lowest quartile. For individuals meeting the
RDA for magnesium, the multivariate-adjusted OR for high HOMA-IR over time was
0.37 (95% CI: 0.18, 0.77). These findings indicate that dietary magnesium intake
is inadequate among non-diabetic individuals with MetS and suggest that
increasing dietary magnesium to meet the RDA has a protective effect on insulin
magnesium intake reduces risk of impaired glucose and insulin metabolism, and
progression from prediabetes to diabetes in middle-aged Americans - Diabetes
Care. 2013 Oct 2 - "In 2,582 community-dwelling
participants 26-81 yrs old at baseline, magnesium intake and risk of incident
"metabolic impairment," defined as impaired fasting glucose (≥5.6-<7.0 mmol/L),
impaired glucose tolerance (2-hr postload glucose ≥7.8-<11.1 mmol/L), IR, or
hyperinsulinemia (≥90th percentile of HOMA-IR or fasting insulin, respectively),
was estimated among those with normal baseline status, and risk of incident
diabetes was estimated among those with baseline metabolic impairment ...
compared to those with the lowest magnesium intake, those with the highest
intake had 37% lower risk of incident metabolic impairment (P trend=0.02), while
in those with baseline metabolic impairment, higher intake was associated with
32% lower risk of incident diabetes (P trend=0.05). In the combined population,
the risk in those with the highest intake was 53% (P trend=0.0004) of those with
the lowest intake"
intake decreases Type 2 diabetes risk through the improvement of insulin
resistance and inflammation: the Hisayama Study - Diabet Med. 2013 Jun 12 -
"A total of 1999 subjects without diabetes aged 40-79
years who underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test were followed up
prospectively for a mean of 15.6 years ... The age- and sex-adjusted incidence
of Type 2 diabetes significantly decreased with increasing magnesium intake
quartile levels (≤ 148.5, 148.6-171.5, 171.6-195.5 and ≥ 195.6 mg/day, P for
trend = 0.01). In multivariate analyses, after adjusting for comprehensive risk
factors and other dietary factors, the hazard ratio of Type 2 diabetes was 0.67
(95% CI 0.49-0.92; P = 0.01) in the third quartile and 0.63 (95% CI 0.44-0.90; P
= 0.01) in the highest quartile compared with the first quartile"
Circulating and dietary
magnesium and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and
meta-analysis of prospective studies - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 May 29 -
"systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate
prospective associations of circulating and dietary magnesium with incidence of
CVD, IHD, and fatal IHD ... Circulating magnesium (per 0.2 mmol/L increment) was
associated with a 30% lower risk of CVD"
plasma magnesium and risk of ischemic heart disease - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013
Mar 13 - "Urinary excretion of magnesium, an indicator
of dietary magnesium uptake, might provide more consistent results ... examined
7664 adult participants free of known cardiovascular disease in the Prevention
of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study-a prospective
population-based cohort study ... median follow-up of 10.5 y ... urinary
magnesium excretion had a nonlinear relation with IHD risk (P-curvature = 0.01).
The lowest sex-specific quintile (men: <2.93 mmol/24 h; women: <2.45 mmol/24 h)
had an increased risk of fatal and nonfatal IHD (multivariable HR: 1.60; 95% CI:
1.28, 2.00) compared with the upper 4 quintiles of urinary magnesium excretion.
A similar increase in risk of the lowest quintile was observed for mortality
related to IHD (HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.61) ... Low urinary magnesium
excretion was independently associated with a higher risk of IHD incidence. An
increased dietary intake of magnesium, particularly in those with the lowest
urinary magnesium, could reduce the risk of IHD"
Magnesium Intake Is Associated with Lower Fasting Glucose and Insulin, with No
Evidence of Interaction with Select Genetic Loci, in a Meta-Analysis of 15
CHARGE Consortium Studies - J Nutr. 2013 Jan 23 -
"Fifteen studies from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in
Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium provided data from up to 52,684 participants of
European descent without known diabetes ... After adjustment for age, sex,
energy intake, BMI, and behavioral risk factors, magnesium (per 50-mg/d
increment) was inversely associated with fasting glucose [β = -0.009 mmol/L (95%
CI: -0.013, -0.005), P < 0.0001] and insulin [-0.020 ln-pmol/L (95% CI: -0.024,
-0.017), P < 0.0001]"
Magnesium and the Development of Atrial Fibrillation in the Community: The
Framingham Heart Study - Circulation. 2012 Nov 21 -
"We studied 3,530 participants (mean age, 44 years; 52% women) from the
Framingham Offspring Study who attended a routine examination, and were free of
AF and cardiovascular disease ... 20 years of follow-up ... The age- and
sex-adjusted incidence rate of AF was 9.4 per 1,000 person-years (95% confidence
interval, 6.7 to 11.9) in the lowest quartile of serum magnesium (≤1.77 mg/dl),
compared with 6.3 per 1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval, 4.1 to 8.4)
in the highest quartile (≥1.99 mg/dl). In multivariable-adjusted models,
individuals in the lowest quartile of serum magnesium were approximately 50%
more likely to develop AF (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.52, 1.00 to 2.31; P=0.05),
compared with those in the upper quartiles ... Because hypomagnesemia is common
in the general population, a link with AF may have potential clinical
intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies
- Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct 3 - "We performed a
literature search on PubMed database through July 2012 to identify prospective
studies of magnesium intake in relation to CRC risk ... On the basis of the
findings of this meta-analysis, a higher magnesium intake seems to be associated
with a modest reduction in the risk of CRC, in particular, colon cancer"
intake and colorectal tumor risk: a case-control study and meta-analysis -
Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Aug 1 - "Dietary magnesium might be
related to colorectal tumor risk through the pivotal roles of magnesium in
cellular metabolism, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation ... A
case-control study on colorectal adenomas (768 cases; 709 polyp-free control
subjects) and a meta-analysis of colorectal adenomas (3 case-control studies)
and carcinomas (6 prospective cohort studies) were conducted. Dietary magnesium
was estimated from food-frequency questionnaires in the case-control study and
most studies in the meta-analyses ... The case-control study showed a
nonsignificant inverse association between dietary magnesium intake and risk of
colorectal adenomas (OR for every 100-mg/d increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.06).
However, inverse associations were observed only in subjects with BMI (in
kg/m(2)) ≥25, in subjects aged ≥55 y, and for advanced adenomas. Associations
did not vary by the calcium-to-magnesium intake ratio. In the meta-analysis,
every 100-mg/d increase in magnesium intake was associated with 13% lower risk
of colorectal adenomas (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00) and 12% lower risk of
colorectal cancer (RR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.97)"
magnesium supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis improves clinical and
functional variables: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover
trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 May 30 - "Magnesium is
one of the most important minerals in the body ... randomly assigned to receive
magnesium (n = 22; 300 mg/d) or placebo (n = 22) for 8 wk with a 4-wk washout
period between trials ... Shwachman-Kulczycki (SK) score ... Magnesium
administration had a beneficial effect on clinical variables assessed by the SK
score (change: 4.48 points after magnesium compared with -1.30 points after
of dietary magnesium intake with mortality from cardiovascular disease: The JACC
study - Atherosclerosis. 2012 Jan 28 - "Dietary
magnesium intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire
administered between 1988 and 1990 ... median 14.7-year follow-up ... Dietary
magnesium intake was inversely associated with mortality from hemorrhagic stroke
in men and with mortality from total and ischemic strokes, coronary heart
disease, heart failure and total cardiovascular disease in women. The
multivariable hazard ratio (95% CI) for the highest vs. the lowest quintiles of
magnesium intake after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factor and sodium
intake was 0.49 (0.26-0.95), P for trend=0.074 for hemorrhagic stroke in men,
0.68 (0.48-0.96), P for trend=0.010 for total stroke, 0.47 (0.29-0.77), P for
trend<0.001 for ischemic stroke, 0.50 (0.30-0.84), P for trend=0.005 for
coronary heart disease, 0.50 (0.28-0.87), P for trend=0.002 for heart failure
and 0.64 (0.51-0.80), P for trend<0.001 for total cardiovascular disease in
magnesium intake and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective studies
- Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec 28 - "Seven prospective
studies, with 6477 cases of stroke and 241,378 participants were eligible for
inclusion in the meta-analysis. We observed a modest but statistically
significant inverse association between magnesium intake and risk of stroke. An
intake increment of 100 mg Mg/d was associated with an 8% reduction in risk of
total stroke (combined RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.97), without heterogeneity
among studies (P = 0.66, I(2) = 0%). Magnesium intake was inversely associated
with risk of ischemic stroke (RR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.87, 0.96) but not
intracerebral hemorrhage (RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.10) or subarachnoid
hemorrhage (RR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.14)"
Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
- Diabetes Care. 2011 Sep;34(9):2116-2122 -
"Meta-analysis of 13 prospective cohort studies involving 536,318 participants
and 24,516 cases detected a significant inverse association between magnesium
intake and risk of type 2 diabetes (relative risk [RR] 0.78 [95% CI 0.73-0.84]).
This association was not substantially modified by geographic region, follow-up
length, sex, or family history of type 2 diabetes. A significant inverse
association was observed in overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2)) but not in
normal-weight individuals (BMI <25 kg/m(2)), although test for interaction was
not statistically significant (P(interaction) = 0.13). In the dose-response
analysis, the summary RR of type 2 diabetes for every 100 mg/day increment in
magnesium intake was 0.86 (95% CI 0.82-0.89)"
magnesium concentrations predict cardiovascular and all-cause mortality -
Atherosclerosis. 2011 Jun 12 - "Low serum magnesium
(Mg(++)) levels are associated with future development of left ventricular
hypertrophy independently of common cardiovascular risk factors, as recently
demonstrated in the five-year follow-up of the population-based Study of Health
in Pomerania (SHIP). As left ventricular hypertrophy has significant prognostic
implications, we hypothesized that serum Mg(++) levels are associated with
cardiovascular mortality ... median duration of mortality follow-up was 10.1
years ... During the follow-up, 417 deaths occurred. Mortality in subjects with
Mg(++)≤0.73mmol/l was significantly higher for all-cause deaths (10.95 death per
1000 person years), and cardiovascular deaths (3.44 deaths per 1000 person
years) in comparison to higher Mg(++) concentrations (1.45 deaths from all-cause
per 1000 person years, 1.53 deaths from cardiovascular cause per 1000 person
years). This association remained statistically significant after adjustment for
multiple cardiovascular risk factors, including arterial hypertension, and
antihypertensive therapy including diuretics (log-rank-test p=0.0001 for
all-cause mortality, and p=0.0174 for cardiovascular mortality)"
magnesium status and magnesium intake on the blood glucose control in patients
with type 2 diabetes - Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan 31 -
"Magnesium status was influenced by kidney depuration and was altered in
patients with type 2 diabetes, and magnesium showed to play an important role in
blood glucose control"
supplementation, metabolic and inflammatory markers, and global genomic and
proteomic profiling: a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial in
overweight individuals - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Dec 15 -
"We observed that magnesium treatment significantly
decreased fasting C-peptide concentrations (change: -0.4 ng/mL after magnesium
treatment compared with +0.05 ng/mL after placebo treatment; P = 0.004) and
appeared to decrease fasting insulin concentrations (change: -2.2 μU/mL after
magnesium treatment compared with 0.0 μU/mL after placebo treatment; P = 0.25)
... Urine proteomic profiling showed significant differences in the expression
amounts of several peptides and proteins after treatment" - See
magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
magnesium supplementation reduces insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects -
a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial - Diabetes Obes Metab.
2010 Nov 18 - "Mg supplementation resulted in a
significant improvement of fasting plasma glucose and some ISI compared to
placebo. Blood pressure and lipid profile didn't show significant changes. The
results provide significant evidence that oral Mg supplementation improves
insulin sensitivity even in normomagnesemic, overweight, non-diabetic subjects
emphasizing the need for an early optimisation of Mg status to prevent insulin
resistance and subsequently type 2 diabetes" - See
magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
magnesium concentrations predict increase in left ventricular mass over 5 years
independently of common cardiovascular risk factors - Atherosclerosis. 2010
Sep 21 - "Mg(2+) at baseline (0.790+/-0.003mmol/l,
mean+/-SEM) inversely correlated with the difference in LVM over 5 years
(p<0.0001, females: p<0.002, males: p<0.024). In the lowest Mg(2+)-quintile
(Mg(2+)<=0.73mmol/l), LVM (187.4+/-3.1g at baseline) increased by 14.9+/-1.2g,
while in the highest Mg(2+)-quintile (Mg(2+)>=0.85mmol/l) LVM (186.7+/-3.4g at
baseline) decreased by -0.5+/-2.8g (p<0.0001 between quintiles). By
multivariable analysis including several cardiovascular risk factors and
antihypertensive treatment, serum Mg(2+) was associated with the increase in LVM
at a statistically high significant level (p<0.0001). LVM after 5 years was
significantly higher in subjects within the lower Mg(2+)-quintiles. This
association remained highly significant after adjustment for several
cardiovascular risk factors including arterial hypertension and diabetes
magnesium and risk of sudden cardiac death in the Atherosclerosis Risk in
Communities (ARIC) Study - Am Heart J. 2010 Sep;160(3):464-70 -
"sudden cardiac death (SCD) ... Individuals in the
highest quartile of serum Mg were at significantly lower risk of SCD in all
models. This association persisted after adjustment for potential confounding
variables, with an almost 40% reduced risk of SCD (hazard ratio 0.62, 95% CI
0.42-0.93) in quartile 4 versus 1 of serum Mg observed in the fully adjusted
model ... This study suggests that low levels of serum Mg may be an important
predictor of SCD"
Intake in Relation to Systemic Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and the
Incidence of Diabetes - Diabetes Care. 2010 Aug 31 -
"During 20-year follow-up, 330 incident diabetic cases were identified.
Magnesium intake was inversely associated with incidence of diabetes after
adjustment for potential confounders. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of
diabetes for participants in the highest quintile of magnesium intake was 0.53
(95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.86; P(trend)<0.01) compared with those in the
lowest quintile. Consistently, magnesium intake was significantly inversely
associated with hs-CRP, IL-6, fibrinogen, and HOMA-IR; and serum magnesium
levels were inversely correlated with hs-CRP and HOMA-IR"
Intake and Risk of Self-Reported Type 2 Diabetes among Japanese - J Am Coll
Nutr. 2010 Apr;29(2):99-106 - "Dietary intake of
magnesium was inversely associated with age- and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted
diabetes incidence in both sexes. In multivariable analysis that adjusted
further for cardiovascular risk factors, the association was weakened in both
sexes, but the association in total participants remained statistically
significant. The odds ratios of diabetes with reference to the lowest quartile
of magnesium intake were 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.09) for
the second quartile, 0.79 (95% CI, 0.59 to 1.07) for the third quartile, and
0.64 (95% CI, 0.44 to 0.94) for the highest quartile of magnesium intake (p for
trend = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary intake of magnesium was associated with a
reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in Japanese populations"
effects of oral magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and serum lipid
profile - Med Sci Monit. 2010 Jun 1;16(6):PI13-18 -
"assigned to 600 mg of pidolate Mg2+ daily ... In the Mg2+ supplementation group
the OGTT-derived IS indices of Stumvoll, Matsuda and Cedercholm in were
increased between baseline baseline and study-end. In contrast, none of these
parameters were changed in the control group. Reductions in total cholesterol,
LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels, along with a parallel increase in
HDL-cholesterol levels, were evident at study-end in the intervention group, but
not in the control group"
Dietary Intake of Magnesium May Decrease Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Japanese
Men - J Nutr. 2010 Feb 17 - "When adjusted for
potential confounders, the hazard ratio and 95% CI in the highest quintile of
magnesium intake compared with the lowest quintile in men were 0.65 (95% CI,
0.40-1.03) for CRC (P-trend = 0.04), 0.48 (95% CI, 0.26-0.89) for colon cancer
(P-trend = 0.01), and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.47-2.02) for rectal cancer (P-trend =
of magnesium on postprandial serum lipid responses in healthy human subjects
- Br J Nutr. 2009 Nov 27:1-4 - "The present study
indicated that Mg supplementation could inhibit fat absorption and improve
postprandial hyperlipidaemia in healthy subjects"
Magnesium Supplementation Reduces Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Patients With
Mild Hypertension - Am J Hypertens. 2009 Jul 16 -
"In the Mg(2+) supplementation group, small but
significant reductions in mean 24-h systolic and diastolic BP levels were
observed, in contrast to control group (-5.6 +/- 2.7 vs. -1.3 +/- 2.4 mm Hg,
P < 0.001 and -2.8 +/- 1.8 vs. -1 +/- 1.2 mm Hg, P = 0.002, respectively)"
Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and blood
pressure in normo-magnesemic nondiabetic overweight Korean adults - Nutr
Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009 Apr 7 - "These results
suggested that magnesium supplementation does not reduce BP and enhance
insulin sensitivity in normo-magnesemic nondiabetic overweight people.
However, it appears that magnesium supplementation may lower BP in healthy
adults with higher BP"
effect of lowering blood pressure by magnesium supplementation in diabetic
hypertensive adults with low serum magnesium levels: a randomized,
double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial - J Hum Hypertens. 2008
Nov 20 - "Over 4 months, subjects in the
intervention group received 2.5 g of MgCl(2) (50 ml of a solution containing
50 g of MgCl(2) per 1000 ml of solution) equivalent to 450 mg of elemental
magnesium, and control subjects inert placebo ... SBP (-20.4+/-15.9 versus
-4.7 +/- 12.7 mm Hg, P=0.03) and DBP (-8.7+/-16.3 versus -1.2+/-12.6 mm Hg,
P=0.02) showed significant decreases, and high-density
lipoprotein-cholesterol (0.1+/-0.6 versus -0.1+/-0.7 mmol l(-1), P=0.04) a
significant increase in the magnesium group compared to the placebo group.
The adjusted odds ratio between serum magnesium and BP was 2.8 (95%CI:
1.4-6.9). Oral magnesium supplementation with MgCl(2) significantly reduces
SBP and DBP in diabetic hypertensive adults with hypomagnesaemia"
Long-term effect of magnesium consumption on the risk of symptomatic
gallstone disease among men - Am J Gastroenterol. 2008 Feb;103(2):375-82
- "The age-adjusted relative risks (RRs) for men
with total magnesium intake and dietary magnesium, when the highest and
lowest quintiles were compared, were 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]
0.59-0.77, P for trend <0.0001) and 0.67 (CI 0.59-0.76, P for trend
<0.0001), respectively. After adjusting for multiple potential confounding
variables, when extreme quintiles were compared, the multivariate RR of
total magnesium intake (RR 0.72, CI 0.61-0.86, P for trend = 0.006) and
dietary magnesium (RR 0.68, CI 0.57-0.82, P for trend = 0.0006) remained
significant with a dose-response relationship ... Our findings suggest a
protective role of magnesium consumption in the prevention of symptomatic
gallstone disease among men"
Long-Term Effect of Magnesium Consumption on the Risk of Symptomatic
Gallstone Disease Among Men - Am J Gastroenterol. 2007 Dec 12 -
"Our findings suggest a protective role of magnesium
consumption in the prevention of symptomatic gallstone disease among men"
Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis - J Intern
Med. 2007 Aug;262(2):208-14 - "The overall relative
risk for a 100 mg day(-1) increase in magnesium intake was 0.85"
Fiber and Magnesium Intake and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective
Study and Meta-analysis - Arch Intern Med. 2007 May 14;167(9):956-65 -
"Higher cereal fiber and magnesium intakes may
decrease diabetes risk"
Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment - Med
Hypotheses. 2006 Mar 14 - "Case histories are
presented showing rapid recovery (less than 7 days) from major depression
using 125-300mg of magnesium (as glycinate and taurinate) with each meal and
at bedtime. Magnesium was found usually effective for treatment of
depression in general use"
Magnesium intake and colorectal cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study
- Br J Cancer. 2007 Feb 12;96(3):510-3 -
"Statistically significant inverse trends in risk
were observed in overweight subjects for colon and proximal colon cancer
across increasing quintiles of magnesium uptake"
A randomized controlled study of effects of dietary magnesium oxide
supplementation on bone mineral content in healthy girls - J Clin
Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Oct 3 -
"Magnesium (300 mg elemental Mg per day in 2 divided
doses) or placebo, given orally, for 12 months ... Significantly increased
accrual (P = 0.05) in integrated hip BMC occurred in the Mg-supplemented vs.
Potassium magnesium supplementation for four weeks improves small distal
artery compliance and reduces blood pressure in patients with essential
hypertension - Clin Exp Hypertens. 2006 Jul;28(5):489-97 -
"magnesium, 70.8 mg/d; potassium, 217.2 mg/d ... On
K+ and Mg2+ supplementation, systolic and diastolic BP decreased 7.83 +/-
1.87 mm Hg and 3.67 +/- 1.03 mm Hg"
Oral magnesium supplementation in asthmatic children: a double-blind
randomized placebo-controlled trial - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun 21 -
"Oral magnesium supplementation helped to reduce
bronchial reactivity to methacholine, to diminish their allergen-induced
skin responses and to provide better symptom control in pediatric patients
with moderate persistent asthma treated with inhaled fluticasone"
Magnesium intake from food and supplements is associated with bone mineral
density in healthy older white subjects - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005
Nov;53(11):1875-80 - "Greater magnesium intake was
significantly related to higher BMD in white women and men"
Magnesium Intake, C-Reactive Protein, and the Prevalence of Metabolic
Syndrome in Middle-Aged and Older U.S. Women
- Diabetes Care. 2005 Jun;28(6):1438-1444 - "women
in the highest quintile of magnesium intake had 27% lower risk of the
metabolic syndrome ... compared with those in the lowest quintile of intake"
Magnesium intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in women -
JAMA. 2005 Jan 5;293(1):86-9 - "a high magnesium
intake may reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer in women"
Magnesium Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men and Women
- Diabetes Care. 2004 Jan;27(1):134-140 -
"Our findings suggest a significant inverse
association between magnesium intake and diabetes
risk. This study supports the dietary recommendation to increase consumption
of major food sources of magnesium, such as whole grains, nuts, and green
Dietary magnesium intake and the future risk of coronary heart disease (The
Honolulu Heart Program) - Am J Cardiol. 2003 Sep 15;92(6):665-9 -
"When adjustments were made for age and other nutrients (singly or
combined), there was a 1.7- to 2.1-fold excess in the risk of CHD in the
lowest versus highest quintiles ... We conclude that the intake of dietary
Mg is associated with a reduced risk of CHD"
Oral Magnesium Supplementation Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Metabolic
Control in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects: A randomized double-blind controlled
trial - Diabetes Care 2003 Apr;26(4):1147-52 -
"At the end of the study, subjects who received
magnesium supplementation showed ... fasting glucose levels (8.0 +/- 2.4 vs.
10.3 +/- 2.1 mmol/l ... Oral supplementation with MgCl(2) solution restores
serum magnesium levels, improving insulin sensitivity and
metabolic control in type 2 diabetic
patients with decreased serum magnesium levels"
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