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Home > Anti-aging Research > Interleukin 6 (IL-6)

Interleukin 6 (IL-6)

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  • Selenium is inversely associated with interleukin-6 in the elderly - J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(3):280-4 - "A total of 336 subjects aged 65 years and older (range of age: 65 - 101 years) were recruited from eight long-term care facilities in 2002-2003 ... Selenium deficiency was defined as serum selenium concentration < 80 μg/L ... The prevalence of selenium deficiency was 35.6% in men and 43.2% in women, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders using multiple logistic regression analysis, interleukin-6 quartiles were significantly associated with selenium deficiency. Compared to the interleukin-6 quartile I, the adjusted odds ratios of having selenium deficiency for interleukin-6 quartile II, III, IV were 1.00(0.50~2.01), 1.24 (0.62~2.50), and 2.35(1.15~4.83), respectively" - See se-methylselenocysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of telmisartan therapy on interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Hypertens Res. 2012 Dec 13 - "A recent meta-analysis of randomized head-to-head trials suggests that therapy with telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) and partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, may increase adiponectin levels more strongly than other ARB therapies. Therefore, telmisartan would be expected to reduce interleukin-6 (IL-6) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) ... based on a meta-analysis of nine randomized controlled trials, telmisartan therapy is likely effective in reducing IL-6 and TNF-α levels" - See my Telmisartan as a first line treatment for hypertension page.  See telmisartan at OffshoreRX.com.
  • Omega-3 supplements may slow a biological effect of aging - Science Daily, 10/1/12 - "In the study, lengthening of telomeres in immune system cells was more prevalent in people who substantially improved the ratio of omega-3s to other fatty acids in their diet ... Omega-3 supplementation also reduced oxidative stress, caused by excessive free radicals in the blood, by about 15 percent compared to effects seen in the placebo group ... Study participants took either 2.5 grams or 1.25 grams of active omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ... The supplements were calibrated to contain a ratio of the two cold-water fish oil fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), of seven to one ... the typical American diet tends to be heavy on omega-6 fatty acids and comparatively low in omega-3s that are naturally found in cold-water fish such as salmon and tuna. While the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids averages about 15-to-1, researchers tend to agree that for maximum benefit, this ratio should be lowered to 4-to-1, or even 2-to-1 ... when the researchers analyzed the participants' omega-6 to omega-3 ratio in relationship to telomere lengthening, a lower ratio was clearly associated with lengthened telomeres ... omega-3 supplements lowered IL-6 by 10 to 12 percent, depending on the dose. By comparison, those taking a placebo saw an overall 36 percent increase in IL-6 by the end of the study ... This finding strongly suggests that inflammation is what's driving the changes in the telomeres" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 lowers inflammation in overweight older adults - Science Daily, 6/21/12 - "Chronic inflammation is linked to numerous conditions, including coronary heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, arthritis and Alzheimer's disease, as well as the frailty and functional decline that can accompany aging ... Participants received either a placebo or one of two different doses of omega-3 fatty acids -- either 2.5 grams or 1.25 grams per day ... After four months, participants who had taken the omega-3 supplements had significantly lower levels in their blood of two proteins that are markers of inflammation, also called pro-inflammatory cytokines. The low-dose group showed an average 10 percent decrease in the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the high-dose group's overall IL-6 dropped by 12 percent. In comparison, those taking a placebo saw an overall 36 percent increase in IL-6 by the end of the study ... The current typical American diet contains between 15 and 17 times more omega-6 than omega-3, a ratio that researchers suggest should be lowered to 4-to-1, or even 2-to-1, to improve overall health" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Harvard study supports coffee’s anti-diabetes potential - Nutra USA, 9/21/11 - "Five cups of coffee per day for two months were associated with significant metabolic benefits and live function ... the metabolic benefits were more pronounced in caffeinated coffee, a result that supports the hypothesis that caffeine is responsible for some of the apparent benefits ... Coffee is also a rich source of polyphenols ... one cup of the stuff could provide 350 milligrams of phenolics ... Of these, the most abundant compounds in coffee are chlorogenic acids, making up to 12 per cent of the green coffee bean. The most abundant of these compounds is caffeic acid ... recruited 45 healthy, overweight coffee drinking 40 year olds ... volunteers were asked to drink five cups of coffee per day of instant caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or water for eight weeks ... coffee consumption was associated with a 60% reduction in blood levels of a compound called interleukin-6, which can promote inflammation, compared with the water group ... In addition, levels of adiponectin – a hormone released from fat cells that plays an important role in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and energy – also decreased in the caffeinated, but not decaffeinated group" - [Abstract]
  • Omega-3 supplements show benefits against anxiety: Human data - Nutra USA, 9/14/11 - "the Ohio State researchers recruited 68 medical students to participate in their parallel group, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. The med students were given either placebo capsules or omega-3 capsules containing 2085 mg of EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 348 mg DHA (docosahexanoic acid) ... Results showed a 14% reduction in levels of the production of pro-inflammatory interleukin 6 (IL-6), as well as a 20% reduction in anxiety symptoms in the omega-3 group, compared to the placebo group ... Proinflammatory cytokines promote secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a primary gateway to hormonal stress responses; CRH also stimulates the amygdala, a key brain region for fear and anxiety. Accordingly, alterations in inflammation could also influence anxiety" - [Abstract] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.  Note:  CRH increases cortisol.  See:
  • Omega-3 reduces anxiety and inflammation in healthy students, study suggests - Science Daily, 7/13/11 - "A new study gauging the impact of consuming more fish oil showed a marked reduction both in inflammation and, surprisingly, in anxiety among a cohort of healthy young people ... The supplement was probably about four or five times the amount of fish oil you'd get from a daily serving of salmon ... But the psychological surveys clearly showed an important change in anxiety among the students: Those receiving the omega-3 showed a 20 percent reduction in anxiety compared to the placebo group ... We saw a 14 percent reduction in the amounts of IL-6 among the students receiving the omega-3." Since the cytokines foster inflammation, "anything we can do to reduce cytokines is a big plus in dealing with the overall health of people at risk for many diseases,"" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at iHerb.
  • Vitamin E may boost immune function: Mouse study - Science Daily, 5/20/10 - "The animals were fed 0.1 per cent Tocomin 50 per cent (Carotech), which is a mixture of tocotrienols and alpha-tocopherols, or a control diet containing only tocopherol, for six weeks ... Older mice fed the tocotrienol supplement displayed a greater level of lymphocyte proliferation, a marker of how quickly white blood cells can reproduce in response to infection, than old mice fed the control ... mice of both ages fed the tocotrienol supplement had higher levels of the interleukin-1beta, a cytokine released by immune cells (macrophages). ... There are eight forms of vitamin E: four tocopherols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) and four tocotrienols (alpha, beta, gamma, delta). Alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) is the main source found in supplements and in the European diet, while gamma-tocopherol (gamma-Toc) is the most common form in the American diet" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Chrysin Suppresses IL-6-Induced Angiogenesis via Down-regulation of JAK1/STAT3 and VEGF: An in Vitro and in Ovo Approach - J Agric Food Chem. 2010 May 5 - "Chrysin may provide new therapeutic potential for IL-6-induced pathological angiogenesis" - See chrysin products at iHerb.
  • Resveratrol attenuates angiotensin II-induced interleukin-6 expression and perivascular fibrosis - Hypertens Res. 2009 Apr 17 - "Resveratrol significantly attenuated Ang II-induced IL-6 mRNA expression and IL-6 protein in the supernatant of VSMC in a dose-dependent manner. Resveratrol suppressed the IL-6 gene promoter activity. Resveratrol inhibited the Ang II-induced cAMP-response element-binding protein and nuclear factor-kappa B activity, which are critical for Ang II-induced IL-6 gene activation. An increase in the serum concentration of IL-6 induced by Ang II infusion was attenuated by an oral administration of resveratrol. Resveratrol also inhibited Ang II-induced hypertension and perivascular fibrosis of the heart. Although hydralazine reduced blood pressure level equal to resveratrol, it did not reduce the Ang II-induced IL-6 production and perivascular fibrosis. These data suggest that the inhibition of Ang II-induced vascular inflammation and high blood pressure by resveratrol may contribute, at least in part, to the anti-atherogenic effects of resveratrol" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 DHA boost for heart health in high-risk men: Study - Nutra USA, 3/6/09 - "supplementation with DHA for 45 days resulted in decreased levels of the number of circulating white blood cells (neutrophils) by 11.7 per cent, and these reductions were maintained until the end of the 90-day study (10.5 per cent reduction) ... levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) had decreased by 15 per cent, and IL-6 had decreased by 23 per cent ... Furthermore, levels of the anti-inflammatory matrix metalloproteinase-2 rose by 7 per cent ... In conclusion, DHA may lessen the inflammatory response by altering blood lipids and their fatty acid composition" - [Abstract] - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • DHA Supplementation Decreases Serum C-Reactive Protein and Other Markers of Inflammation in Hypertriglyceridemic Men - J Nutr. 2009 Jan 21 - "DHA supplementation for 45 and 91 d decreased the number of circulating neutrophils by 11.7 and 10.5%, respectively (P < 0.05). It did not alter the circulating concentrations of other inflammatory markers tested within 45 d, but at 91 d it reduced (P < 0.05) concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) by 15%, interleukin-6 by 23%, and granulocyte monocyte-colony stimulating factor by 21% and DHA increased the concentration of antiinflammatory matrix metalloproteinase-2 by 7%. The number of circulating neutrophils was positively associated with the weight percent (wt %) of 20:4(n-6) in RBC lipids, and negatively to the wt % of 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3). Concentrations of CRP and serum amyloid A were positively associated with the sum of SFA and negatively with the wt % of 18:1(n-9) and 17:0 in RBC lipids; CRP was also positively associated with the wt % of 20:2(n-6). The mean size of VLDL particles was positively associated with plasma concentrations of neutrophils and CRP. In conclusion, DHA may lessen the inflammatory response by altering blood lipids and their fatty acid composition" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin E Shows Possible Promise In Easing Chronic Inflammation - Science Daily, 12/4/08 - "the larger take-home message of the study, published in the December issue of the journal Experimental Physiology, is that Vitamin E “may be beneficial in individuals with chronic inflammation, such as the elderly or patients with type II diabetes or chronic heart failure" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and plant sterols in hyperlipidemic individuals - Atherosclerosis. 2008 Sep 27 - "The combination of n-3 PUFA and plant sterols reduced several inflammatory markers. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was reduced by 39% (P=0.009), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by 10% (P=0.02), interleukin-6 (IL-6) by 10.7% (P=0.009), leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) by 29.5% (P=0.01) and adiponectin was increased by 29.5% (P=0.05). Overall cardiovascular risk was reduced by 22.6% (P=0.006) in the combination group. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated, for the first time that dietary intervention with n-3 PUFA and plant sterols reduces systemic inflammation in hyperlipidemic individuals. Furthermore, our results suggest that reducing inflammation provides a potential mechanism by which the combination of n-3 PUFA and plant sterols are cardioprotective" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Red Wine's Resveratrol May Help Battle Obesity - Science Daily, 6/16/08 - "resveratrol inhibited the pre-fat cells from increasing and prevented them from converting into mature fat cells. Also, resveratrol hindered fat storage. Most interesting, according to Fischer-Posovszky, was that resveratrol reduced production of certain cytokines (interleukins 6 and 8), substances that may be linked to the development of obesity-related disorders, such as diabetes and clogged coronary arteries. Also, resveratrol stimulated formation of a protein known to decrease the risk of heart attack. Obesity decreases this substance, called adiponectin" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Probiotics may offer hay fever hope - Nutra USA, 6/3/08 - "Hayfever is an allergic reaction to pollen or fungal spores, most commonly grass pollen. The immune system mistakes the spores for harmful invaders and white blood cells - T-helper type 2 (Th2) lymphocytes - produce protein-like cytokines, such as interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5 and IL-6, which in turn promote the synthesis of the immune chemicals immunoglobulins (Ig) to bind to the pollen and fight them off ... However, supplementation with the probiotic led to reduced production of IL-5 and IL-6, as well as decreased in the production of IgE ... The probiotic-supplemented volunteers had significantly reduced levels of IL-5 and IL-6" - [Abstract] - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Oral delivery of Lactobacillus casei Shirota modifies allergen-induced immune responses in allergic rhinitis - Clin Exp Allergy. 2008 May 28 - "Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) ... Volunteers treated with LcS showed a significant reduction in levels of antigen-induced IL-5, IL-6 and IFN-gamma production compared with volunteers supplemented with placebo. Meanwhile, levels of specific IgG increased and IgE decreased in the probiotic group" - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Luteolin reduces IL-6 production in microglia by inhibiting JNK phosphorylation and activation of AP-1 - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 May 19 - "Luteolin consumption reduced LPS-induced IL-6 in plasma 4 h after injection. Furthermore, luteolin decreased the induction of IL-6 mRNA by LPS in hippocampus but not in the cortex or cerebellum. Taken together, these data suggest luteolin inhibits LPS-induced IL-6 production in the brain by inhibiting the JNK signaling pathway and activation of AP-1 in microglia. Thus, luteolin may be useful for mitigating neuroinflammation" - See luteolin products at iHerb.
  • Plant Flavonoid In Celery And Green Peppers Found To Reduce Inflammatory Response In The Brain - Science Daily, 5/20/08 - "The new study looked at luteolin (LOO-tee-OH-lin), a plant flavonoid known to impede the inflammatory response in several types of cells outside the central nervous system ... Those cells that were also exposed to luteolin showed a significantly diminished inflammatory response. Jang showed that luteolin was shutting down production of a key cytokine in the inflammatory pathway, interleukin-6 (IL-6). The effects of luteolin exposure were dramatic, resulting in as much as a 90 percent drop in IL-6 production in the LPS-treated cells ... Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 are very well known to inhibit certain types of learning and memory that are under the control of the hippocampus, and the hippocampus is also very vulnerable to the insults of aging ... If you had the potential to decrease the production of inflammatory cytokines in the brain you could potentially limit the cognitive deficits that result" - See luteolin at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary choline and betaine intakes in relation to concentrations of inflammatory markers in healthy adults: the ATTICA study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Feb;87(2):424-30 - "Compared with the lowest tertile of choline intake (<250 mg/d), participants who consumed >310 mg/d had, on average, 22% lower concentrations of C-reactive protein (P < 0.05), 26% lower concentrations of interleukin-6 (P < 0.05), and 6% lower concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha" - See citicholine at Amazon.com.
  • Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Is Inversely Associated With Circulating Interleukin-6 Among Middle-Aged Men. A Twin Study - Circulation. 2007 Dec 17 - "A 1-unit within-pair absolute difference in the diet score was associated with a 9% (95% CI, 4.5 to 13.6) lower interleukin-6 level"
  • Study gives vitamin K anti-inflammation boost - Nutra USA, 12/3/07 - "Limited in vitro data support the inverse association between vitamin K and interleukin-6, and this may influence the association between vitamin K and other cytokines, such as osteoprotegerin" - [Abstract] - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin K and Vitamin D Status: Associations with Inflammatory Markers in the Framingham Offspring Study - Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Nov 15 - "Vitamin K status, measured by plasma phylloquinone concentration and phylloquinone intake, was inversely associated with circulating inflammatory markers as a group and with several individual inflammatory biomarkers" - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  • Gamma-tocopherol and docosahexaenoic acid decrease inflammation in dialysis patients - J Ren Nutr. 2007 Sep;17(5):296-304 - "gamma tocopherol (308 mg) and DHA (800 mg) ... In the treatment group, but not in the placebo group, there were significant decreases in IL-6 (21.4 +/- 3.5 to 16.8 +/- 3.7 pg/mL), white blood cell (WBC) count (7.4 +/- 0.3 to 6.9 +/- 0.4 10(3)/microL), and neutrophil fraction of WBCs (4.8 +/- 0.3 to 4.4 +/- 0.3 10(3)/microL), at P < .05 for all"
  • Clinical Update on Benefits of DHEA - A4M, 4/6/04 - "Recently, researchers discovered important anti-inflammatory properties of DHEA. It was known that DHEA can lower the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)" - See iHerb or Vitacosticon DHEA products.
  • Effects of combined administration of vitamins C and E on reactive hyperemia and inflammatory process in chronic smokers - Atherosclerosis. 2003 Oct;170(2):261-7 - "short term administration of vitamins C (2 g/day) and E (800 IU/day) reduces serum levels of IL-1b, IL-6, sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1, and improves forearm vasodilatory response to reactive hyperemia in healthy young smokers, while monotherapy with vitamin C alone is ineffective" - See iHerb or Vitacosticon vitamin E products.
  • Mediterranean Diet Lowers C-reactive Protein Levels - Medscape, 11/11/03 - "For each 10-point increase in diet score, there was a corresponding 0.22 mg/dL reduction in C-reactive protein levels, a 0.21 pg/ml reduction in interleukin-6, a 12.5 mg/dL decrease in fibrinogen, and a 0.87 mmol/L decrease in homocysteine levels (P < .05), he said. Also, white blood cell count decreased significantly"
  • Plasma interleukin-6 is associated with psychological coronary risk factors: Moderation by use of multivitamin supplements - Brain Behav Immun. 2003 Aug;17(4):296-303 - "Plasma IL-6 was independently associated with anger, hostility, and severity of depressive symptoms ... Multivitamin use was associated with lower plasma IL-6 levels, but only among men with high composite factor scores ... These data suggest that plasma IL-6 is elevated among healthy men characterized by a propensity for anger, a hostile disposition, and greater severity of depressive symptoms and that multivitamin supplements could ameliorate plasma IL-6 levels among these men"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acid Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines In Heart Transplant Patients - Doctor's Guide, 4/11/02 - "gave 25 stable heart transplant patients two capsules of omega-3 fatty acid daily - each capsule contained 500 mg of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ... The results suggest that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation increased concentrations of the anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10, from 119 to 268 pg/mL (p=0.00008). There were reductions in systemic levels of pro-inflammatory IL-12, from 473 to 376 pg/mL (p=0.001), and IL-6, from 695 to 569 pg/mL (p<0.0001)"

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