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Anti-aging Research > Isoflavones.
News & Research:
Receptor Modulators for BPH - Medscape, 10/17/13 -
"Many epidemiological and experimental researches
have shown that dietary estrogens are beneficial to men's health.[29,31,32]
This may be evident from the fact that men living in Western nations have
higher incidence of prostate cancer and BPH, plausibly because of their
lower dietary phytoestrogen intake, as compared with their counterparts in
Asian countries.[33–35] Many of these phytoestrogens are found to display
ERβ receptor selectivity, especially compounds whose core structures have
isoflavone or flavones group. Genistein, a naturally occurring SERM which
shows 22-fold selectivity for ERβ, is an isoflavone usually found in soy ...
Our in vivo studies in rat indicated that irrespective of the molecular
structure and mechanism of action, the SERMs universally and significantly
reduce prostate weight. This response was better in combination with a
5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. We found that the ventral prostate of
adult mature rats receiving tamoxifen, BP and ormeloxifene each at 1.0 mg
kg−1 dose for 21 days regressed significantly by 37%, 32%, 36% respectively"
- Note: It's a nine page article. I was disappointed that it didn't get in
to aromatase inhibitors such as Femara (letrozole). See
genistein at Amazon.com.
Letrozole - Steroidal.com - "Letrozole
(Femara) belongs to a category and class of drugs known as aromatase
inhibitors (AIs). Aromatase inhibitors belong to an even broader class
of drugs known as anti-estrogens. The other subcategory of drug under
the anti-estrogens category is known as selective estrogen receptor
modulators (SERMs), such as Nolvadex and Clomid. AIs and SERMs make up
anti-estrogens. Aromatase inhibitors differ greatly from SERMs in their
action and how they deal with the issues of estrogen control"
Scientists learn how soy foods protect against colon cancer - Science
Daily, 8/5/13 - "lifelong exposure to genistein, a
bioactive component in soy foods, protects against colon cancer by
repressing a signal that leads to accelerated growth of cells, polyps, and
eventually malignant tumors ... the scientists modeled lifetime exposure to
soy by feeding pregnant rats and their offspring a diet containing soy
protein isolate and a diet that contained genistein compound. At seven weeks
of age, offspring rats were exposed to a carcinogen, and they continued
eating either the soy protein or the genistein diet until they were 13 weeks
old ... At that time, the researchers inspected the colons of rats in both
soy groups and compared them to rats in a control group, noting the number
and severity of tiny abnormal growths in each ... Genistein decreased the
expression of three genes and repressed this signaling process that is
associated with abnormal cell growth and cancer development" - See
genistein at Amazon.com.
Soy-based compound may reduce tumor cell proliferation in colorectal cancer
- Science Daily, 4/11/13 - "The development of
colorectal cancer (CRC) is largely driven by cellular signaling in the Wnt
pathway, a network of proteins critical to cellular growth ... the research
team treated colon cancer cell lines with genistein and found that it
inhibited cell growth and blocked Wnt signaling hyperactivity ... Genistein
is a natural product with low toxicity and few side effects and our research
shows that it may be beneficial in treating colorectal cancer"
Soy-based formula? Neonatal plant estrogen exposure leads to adult
infertility in female mice - Science Daily, 5/2/12 -
"A paper published May 2 in Biology of Reproduction
describes the effects of brief prenatal exposure to plant estrogens on the
mouse oviduct, modeling the effects of soy-based baby formula on human
infants. The results suggest that exposure to estrogenic chemicals in the
womb or during childhood has the potential to affect a woman's fertility as
an adult, possibly providing the mechanistic basis for some cases of
unexplained female infertility ... part of the National Institutes of
Health, previously demonstrated that neonatal exposure to the plant estrogen
genistein results in complete infertility in female adult mice. Causes of
infertility included failure to ovulate, reduced ability of the oviduct to
support embryo development before implantation, and failure of the uterus to
support effective implantation of blastocyst-stage embryos ... The team now
reports that neonatal exposure to genistein changes the level of immune
response in the mouse oviduct, known as mucosal immune response. Some of the
immune response genes were altered beginning from the time of genistein
treatment, while others were altered much later, when the mouse was in early
pregnancy. Together, those changes led to harmfully altered immune responses
and to compromised oviduct support for preimplantation embryo development,
both of which would likely contribute to infertility ... estrogenic chemical
exposure to the female fetus, infant, child, and adolescent all have
potential impacts on mucosal immunity in the reproductive tract and,
therefore, on adult fertility. The authors present the view that limiting
such exposures, including minimizing use of soy-based baby formula, is a
step toward maintaining female reproductive health"
Soy Supplements Can Cool Hot Flashes - WebMD, 4/9/12 -
"look at 19 published studies ... What this study
shows is that ingesting soy isoflavones will help you ... Soy supplements
with higher amounts of the isoflavone called genistein were more than twice
as good at reducing hot flash frequency than those with low amounts"
genistein at Amazon.com.
Plant compound reduces breast cancer mortality, study suggests - Science
Daily, 9/13/11 - "The most important type of
phytoestrogens in our Western diet are lignans, which are contained in
seeds, particularly flaxseeds, as well as in wheat and vegetables. In the
bowel, these substances are turned into enterolactone, which is absorbed by
the mucous tissue and which was determined by the Heidelberg researchers as
a biomarker in the patients' blood ... Compared to the study subjects with
the lowest enterolactone levels, the women with the highest blood levels of
this biomarker had an approximately 40 percent lower mortality risk ...
Another observation that may be interpreted in this direction is that Asian
women are less frequently affected by breast cancer. Their soy-rich diet
contains large amounts of another type of phytoestrogens, isoflavones. On
the other hand, scientists fear that isoflavones might imitate the
growth-promoting properties of real hormones and, thus, accelerate
hormone-dependent tumors such as breast cancer and prostate cancer. "It has
not yet been finally determined whether lignans in the body imitate the
hormone effect or, on the contrary, counteract it,""
increases radiation's ability to kill lung cancer cells, study shows -
Science Daily, 4/1/11 - "These natural soy
isoflavones can sensitize cancer cells to the effects of radiotherapy, by
inhibiting survival mechanisms which cancer cells activate to protect
themselves ... At the same time, soy isoflavones can also act as
antioxidants in normal tissues, which protect them against unintended damage
from the radiotherapy ... soy isoflavones increase killing of cancer cells
by radiation via blocking DNA repair mechanisms, which are turned on by the
cancer cells to survive the damage caused by radiation ... Researchers used
a formulation consisting of the three main isoflavones found in soybeans,
including genistein, daidzein and glycitein ... Previously, researchers had
found that pure genistein demonstrated antitumor activity in human NSCLC
cell lines and enhanced the effects of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This
study showed that the soy mixture had an even greater antitumor effect than
Isoflavones May Reduce Insomnia Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women -
Medscape, 2/9/11 - "For the isoflavone group vs the
placebo group, sleep efficiency measured by polysomnography increased
significantly (from 77.9% to 83.9% vs from 77.6% to 81.2%). In addition,
frequency of insomnia was reduced more readily in the isoflavone group. At
the beginning of the study, 94.7% of women in the placebo group had moderate
or intense insomnia compared with 63.2% at the end of the study; whereas in
the isoflavone group these percentages were 89.5% and 36.9%, respectively
... Isoflavones were also effective in reducing the number of hot flashes in
postmenopausal women with insomnia compared with the placebo group (P =
.001). This trend became apparent after 2 months of treatment, but the
results became significant only after the fourth month of treatment. The
intensity of hot flashes was significantly lower in the isoflavone group
than in the placebo group at both evaluation points (months 2 and 4 of
treatment; 1.6 vs 5.8 and 0.5 vs 3.8; P < .001)"
isoflavones may modify risk of breast cancer - Science Daily, 11/8/10 -
"Those women with the highest isoflavone intake had
an approximately 30 percent decreased risk of having an invasive breast
tumor, and an approximately 60 percent decreased risk of having a grade 1
tumor ... Among premenopausal women, the highest intake of isoflavones had a
30 percent decreased risk of stage I disease, a 70 percent decreased risk of
having a tumor larger than 2 cm, and a 60 percent decreased risk of having
stage 2 breast cancer. These connections were not seen among postmenopausal
may stop prostate cancer spread: Experimental soy-based drug shows benefits
in men with localized prostate cancer - Science Daily, 11/8/10 -
"A recent phase II randomized study of 38 men with
localized prostate cancer found that genistein, when given once a day as a
pill, one month prior to surgery, had beneficial effects on prostate cancer
cells ... genistein increased the expression of genes that suppress the
invasion of cancer cells and decreased the expression of genes that enhance
invasion" - See
genistein at Amazon.com.
intake associated with lower recurrence of breast cancer in
hormone-sensitive cancers - Science Daily, 10/18/10 -
"The recurrence rate of estrogen- and progesterone- positive breast cancer
was 12.9% lower among patients in the highest quartile of soy isoflavone
intake than among those in the lowest quartile and was 18.7% lower for
patients receiving anastrozole therapy in the highest quartile"
Isoflavone Use May Improve Endothelial Function in Postmenopausal Women
- Medscape, 12/11/09 - "In the overall analysis,
isoflavone use significantly increased FMD"
Resveratrol could prove HRT alternative, study - Nutra USA, 11/23/09 -
"While genistein, resveratrol and glycitein all
increased apoptosis and reduced the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, resveratrol reduced
this ratio more than either genistein or glycitein ... Because it
(resveratrol) stimulated the transcription of endogenous estrogen receptor
(ER) and proapoptotic effects, this phytoestrogen is the most promising
candidate as an HRT alternative and chemopreventive reagent for breast
cancer ... The researchers added that their results indicated that daidzein
causes a slight cell-stimulating effect in the absence of E2, which may lead
to an increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women taking
supplements containing these phytoestrogens" - [Abstract]
resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
Could soy isoflavones extend life? - Nutra USA, 9/11/09
Reduces Diabetes Risk - Science Daily, 10/6/09 -
"They found that daidzein and equol enhanced adipocyte differentiation, or the
formation of fat cells, through activation of a key transcription regulator, the
same receptor that mediates the insulin-sensitizing effects of anti-diabetes
drugs. Thus, daidzein and equol daidzein and equol seem to work in a similar
manner as anti-diabetic drugs currently in the market"
Soy may help men remember anniversaries: Study - Nutra USA, 7/9/09 -
"men receiving the isoflavones required 18 per cent
fewer attempts to correctly complete the tasks, committed 23 per cent fewer
errors, and achieved the tasks in 17 per cent less time than they did during the
placebo phase" - [Abstract]
Teen soy intake linked to lower breast cancer risk - Nutra USA, 6/1/09 -
"Adolescent intakes of soy foods were associated with a
43 per cent reduction in pre-menopausal breast cancer risk, while high intakes
of soy protein and isoflavones were associated with 59 and 56 per cent
reductions in the risk of breast cancer before the menopause" - [Abstract]
Soy Consumption Linked to Colorectal Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women
- Medscape, 1/29/09 - "For each 5-g/day increment in
dietary intake of soy as measured by dry weight (equivalent to approximately
1 oz [28.35 g] tofu/day), there was an 8% reduction in risk ... Compared
with women in the lowest tertile of soy intake, those in the highest tertile
had a multivariate relative risk (RR) of 0.67 ... were similar for soy
protein and isoflavone intakes"
Genistein Safely Improves Bone Formation in Osteopenic, Postmenopausal Women
- Medscape, 1/14/09 - "Usually, the drugs used in
the management of osteopenia/osteoporosis have been classified as
predominantly 'antiresorptive agents' or as 'bone-forming agents' but, on
the basis of our results, genistein might represent the first therapy that
overcomes this classification by combining a powerful bone-forming as well
as an antiresorptive activity ... All postmenopausal women with bone loss
would be ideal candidates for genistein aglycone treatment ... Genistein
aglycone has a good safety profile, and in addition it is effective against
climacteric syndrome (i.e., hot flushes and night sweats)"
Isoflavone Dietary Supplement Improves Functioning Of Arteries In Stroke
Patients - Science Daily, 9/23/08 - "A dietary
supplement containing isoflavone – a chemical found in soybeans, chickpeas,
legumes and clovers – can improve artery function in stroke patients ... 12
weeks of isoflavone supplement, at a dose of 80 mg a day, significantly
improved brachial FMD and, therefore, vascular endothelial dysfunction in
patients who had suffered an ischaemic stroke (a stroke caused by blood
clots or other obstructions)"
Dietary Supplement Genistein Can Undermine Breast Cancer Treatment -
Science Daily, 9/23/08
Isoflavones and Flavonols Reduce Ovarian Cancer Risk - oncologystat.com,
8/22/08 - "Women with the highest flavonoid intake
had a 37% lower risk of ovarian cancer than those with the lowest intake. A
high intake of isoflavones, in particular, was associated with a 49%
decreased ovarian cancer risk"
Compound May Halt Spread Of Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 3/14/08 -
"the amount of the chemical, an antioxidant known as
genistein, used in the experiments was no higher than what a human would eat
in a soybean-rich diet ... genistein decreased metastasis of prostate cancer
to the lungs by 96 percent compared with mice that did not eat the compound
in their chow"
Daidzein-rich supplement shows menopause potential - Nutra USA, 1/11/08
- "The new study, led by George Blackburn, assigned
the subjects to receive daily supplements of the daidzein-rich
isoflavone-aglycone (DRI) supplement at a dose of either 40 or 60
milligrams, or placebo for 12 weeks ... At the end of the study, the
researchers report that the number of hot flushes in the group receiving the
lower dose was reduced by 52 per cent, while the women receiving the higher
dose experienced a 51 per cent reduction in the number of hot flushes. The
placebo group reported a 39 per cent reduction in hot flush frequency"
isoflavone aglycones are potentially effective in reducing hot flashes in
menopausal women - Menopause. 2007 Jul 18 - "DRI
supplementation may be an effective and acceptable alternative to hormone
treatment for menopausal hot flashes"
Isoflavones may stop benign breast lumps: study - Nutra USA, 12/18/07 -
"the highest plasma levels of genistein (more than
76.95 nanograms per millilitre) were 74 per cent less likely to have breast
cancer, and 60 per cent less likely to have benign conditions, relative to
women with the lowest average levels (less than 9.42 ng/mL)"
New Proof of Genistein's Efficacy and Safety for Osteopenia and Osteoporosis
Published in Annals of Internal Medicine - Doctor's Guide, 7/16/07 -
"85% of the women taking genistein showed a gain in
bone density ... In addition, women taking genistein with calcium and
vitamin D achieved a gain in bone density of approximately 3% per year over
baseline and 6% per year over those taking the placebo"
Soy Compound May Bolster Women's Bones - WebMD, 6/18/07 -
"After two years, the DEXA scans showed increases in
bone mineral density in women taking genistein"
Broccoli, soy anti-cancer benefits suggested - Nutra USA, 4/16/07 -
"this attraction between CXCR4 and CXCL12 draws
cancer cells to the organs they spread to ... exposure with either DIM or
genistein cut movement by 80 per cent"
Soy isoflavones linked to lower prostate cancer risk - Nutra USA, 3/8/07
- "The highest intake of soy isoflavones (at least
32.8 milligrams of genistein per day) had a 40 per cent reduced risk
compared to those with the lowest intake (less than 13.2 mg/d)"
Isoflavone treatment for acute menopausal symptoms - Menopause. 2007 Feb
6 - "In women receiving 60 mg isoflavones daily, hot
flashes and night sweats were reduced by 57% and 43%, respectively"
Meta-analysis supports isoflavones for hot flushes - Nutra USA, 1/15/07
Calcitriol and genistein actions to inhibit the prostaglandin pathway:
potential combination therapy to treat prostate cancer - J Nutr. 2007
Jan;137(1):205S-10S - "the combination of
calcitriol and genistein is an attractive therapeutic option for the
treatment of PCa"
- Soy Isoflavones
Protect Postmenopausal Women From Bone Loss - Medscape, 7/14/06 -
"There was a significant, linear dose-related response for isoflavones vs
placebo in terms of bone density at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, but
not at the trochanter"
Soy isoflavones could improve mood, mental function - Nutra USA, 6/28/06
Daidzein from soy linked to heart health benefits - Nutra USA, 6/23/06
Soy isoflavones attenuate bone loss in early postmenopausal Chinese women :
A single-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trial - Eur J Nutr. 2006
Jun 8 - "There is a significantly dose-dependent
effect of soy isoflavones on attenuating bone loss at the spine and femoral
neck possibly via the inhibition of bone resorption in non-obese
postmenopausal Chinese women with high Kuppermann Scale"
Isoflavones for bone health depends on other factors
- Nutra USA, 7/15/04
- Soy: Prevent
Prostate Cancer, Male Baldness? - WebMD, 3/30/04 -
"A little-known molecule called equol ... is showing promise as a powerful
blocker of a potent male hormone involved in prostate cancer, male baldness,
even acne ... Actually, the protective effects occur when two chemicals in
soy protein -- genistin and daidzin -- reach the digestive system, Setchell
explains. There, they are metabolized to form genistein and daidzein.
Daidzein is metabolized once again, to form equol"
Soy blocks prostate cancer? - Nutra USA, 3/30/04 -
"Equol, the major metabolite of the phytoestrogen
daidzein - one of the main isoflavones found abundantly in soybeans -
completely stops in its tracks the male hormone dihydrotestosterone (DHT),
which normally stimulates prostate growth and causes male pattern baldness"
May Not Prevent Breast Cancer - WebMD, 2/4/04
- Soy Isoflavones May
Improve Cognition in Postmenopausal Women
- Healthwell Exchange Daily News, 10/2/03 -
"Women taking soy isoflavones had significant
improvements in recall, logical thinking, planning tasks, and attention
compared with women taking a placebo, which translates to better
memory and ability to focus on a particular task"
Soy For Prevention of Memory Decline Still Under Investigation
- Doctor's Guide, 9/23/03
- Soy May Cut
Endometrial Cancer Risk - WebMD, 8/5/03 -
"consumption of isoflavones and lignans, but not coumestans, were associated
with a reduced risk of
endometrial cancer, particularly among postmenopausal women"
- Chemical in
Miso and Other Soy Foods Believed to Block Certain Tumors
- WebMD, 6/17/03 -
"identified 21,852 women between the ages of 40 and
59 and surveyed them about various lifestyle issues ... They traced the
women 10 years later ... Women with the most
isoflavones in their diet had the lowest risk of breast cancer. This was
especially true of postmenopausal women"
- Soy Protein May
Be Better Than Supplements for Menopause
- WebMD, 4/24/03
- Got Milk -
WebMD, 9/27/02 -
"A combination of soy and
milk could have some beneficial,
anti-cancer nutrients ... He says he thinks the most potent
cancer-fighting component of soy is a compound called
genistein ... He demonstrated that by feeding rats a diet containing
genistein before exposing them to a cancer-causing drug. The number of
breast tumors was reduced by 50%"
Diet Rich In Soy Protein Lowers Estrogens Associated With Breast Cancer
- Intelihealth, 9/24/02 -
"Isoflavones, the main constituent of soybeans, are
believed to be responsible for anti-cancer effects observed in an
accumulating number of human and animal studies ... However, the effect of
soy on the breast is controversial ... There are some in vitro studies of
breast cancer cells - animal studies, as well as short-term soy intervention
studies in women - suggesting that soy isoflavines may have stimulatory
Ipriflavone in Osteoporosis Prevention and Treatment
- Medscape, 9/4/02
- Red Clover May
Tame Hot Flashes - WebMD, 8/16/02 -
"Promensil is an isoflavone supplement produced from
red clover and contains the same key isoflavones commonly found in soy
foods. Isoflavones are plant compounds -- found commonly in soy -- that act
like weak form of the female sex hormone estrogen
... Only red clover contains all four isoflavones that women need ... 30
women were given either 40 mg of Promensil or a placebo for 16 weeks. The
group taking Promensil reported a 48% reduction in frequency of
hot flashes, whereas the control group had an 11% decrease" - See
or Promensil products.
Soy Protein In The Diet Produces Health Benefits, Regardless Of Isoflavone
Content - Intelihealth, 7/25/02 -
soy diet, total
cholesterol, the ratio of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to high-density
lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol,
homocysteine concentrations, and estimated overall cardiovascular risk
were lower than they were after the control diet. Additionally, serum
concentrations of LDL were lower after the high-isoflavone diet. The only
significant difference between the sexes was a tendency toward reduced
blood pressure in men after the high-soy isoflavone diet ... the soy
diets continued to improve the subjects' blood lipid profiles even after
dietary saturated fat consumption was maximally reduced"
Phytoestrogen review - ConsumerLab.com, 7/16/02
- Soy Comparable to
Some Diabetes Drugs - WebMD, 6/20/02 - "Soy
may help people with diabetes control their
blood sugar as well as some prescription drugs ... One group sprinkled their
food daily with a white powder containing 30 grams of soy protein and 132
milligrams of soy isoflavones for 12 weeks ... The soy products lowered the
women's blood sugar as much as some prescription diabetes drugs"
Soy Isoflavone May Improve Bone Metabolism in Perimenopausal Women
- Doctor's Guide, 5/27/02 - "The isoflavone group
(n=12) received daily capsules of soy isoflavone extract (61.8 mg of
isoflavones) ... Excretion of bone resorption
markers was reduced significantly in the isoflavone group"
- Soy Formulas May
Weaken Immune System - WebMD, 5/20/02 - "the
researchers examined immune system effects in mice fed diets high in the
isoflavone. At levels similar to those found in soy-fed infants, genistein
appeared to produce a large decrease in thymus size and immune cell function
... The study appears to contradict recently published research, sponsored
by a soy formula manufacturer, suggesting that infants fed soy-based diets
immune development as measured by response to
routine childhood immunizations. Infants fed soy-based
formulas also demonstrated immune status similar to infants who were
breastfed ... But a Danish study assessing soy supplementation in
postmenopausal women did find evidence of immune suppression"
Ovulatory Cycles Not Affected By Isoflavones Supplement
- Doctor's Guide, 3/21/02
Phytoestrogens May Reduce Heart Disease Risk In Older Women
- Intelihealth, 2/21/02 - "phytoestrogen consumption
was associated with a reduced risk of heart disease. Women who consumed the
highest amount of isoflavones and lignans had significantly lower
triglyceride (fatty material found in blood) levels than those who consumed
the least amount of phytoestrogens. Similarly, those who consumed
significant amounts of lignan-rich foods had less weight concentrated around
their waists than those who ate little or no lignan-rich food. (Excessive
weight around the waist is a risk factor for heart disease.)"
Magic of Soy Beans - Life Extension Magazine, 11/99 -
"In the group receiving the highest doses of soy
isoflavones, there was a 74% reduction in the median number of metastatic
tumors to the lungs. The study showed that the higher doses of isoflavones
significantly decreased tumor size and volume, in addition to reducing the
number of metastatic lesions."
Long-Term Soy Consumption Does Not Effect Hormones In Postmenopausal Women
- Intelihealth, 12/21/01 - "Though small hormonal
fluctuations occurred in all three groups over time, the researchers found
no significant changes in serum estrogen, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone
sulfate, or follicle stimulating hormone in any of the subject groups.
Circulating thyroid hormone levels were modestly increased in women taking
the highest dose of soy isoflavones for more than 6 months. Other effects of
soy isoflavones observed in the study, such as increased bone mineral
density and higher HDL concentrations in women who took the highest dose for
6 months, suggest that soy may possess estrogen effects that are better
reflected in these end-points rather than in serum hormone concentrations"
Soy And Breast Cancer: Safe Or Unsafe? - Intelihealth, 11/8/01
Soy Isoflavone Stimulates Breast Cancer Tumor Growth
- Intelihealth, 11/8/01
Review: Phytoestrogens -- Soy and Red Clover Isoflavones
- ConsumerLab, 8/15/01
Soy Isoflavones May Protect Postmenopausal Women From Alzheimer's -
Widely Used Supplement Doesn't Stop Bone Loss, Study Finds No Postmenopausal
Benefit From Ipriflavone - WebMD, 3/22/01
Osteoporosis Supplement Doesn't Prevent Bone Loss In Study -
Intelihealth, 3/20/01 -
"ipriflavone, a synthetic form of an estrogen-like
substance found in plants such as soybeans ... ipriflavone supplements had
no effect on preserving bone density. But women who took the supplements, in
standard doses of 600 milligrams daily, were more likely than those on dummy
pills to develop a reduction in disease-fighting white blood cells called
lymphocytes ... The women remained otherwise healthy, but low lymphocyte
counts are a symptom of an immune system that is potentially more vulnerable
to infection ... The study was funded by Chiesi Pharmaceuticals Inc., an
Italian maker of ipriflavone (so it may have been that brand)"
Soy and Health: What's the Scoop? Most Recent Addition to Soy Research Shows
Lower Breast Cancer Risk - WebMD, 12/21/00 -
"eating a diet rich in soy products may cut the risk
of breast cancer in half"
Bone Up on Osteoporosis - Nutrition Science News, 11/00 -
"Most research demonstrates that soy foods also
increase mineral density in menopausal women and reduce bone loss"
|Beef(Not) textured soy
protein granules, 1/4 c. dry
|Nutlettes breakfast cereal,
|Roasted soy nuts, 1/4 c.
|Tempeh, 1/2 c.
|Tufu, low-fat and regular,
|Take Care High Protein
Beverage Powder, 2 scoops
|Regular soy milk, 1 c.
|Low-fat soy milk, 1 c.
|Roasted soy butter, 2 tbsp.
|Morningstar Farms Ground
Meatless all-vegetable crumbles, 1/2 c.
Effect of Genistein on Lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine-induced Hepatic
Failure in Mice - Biol Pharm Bull. 2014 Jan 30 - "In
conclusion, the protective effect of genistein on LPS/D-GalN-induced liver
damage was mainly due to its ability to block NF-κB signaling pathway for
anti-inflammation response, attenuate hepatocellular apoptosis and increase HO
level. These findings suggest that genistein can be considered as a potential
agent for preventing acute hepatic failure" - See
genistein at Amazon.com.
and endothelial function in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome -
Eur J Clin Invest. 2013 Jul 10 - "metabolic syndrome
(MS) ... Twenty postmenopausal women with MS, according to modified NCEP-ATP III
criteria were randomly assigned to receive placebo or genistein (54 mg/day) for
6 months, along with a Mediterranean-style diet. Postmenopausal women without MS
(n = 15), served as controls ... After 6 months of treatment, FMD at 50s and
peak FMD significantly increased in genistein recipients compared with placebo.
Moreover, genistein significantly decreased the blood levels of total
cholesterol, triglycerides, homocysteine and visfatin compared with placebo,
while blood adiponectin levels were increased. Genistein recipients neither
experienced more side-adverse effects than placebo nor discontinued the study"
the Metabolic Syndrome: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial - J Clin
Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jul 3 - "Patients included 120
postmenopausal women with MetS ... postmenopausal women with MetS were randomly
assigned to receive placebo (n = 60) or 54 mg genistein daily (n = 60) for 1
year ... At 1 year in genistein recipients, fasting glucose, fasting insulin,
and HOMA-IR (mean from 4.5 to 2.7; P < .001) decreased and were unchanged in
placebo recipients. Genistein statistically increased HDL-C (mean from 46.4 to
56.8 mg/dL) and adiponectin and decreased total cholesterol, LDL-C (mean from
108.8 to 78.7 mg/dL), triglycerides, visfatin, and homocysteine (mean from 14.3
to 11.7) blood levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was also reduced in
genistein recipients. Genistein recipients neither experienced more side adverse
effects than placebo nor discontinued the study"
effects of isoflavones on tumor growth and cachexia in newly established
cachectic mouse models carrying human stomach cancers - Nutr Cancer.
2013;65(4):578-89 - "Isoflavone treatment on the models
induced tumor cytostasis, attenuation of cachexia, and prolonged survival
whereas discontinuation of the treatment resulted in progressive tumor growth
and weight loss" - See
soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.
Dietary Isoflavone Intake Is Associated with Decreased C-Reactive Protein
Concentrations among Healthy Premenopausal Women - J Nutr. 2013 Apr 24 -
"Between 2005 and 2007, 259 healthy, regularly
menstruating women were enrolled in the BioCycle Study, and followed for up to 2
menstrual cycles ... Diet was assessed up to 4 times per cycle by using 24-h
recalls ... Compared with the lowest quartile of total isoflavone intake, women
in the highest quartile had, on average, 27% lower serum CRP concentrations"
versus hospital controls in the assessment of dietary intake of isoflavone for
case-control studies on cancers in china - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Apr;65(3):390-7
- "Three parallel case-control studies on leukemia,
breast, and colorectal cancers in China in 2009-2010 were conducted, using
population and hospital outpatient controls to separately match 560 incident
cases at a 1:1 ratio ... Risk estimates for breast cancers were adjusted ORs
(95% CI) of 0.39 (0.23-0.66) and 0.31 (0.18-0.55) for daidzein, 0.35 (0.20-0.61)
and 0.28 (0.16-0.52) for genistein, 0.66 (0.41-1.08) and 0.53 (0.32-0.88) for
glycitein, and 0.53 (0.33-0.85) and 0.43 (0.26-0.71) for total isoflavone using
hospital outpatient and population controls respectively"
isoflavone intake and breast cancer risk in Japan: From the takayama study -
Int J Cancer. 2013 Feb 6 - "We assessed the associations
of soy and isoflavone intake with breast cancer incidence in a population-based
prospective cohort study in Japan. Participants were members from the Takayama
study, aged 35 years or older in 1992 ... Soy and isoflavone intakes were
assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire ... The relative risks of
postmenopausal breast cancer were lower among women with higher intakes of soy
(trend p=0.023) and isoflavone (trend p=0.046), although the relative risks of
premenopausal breast cancer were not associated with intakes of soy and
isoflavone. Decreased risks of breast cancer were found even among women with a
moderate intake of soy and isoflavone. These results suggested that soy and
isoflavone intake have a protective effect on postmenopausal breast cancer"
Soy Isoflavone and Endogenous Oestrogen on Breast Cancer in MMTV-erbB2
Transgenic Mice - J Int Med Res. 2012;40(6):2073-82 -
"Five-week-old mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV)-erbB2
female transgenic mice (n = 180) were divided into three equal groups: low-,
normal- and high-oestrogen groups. Each group was then subdivided into an
experimental group (given soybean feed) and a control group (given control feed)
... In the high-oestrogen environment, breast cancer incidence was significantly
lower in the experimental versus the control group, whereas in the low-oestrogen
environment, breast cancer incidence was significantly higher in the
experimental versus the control group"
effect of genistein on lowering blood pressure and kidney toxicity in
fructose-fed hypertensive rats - Br J Nutr. 2012 Sep 21:1-7 -
"The study evaluates the effects of genistein on blood
pressure (BP) and ultrastructural changes in kidney of fructose-fed hypertensive
rats ... Genistein administration lowered BP, restored ACE, PKC-βII and eNOS
expression and preserved renal ultrastructural integrity. These findings
demonstrate that genistein has effects on eNOS activity in renal cells, leading
to eNOS activation and NO synthesis. These effects could have been mediated by
activation of PKC-βII. The observed benefits of genistein make it a promising
candidate for therapy of diabetic kidney disease" - See
genistein at Amazon.com.
Between Serum Isoflavone Levels and Disability-Free Survival Among
Community-Dwelling Elderly Individuals: Nested Case-Control Study of the
Tsurugaya Project - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 Oct 9 -
"The longer healthy life expectancy observed in Japan
may be partly attributed to the Japanese diet ... The researchers used a nested
case-control study to compare serum isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, glycitein,
and equol) levels between 165 participants that died or were certificated as
disabled (cases) and 177 controls ... Higher serum equol levels, but not any
other isoflavones, were inversely associated with the composite endpoint of
disability and death. Although it cannot be concluded that equol per se has
preventive effects on disability or death, higher equol levels appear associated
with better health"
isoflavone supplements is associated with reduced postmenopausal breast cancer
risk - Int J Cancer. 2012 Aug 13 - "Associations
between ever use of 28 isoflavone supplements and breast cancer risk in Ontario,
Canada were evaluated using cases (n=3101) identified in 2002-2003 from the
Ontario Cancer Registry and controls (n=3471) identified through random digit
dialing methods ... Several individual supplements were associated with reduced
breast cancer risk (e.g. Natural HRT; AOR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.22, 0.69; n(users)
=58). Use of any isoflavone supplements was associated with reduced risk when ≥3
were ever used (AOR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.86; n(users) =332; P(trend) =0.008)
or any was taken >5 years (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.94; n(users) =325;
P(trend) =0.01); high content supplements were consistently associated with
reduced risk. Risk reduction was confined to postmenopausal breast cancer for
both individual and combined supplements, and was strongest in the latter among
high content users who ever took ≥3 supplements (AOR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.81;
n(users) =118; P(trend) =0.04) or any >5 years (AOR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.81;
n(users) =60; P(trend) =0.03). Associations did not differ by
estrogen-progesterone tumor receptor status" - See
soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.
Soy Phytoestrogen, Reverses Severe Pulmonary Hypertension and Prevents Right
Heart Failure in Rats - Hypertension. 2012 Jul 2 -
"PH was induced in male rats by 60 mg/kg of monocrotaline. After 21 days, when
PH was well established, rats received daily injection of genistein (1 mg/kg per
day) for 10 days or were left untreated to develop RHF by day 30. Effects of
genistein on human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell and endothelial cell
proliferation and neonatal rat ventricular myocyte hypertrophy were assessed in
vitro. Severe PH was evident 21 days after monocrotaline, as peak systolic right
ventricular pressure increased to 66.35+/-1.03 mm Hg and right ventricular
ejection fraction reduced to 41.99+/-1.27%. PH progressed to RHF by day 30
(right ventricular pressure, 72.41+/-1.87 mm Hg; RV ejection fraction,
29.25+/-0.88%), and mortality was ≈75% in RHF rats. Genistein therapy resulted
in significant improvement in lung and heart function as right ventricular
pressure was significantly reduced to 43.34+/-4.08 mm Hg and right ventricular
ejection fraction was fully restored to 65.67+/-1.08% similar to control.
Genistein reversed PH-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling in vivo and
inhibited human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation by ≈50% in
vitro likely through estrogen receptor-β. Genistein also reversed right
ventricular hypertrophy (right ventricular hypertrophy index, 0.35+/-0.029
versus 0.70+/-0.080 in RHF), inhibited neonatal rat ventricular myocyte
hypertrophy, and restored PH-induced loss of capillaries in the right ventricle.
These improvements in cardiopulmonary function and structure resulted in 100%
survival by day 30. Genistein restored PH-induced downregulation of estrogen
receptor-β expression in the right ventricle and lung. In conclusion, genistein
therapy not only rescues preexisting severe PH but also prevents the progression
of severe PH to RHF" - See
genistein at Amazon.com.
observational study of isoflavone and the risk of stroke recurrence: potential
clinical implications beyond vascular function -J Nutr Health Aging.
2012;16(4):383-8 - "Stroke recurrence and major adverse
cardiovascular events (MACE) were documented. Brachial flow-mediated dilatation
(FMD) was measured using high-resolution ultrasound. Isoflavone intake was
estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Results: Median
isoflavone intake was 6.9 (range: 2.1 - 14.5) mg/day. Isoflavone intake was
independently associated with increased FMD (Pearson R=0.23, p=0.012). At 30
months, there were 10 stroke recurrence and 12 MACE. Kaplan-Meier analysis
showed that patients with isoflavone intake higher than median value had
significantly longer median stroke recurrence-free survival time (19.0 [range:
10.4 - 27.6] mth versus 5.0 [range: 4.1 - 5.9] mth, p=0.021) and MACE-free
survival time (19.0 [range: 10.4 - 27.6] mth versus 4.0 [range: 2.4 - 5.6] mth,
p=0.013). Using multivariate cox regression, higher isoflavone intake was an
independent predictor for lower risk of stroke recurrence (hazards ratio 0.18
[95%CI: 0.03 - 0.95], risk reduction 82%, p=0.043) and MACE (hazards ratio 0.16
[95%CI: 0.03 - 0.84], risk reduction 84%, p=0.030)"
isoflavone consumption in relation to carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese
equol excretors aged 40-65 years - Br J Nutr. 2012 Feb 29:1-7 -
"Previous studies have suggested that the daidzein
metabolite equol rather than daidzein itself contributes to the beneficial
effect of soya foods in the prevention of CVD. The aim of the present study is
to examine the proportion of equol excretion in Chinese adults and compare
plasma lipids and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) between equol
excretors and non-excretors, and to evaluate the effect of soya isoflavone
intakes on serum lipids and IMT in either equol excretors or non-excretors ...
Compared with non-excretors, equol excretors showed significantly lower serum
TAG ( - 38.2 (95 % CI - 70.4, - 5.9) %, P = 0.012) and CCA-IMT ( - 4.9 (95 % CI
- 9.7, - 0.3) %, P = 0.033). Equol excretors with higher daily isoflavone
intakes ( - 5.4 mg/d) had significantly lower IMT ( - 16.2 %, P = 0.035) and
tended to have higher HDL-cholesterol (P = 0.055) than did those with lower
daily isoflavone intakes (1.5 mg/d), while no association was observed between
soya isoflavone intakes and serum lipids or IMT in non-excretors. In conclusion,
the benefits of soya isoflavones in preventing CVD may be apparent among equol
Influence of Dietary Soy Intake on the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence Related
to HER2 Status - Nutr Cancer. 2012 Jan 2 - "Legume
intake (mostly from black soybeans) was inversely associated with the risk of
breast cancer recurrence in HER2 negative cancer patients (HR: 0.27, 95% CI:
0.13-0.57, P for trend < 0.01), whereas legume intake was positively associated
in HER2 positive cancer patients (P for trend = 0.02). In HER2 negative cancer
patients, isoflavone was inversely associated with breast cancer recurrence (HR:
0.23, 95% CI: 0.06-0.89; P for trend = 0.01). Total soy intake was not
associated with an increased risk of cancer recurrence. In conclusion, overall
soy food intake might not affect the risk of cancer recurrence, but high intake
of soy isoflavones increased the risk of cancer recurrence in HER2-positive
breast cancer patients. However, further research is needed to confirm these
results due to the small number of cancer recurrence events"
Mitigates Radiation-induced Testicular Injury - Phytother Res. 2011 Dec 9 -
"Genistein significantly attenuated radiation-induced
reduction in testis weight, seminiferous tubular diameter, seminiferous
epithelial depth and sperm head count in the testes (p < 0.05 vs vehicle-treated
irradiated mice at 21 days post-irradiation). Repopulation and stem cell
survival indices of the seminiferous tubules were increased in the
genistein-treated group compared with the vehicle-treated irradiation group at
21 days post-irradiation (p < 0.01). The irradiation-mediated decrease in the
sperm count and sperm mobility in the epididymis was counteracted by genistein
(p < 0.01), but no effect on the frequency of abnormal sperm was evident.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated using DCFDA method and exposure to
irradiation elevated ROS levels in the testis and genistein treatment resulted
in a significant attenuation of radiation-induced ROS production"
Tofu, and Isoflavone Intake and Endometrial Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women
in the Multiethnic Cohort Study - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011 Dec 12 -
"conducted a prospective analysis of 46 027
nonhysterectomized postmenopausal women who were recruited into the Multiethnic
Cohort (MEC) Study between August 1993 and August 1996 and provided detailed
baseline information on diet and other endometrial cancer risk factors ... A
total of 489 women diagnosed with incident endometrial cancer were identified
through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results tumor registry linkages
during a median follow-up period of 13.6 years ... A reduced risk of endometrial
cancer was associated with total isoflavone intake (highest vs lowest quintile,
≥7.82 vs <1.59 mg per 1000 kcal/d, RR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.91), daidzein
intake (highest vs lowest quintile, ≥3.54 vs <0.70 mg per 1000 kcal/d, RR =
0.64, 95% CI = 0.46 to 0.90), and genistein intake (highest vs lowest quintile,
≥3.40 vs <0.69 mg per 1000 kcal/d, RR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.91). No
statistically significant association with endometrial cancer risk was observed
for increasing intake of legumes, soy, tofu, or glycitein. Truncated
age-adjusted incidence rates of endometrial cancer for the highest vs lowest
quintile of total isoflavone intake were 55 vs 107 per 100 000 women per year,
respectively. The partial population attributable risk percent for total
isoflavone intake lower than the highest quintile was 26.7% (95% CI = 5.3% to
Effects of Combination of Lycopene and Genistein on 7,12- Dimethyl
Benz(a)anthracene-Induced Breast Cancer in Rats - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Sep 29 -
"Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. Carotenoids and soy
isoflavones have been postulated to have breast cancer preventive effects ...
7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), a carcinogen known to induce breast
tumors ... Tumor weight decreased by 48%, 61%, and 67%, and mean tumor volume
decreased by 18%, 35%, and 65% with lycopene, genistein, and lycopene +
genistein, respectively (P < 0.01 for the combination). The proportions of
adenocarcinoma masses decreased with lycopene and genistein combination (P <
0.05). Administration of lycopene and genistein combination suppressed breast
cancer development and was associated with a decrease in MDA, 8-isoprostane, and
8-OhdG levels and with an increase in serum lycopene and genistein levels.
Animals administered DMBA developed breast cancer, which was associated with
increased expression of Bcl-2 and decreased expression of Bax, caspase 3, and
caspase 9 in mammary tissues. Administration of genistein and lycopene in
combination was more effective in inhibiting DMBA-induced breast tumors and
modulating the expression of apoptosis associated proteins than the
administration of each agent alone" - See
lycopene at Amazon.com
genistein at Amazon.com.
soy isoflavones on blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled
trials - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Feb 8 - "A
total of eleven trials were reviewed. Meta-analysis results showed a mean
decrease of 2.5 mm Hg (95% CIs, - 5.35 to 0.34 mm Hg; P = 0.08) for systolic
blood pressure and 1.5 mm Hg (95% CIs, - 3.09 to 0.17 mm Hg; P = 0.08) for
diastolic blood pressure in the soy isoflavones-treated group compared to
placebo. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses indicated that blood pressure
status was a significant predictor of heterogeneity for the effect of soy
isoflavones on blood pressure. Subgroup analysis of hypertensive subjects
revealed that a greater blood pressure reduction was identified in the soy
isoflavone-treated group compared to placebo (5 trials; SBP: - 5.94, 95% CIs [-
10.55, - 1.34] mm Hg, P = 0.01; DBP: - 3.35, 95% CIs [- 6.52, - 0.19] mm Hg, P =
0.04). In contrast, treatment with soy isoflavones did not lead to a significant
reduction in blood pressure in normotensive subjects (6 trials; SBP: 0.29, 95%
CIs [- 2.39, 2.97] mm Hg, P = 0.83; DBP: - 0.43, 95% CIs [- 1.66, 0.81] mm Hg, P
isoflavones and the risk of lung cancer in women: A nested case-control study in
Japan - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Jan 14 -
"After exclusion of 20 lung cancer cases diagnosed in
the first 3 years after blood collection, an inverse association was found
between plasma genistein concentration and lung cancer risk. The
multivariate-adjusted OR (95% CI) of lung cancer in the highest quintile of
plasma genistein concentration as compared with that in the lowest quintile was
0.31 (0.12, 0.86) (P for trend = 0.085). Other isoflavones and total isoflavones
were not associated with a significant decrease in the risk of lung cancer"
genistein at Amazon.com.
of dietary and nutrient interventions on arterial stiffness: a systematic review
- Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Dec 8 - "Of the 75 relevant
studies located, we considered 38 studies to be appropriate for review. Results
revealed support for intakes of omega-3 (n-3) fish oils (Cohen's d = 0.21-0.81)
and soy isoflavones (Cohen's d = 0.35-0.39) in the treatment of arterial
stiffness. There was limited but consistent evidence to suggest that salt
restriction (Cohen's d = 0.28-0.37) as well as consumption of fermented-milk
products (Cohen's d = 0.15-0.33) that contain bioactive peptides improved
arterial stiffness. The evidentiary support for intakes of vitamins,
micronutrients, and herbal medicines was insufficient. Limited but consistent
evidence suggested that caffeine intake acutely increased arterial stiffness
(Cohen's d = 0.34-0.51) ... Current evidence from several small studies suggests
that omega-3 and soy isoflavone supplementation provides an effective means of
reducing arterial stiffness" - See
soy isoflavones at Amazon.com
Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com
Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
Soy food and
isoflavone intake and colorectal cancer risk: the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer
Study - Scand J Gastroenterol. 2010 Oct 24 -
"Energy-adjusted intakes of soy foods (dry weight) and isoflavones were
inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in men and postmenopausal
women, but not in premenopausal women. The multivariate-adjusted OR for the
highest versus lowest quintile was 0.65 (95% CI 0.41-1.03, p for trend = 0.03)
for soy foods and 0.68 (95% CI 0.42-1.10, p for trend = 0.051) for isoflavones
in men. The corresponding values for postmenopausal women were 0.60 (95% CI
0.29-1.25, p for trend = 0.053) and 0.68 (95% CI 0.33-1.40, p for trend =
isoflavones in conjunction with radiation therapy in patients with prostate
cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2010 Oct;62(7):996-1000 - "Soy
isoflavones sensitize prostate cancer cells to radiation therapy by inhibiting
cell survival pathways activated by radiation. At the same time, soy isoflavones
have significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, which may help
prevent the side effects of radiation ... Adverse effects of radiation therapy
on bladder, bowel, and sexual function were assessed by a self-administered
quality of life questionnaire at 3 and 6 mo. Only 26 and 27 patients returned
completed questionnaires at 3 and 6 mo, respectively. At each time point,
urinary, bowel, and sexual adverse symptoms induced by radiation therapy were
decreased in the soy isoflavone group compared to placebo group. At 3 mo,
soy-treated patients had less urinary incontinence, less urgency, and better
erectile function as compared to the placebo group. At 6 mo, the symptoms in
soy-treated patients were further improved as compared to the placebo group.
These patients had less dripping/leakage of urine (7.7% in Group 1 vs. 28.4% in
Group 2), less rectal cramping/diarrhea (7.7% vs. 21.4%), and less pain with
bowel movements (0% vs. 14.8%) than placebo-treated patients. There was also a
higher overall ability to have erections (77% vs. 57.1%). The results suggest
that soy isoflavones taken in conjunction with radiation therapy could reduce
the urinary, intestinal, and sexual adverse effects in patients with prostate
decrease insomnia in postmenopause - Menopause. 2010 Aug 19 -
"Polysomnography revealed a significant increase in
sleep efficiency in the isoflavone group (from 77.9% to 83.9%) when compared
with the placebo group (from 77.6% to 81.2%). Isoflavones induced a decrease in
the intensity and number of hot flashes and the frequency of insomnia: among the
women in the placebo group, 94.7% had moderate or intense insomnia at the
beginning of the study, compared with 63.2% at the end, whereas in the
isoflavone group, these percentages were 89.5% and 36.9%, respectively"
reduced the neural apoptosis in the brain of ovariectomised rats by modulating
mitochondrial oxidative stress - Br J Nutr. 2010 Jun 28:1-7 -
"genistein (Gen) ... these results suggest that Gen
confers protection against Ovx-induced neurodegeneration by attenuating
oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic
pathway in a region- and dose-dependent manner"
induces growth inhibition and g2/m arrest in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells
- Nutr Cancer. 2010 Jul;62(5):641-7 - "These findings
provide new insights into the potential intervention of NPC with genistein"
intake and breast cancer survival - JAMA. 2009 Dec 9;302(22):2437-43 -
"Soy food intake, as measured by either soy protein or
soy isoflavone intake, was inversely associated with mortality and recurrence.
The hazard ratio associated with the highest quartile of soy protein intake was
0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-0.92) for total mortality and 0.68 (95%
CI, 0.54-0.87) for recurrence compared with the lowest quartile of intake. The
multivariate-adjusted 4-year mortality rates were 10.3% and 7.4%, and the 4-year
recurrence rates were 11.2% and 8.0%, respectively, for women in the lowest and
highest quartiles of soy protein intake. The inverse association was evident
among women with either estrogen receptor-positive or -negative breast cancer
and was present in both users and nonusers of tamoxifen. CONCLUSION: Among women
with breast cancer, soy food consumption was significantly associated with
decreased risk of death and recurrence"
isoflavone supplementation enhances spatial working memory in men - Br J
Nutr. 2009 Jun 1:1-7 - "Compared with placebo
supplementation, there were 18 % fewer attempts (P = 0.01), 23 % fewer errors (P
= 0.02) and 17 % less time (P = 0.03) required to correctly identify the
requisite information" - See
soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.
studies show no effects of soy protein or isoflavones on reproductive hormones
in men: results of a meta-analysis - Fertil Steril. 2009 Jun 11 -
"No significant effects of soy protein or isoflavone
intake on T, SHBG, free T, or FAI were detected regardless of statistical model"
isoflavone supplementation enhances spatial working memory in men - Br J
Nutr. 2009 Jun 1:1-7 - "Volunteers were randomised to
take four capsules/d containing soya isoflavones (116 mg isoflavone
equivalents/d: 68 mg daidzein, 12 mg genistein, 36 mg glycitin) or placebo for 6
weeks, and the alternate treatment during the following 6 weeks. Assessments of
memory (verbal episodic, auditory and working), executive function (planning,
attention, mental flexibility) and visual-spatial processing were performed at
baseline and after each treatment period. Isoflavone supplementation
significantly improved spatial working memory (P = 0.01), a test in which
females consistently perform better than males. Compared with placebo
supplementation, there were 18 % fewer attempts (P = 0.01), 23 % fewer errors (P
= 0.02) and 17 % less time (P = 0.03) required to correctly identify the
requisite information. Isoflavones did not affect auditory and episodic memory
(Paired Associate Learning, Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Task, Backward Digit
Span and Letter-Number Sequencing), executive function (Trail Making and Initial
Letter Fluency Task) or visual-spatial processing (Mental Rotation Task).
Isoflavone supplementation in healthy males may enhance cognitive processes
which appear dependent on oestrogen activation"
Adolescent and adult soy food intake and breast cancer risk: results from the
Shanghai Women's Health Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun;89(6):1920-6 -
"Adult soy food consumption, measured either by soy
protein or isoflavone intake, was inversely associated with the risk of
premenopausal breast cancer, and the association was highly statistically
significant (P for trend < 0.001). The multivariate-adjusted relative risks
(RRs) for the upper intake quintile compared with the lowest quintile were 0.41
(95% CI: 0.25, 0.70) for soy protein intake and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.26, 0.73) for
isoflavone intake. High intake of soy foods during adolescence was also
associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR: 0.57; 95% CI:
0.34, 0.97). Women who consumed a high amount of soy foods consistently during
adolescence and adulthood had a substantially reduced risk of breast cancer. No
significant association with soy food consumption was found for postmenopausal
cancer cell response to genistein is conditioned by BRCA1 mutations -
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Jan 3 - "We showed that
growth of BRCA1 mutant cells was strongly inhibited by genistein whereas it only
had a weak effect in cells expressing wild-type BRCA1 protein. BRCA1 mutant
cells hypersensitivity could be linked to higher expression of ERbeta gene,
which suggests that genistein may be an efficient inhibitor of cancer
development in BRCA1 mutant breast cancer cells"
Genistein protects against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced oxidative DNA
damage in non-cancerous breast cells MCF-10A - Br J Nutr. 2008 Jun 23:1-6 -
"These enzymes, in turn, will metabolise the PAH into
their ultimate carcinogenic forms. Genistein can significantly suppress the
expressions within 5 mum. The comet assay indicated that DMBA introduced DNA
damage to these cells, and co-treatment with genistein at 5 or 10 mum could
alleviate the damage. In addition to the chelation of DMBA metabolites to DNA,
flow cytometry results revealed that oxidation was also a factor of DNA damage.
The oxidative DNA damage could be removed by co-treating with 10 mum-genistein.
Because no increased oxidative DNA repair was observed, suppression on the
cytochrome enzymes appeared to be the underlying mechanism"
phytochemicals decrease nonsmall cell lung cancer growth in female athymic mice
- J Nutr. 2008 Jul;138(7):1360-4 - "soy phytochemicals
slow the in vivo growth of NSCLC xenografts; the modulation of the Akt-signaling
pathway observed in tumors of SSE-treated mice may have a role in the activity
observed. Our research provides further support for the concept that consumption
of phytoestrogens may be effective in delaying lung cancer progression"
Genistein reduced the invasive activity of human breast carcinoma cells as a
result of decreased tight junction permeability and modulation of tight junction
proteins - Cancer Lett. 2008 Jun 14 - "Taken
together our results indicate a possible role of genistein as an inhibitor of
cancer cell invasion through the tightening of TJs, which may counteract the
up-regulation of claudins. In addition, our results indicate that may be
beneficial for the inhibition of tumor metastasis"
Legume and isoflavone intake and prostate cancer risk: The Multiethnic Cohort
- Int J Cancer. 2008 Jun 2 - "legume intake is
associated with a moderate reduction in prostate cancer risk and that the
isoflavones in soy products are probably not responsible for this effect"
Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of cancer in postmenopausal women: The Iowa
Women's Health Study - Int J Cancer. 2008 May 19 -
"Isoflavone intake was inversely associated with overall cancer incidence (HR =
0.93, 95% CI: 0.86-1.00)"
Plasma Isoflavone Level and Subsequent Risk of Breast Cancer Among Japanese
Women: A Nested Case-Control Study From the Japan Public Health Center-Based
Prospective Study Group - J Clin Oncol. 2008 Mar 3 -
"We found a statistically significant inverse
association between plasma genistein and risk of breast cancer, but no
association for plasma daidzein. Adjusted odds ratios for the highest versus
lowest quartile of plasma level were 0.34 for genistein (95% CI, 0.16 to
0.74; P for trend, .02) and 0.71 for daidzein (95% CI, 0.35 to 1.44; P for
trend, .54). Median plasma genistein values in the control group were 31.9
ng/mL for the lowest and 353.9 ng/mL for the highest quartile groups"
Effects of One-Year Treatment with Isoflavone Extract from Red Clover on
Prostate, Liver Function, Sexual Function, and Quality of Life in Men with
Elevated PSA Levels and Negative Prostate Biopsy Findings - Urology.
2008 Feb;71(2):185-90 - "isoflavonoid extract from
red clover ... daily 60-mg dose of an isoflavone extract for 1 year ... The
average PSA level was 10.16 ng/mL at baseline versus 7.15 ng/mL after 12
months, for a statistically significant reduction of 33% ... The sexual
hormone levels did not change throughout the study. We registered a
significant increase in all three liver transaminases after 3 months"
Daidzein-rich isoflavone aglycones are potentially effective in reducing hot
flashes in menopausal women - Menopause. 2008 Jan-Feb;15(1):125-32 -
"When comparing the two treatment groups with the
placebo group, there were significant reductions in mean daily hot flash
frequency. The supplement (either 40 or 60 mg) reduced hot flash frequency
by 43% at 8 weeks (P = 0.1) and 52% at 12 weeks (P = 0.048) but did not
cause any significant changes in endogenous sex hormones or thyroid
hormones" - See
soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.
Soy isoflavone intake increases bone mineral density in the spine of
menopausal women: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Clin
Nutr. 2007 Dec 4 - "Isoflavone intervention
significantly attenuates bone loss of the spine in menopausal women. These
favorable effects become more significant when more than 90mg/day of
isoflavones are consumed. And soy isoflavone consumption for 6 months can be
enough to exert beneficial effects on bone in menopausal women"
Lycopene and soy isoflavones in the treatment of prostate cancer - Nutr
Cancer. 2007;59(1):1-7 - "The data suggest that
lycopene and soy isoflavones have activity in prostate cancer patients with
PSA relapse disease and may delay progression of both hormone-refractory and
hormone-sensitive prostate cancer"
Genistein and daidzein prevent diabetes onset by elevating insulin level and
altering hepatic gluconeogenic and lipogenic enzyme activities in non-obese
diabetic (NOD) mice - Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2007 Oct 11 -
"Blood glucose levels of genistein and daidzein
groups were 40 and 36% of control value at the end of study (9th week). The
genistein and daidzein supplements increased insulin/glucagon ratio and
C-peptide level with preservation of insulin staining beta-cell of pancreas
in the NOD mice ... The supplementation of genistein and daidzein are
seemingly helpful for preventing IDDM onset"
Isoflavone intake in persons at high risk of cardiovascular events:
implications for vascular endothelial function and the carotid
atherosclerotic burden - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):938-945 -
"In persons at high risk of cardiovascular events, a
greater isoflavone intake is associated with better vascular endothelial
function and lower carotid atherosclerotic burden"
Exposure to the phytoestrogen daidzein attenuates apomorphine-induced penile
erection concomitant with plasma testosterone level reduction in dose and
time-related manner in adult rats - Urology. 2007 Sep;70(3):613-7 -
"The phytoestrogen daidzein has the potential to
adversely affect erectile function in a dose and time-related manner that is
at least partly attributable to androgen deficiency. These findings
implicate that phytoestrogens, especially isoflavones, if overconsumed for a
long period, might be a novel risk factor for erectile dysfunction"
Effects of the phytoestrogen genistein on some predictors of cardiovascular
risk in osteopenic, postmenopausal women: a two-year randomized,
double-blind, placebo-controlled study - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007
Aug;92(8):3068-75 - "Compared with placebo,
genistein significantly reduced fasting glucose and insulin as well as
homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance after both 12 and 24
months of treatment"
Genistein induces the metastasis suppressor kangai-1 which mediates its
anti-invasive effects in TRAMP cancer cells - Biochem Biophys Res
Commun. 2007 Jul 16 - "This work provides the first
evidence that genistein treatment may counteract KAI1 downregulation, which
is observed in many cancer types and therefore, could be used in
Dietary Isoflavones May Protect against Prostate Cancer in Japanese Men
- J Nutr. 2007 Aug;137(8):1974-1979 - "Isoflavones
and their aglycones (genistein and daidzein) were significantly associated
with decreased risk. The odds ratio for the highest category (>/=89.9 mg/d)
compared with the lowest category (<30.5 mg/d) of isoflavone intake was 0.42
(95% CI = 0.24-0.72) and the linear trend was significant"
Soy isoflavone intake inhibits bone resorption and stimulates bone formation
in menopausal women: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Eur
J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar 28 -
"Isoflavone intervention significantly inhibits bone
resorption and stimulates bone formation"
Effect of 6 months of exercise and isoflavone supplementation on clinical
cardiovascular risk factors in obese postmenopausal women: a randomized,
double-blind study - Menopause. 2007 Feb 6 -
"Compared to an aerobic exercise program alone, 70
mg/day of isoflavones combined with exercise may promote significant
improvements in body composition parameters that are known to influence
cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women"
Six months of isoflavone supplement increases fat-free mass in
obese-sarcopenic postmenopausal women: a randomized double-blind controlled
trial - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb 21 -
"fat-free mass (FFM) and muscle mass index
(MMI=appendicular FFM/height(2)) ... The isoflavone group increased
significantly appendicular (P=0.034), leg (P=0.016) FFM and MMI (P=0.037),
but not the placebo group"
Effects of a genistein-rich extract on PSA levels in men with a history of
prostate cancer - Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, 11/04 -
"a genistein-rich extract as the sole treatment for prostate cancer does not
appear to be an effective treatment for prostate cancer when given alone.
However, eight of 13 evaluated patients in the active surveillance group had
either no rise or a decline in PSA levels of less than 50 per cent"
The specific role of isoflavones in reducing prostate cancer risk
- Prostate. 2004 May 1;59(2):141-7 - "These data
suggest that supplementing early stage prostate cancer patients with soy
isoflavones, even in a study of short duration, altered surrogate markers of
proliferation such as serum PSA and free testosterone in a larger number of
subjects in the isoflavone supplemented group than the group receiving
The effects of phytoestrogen isoflavones on bone density in women: a
double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr.
2004 Feb;79(2):326-33 - "These data suggest that,
through attenuation of bone loss, isoflavones have a potentially protective
effect on the lumbar spine in women"
Usual dietary isoflavone intake and body composition in postmenopausal women
- Menopause. 2003 Sep-Oct;10(5):427-32 - "A
significant inverse relation was shown between genistein consumption and
weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and total body fat mass by
bioelectric impedance analysis ... This study suggests that usual dietary
isoflavone intake is associated with reduced total body fat and may
consequently have a role in the prevention of chronic disease"
Phytoestrogen supplement use by women - J Nutr 2003 Jun;133(6):1983S-6S
"Until safety with respect to breast cancer is
established, phytoestrogen supplements should not be recommended,
particularly for women at high risk of breast cancer"
Bioavailability of phyto-oestrogens - Br J Nutr 2003 Jun;89 Suppl
Phyto-oestrogens and osteoporosis: what is a safe dose?
- Br J Nutr 2003 Jun;89 Suppl 1:898-906
Isoflavones and cognitive function in older women: the Soy and
Postmenopausal Health In Aging (SOPHIA) Study - Menopause. 2003
"Women randomized to active treatment (n = 27) took
two pills per day, each containing 55 mg of soy-extracted isoflavones (110
mg total isoflavones per day ... Comparisons of percentage change in
cognitive function between baseline and follow-up showed greater improvement
in category fluency for women on active treatment as compared with the case
of those on placebo (P = 0.02) and showed (nonsignificantly) greater
improvement on the two other tests of verbal memory"
Lack of significant genotoxicity of purified soy isoflavones (genistein,
daidzein, and glycitein) in 20 patients with prostate cancer - Am. J. of
Clin. Nutr., 4/03 - "Although isoflavones are
capable of inducing genetic damage in vitro, a similar effect was not
observed in subjects treated with a purified soy unconjugated isoflavone
Potential risks and benefits of phytoestrogen-rich diets
- Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2003 Mar;73(2):120-6 -
"Phytoestrogens are strikingly similar in chemical
structure to the mammalian oestrogen, oestradiol, and bind to oestrogen
receptors (ER) with a preference for the more recently described ER beta ...
Whether phytoestrogens have any biological activity in humans, either
hormonal or non hormonal is a contentious issue and there is currently a
paucity of data on human exposure ... The limited studies conducted so far
in humans clearly confirm that soya isoflavones can exert hormonal effects.
These effects may be of benefit in the prevention of many of the common
diseases observed in Western populations (such as breast cancer, prostate
cancer, menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis) where the diet is typically
devoid of these biologically active naturally occurring compounds"
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