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Home > Health Conditions > Homocysteine


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  • B vitamin supplementation improves cognitive function in the middle aged and elderly with hyperhomocysteinemia - Nutr Neurosci. 2014 Jun 18 - "in Tianjin, China, aged 55-94 years old. Fifty-seven individuals with hyperhomocysteinemia were included in the intervention group (vitamin B group, which received 800 µg/day of folate, with 10 mg of vitamin B6 and 25 µg of vitamin B12) and 47 patients in the placebo group. The endpoint was the improvement in cognitive function as evaluated by Basic Cognitive Aptitude Tests (BCATs) ... The BCAT total score and four sub-tests scores (digit copy, Chinese character rotation, digital working memory, and recognition of meaningless figure) of BCAT at 14 weeks significantly increased only for the vitamin B group. Serum total homocysteine (tHcy) levels significantly decreased in the intervention group" - See B vitamins at Amazon.com.
  • Critical levels of brain atrophy associated with homocysteine and cognitive decline - Neurobiol Aging. 2014 May 15 - "Few B-vitamin trials to lower homocysteine (Hcy) have reported evidence of beneficial effects on cognition in older adults with cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. This article reviews the role of Hcy in cognitive decline. It also considers some reasons why meta-analyses have failed to find effects of B-vitamin treatment. Findings from the successful VITACOG trial are examined from a new perspective of critical levels of Hcy and brain atrophy that may impact on the efficacy of B-vitamin treatment. It appears that there is a critical level of brain shrinkage, possibly mediated by elevated Hcy, which when reached, results in cognitive decline, especially in episodic memory performance"
  • The effect of homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid on flow-mediated vasodilation in patients with coronary artery disease: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Atherosclerosis. 2014 Apr 18;235(1):31-35 - "Our meta-analysis demonstrated that folic acid supplementation can significantly improve endothelial dysfunction as assessed by FMD in the brachial artery in patients with coronary heart disease" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary protein and plasma total homocysteine, cysteine concentrations in coronary angiographic subjects - Nutr J. 2013 Nov 7;12(1):144 - "High animal-protein diet was positively associated with high tHcy concentrations, whereas high plant-protein diet was inversely associated with tHcy concentrations. Furthermore the total protein intake was strongly related to tCys concentrations"
  • Vitamin B Supplements May Lower Stroke Risk - Medscape, 9/18/13 - "Researchers searched for randomized controlled trials published before August 2012 that compared vitamin B supplementation with placebo, very-low-dose B vitamins, or usual care; had a minimum follow-up of 6 months; and included stroke events as a study endpoint ... The researchers noted a reduction in overall stroke events resulting from lowered homocysteine levels following B vitamin supplementation (risk ratio, 0.93"
  • Relationship between metformin use, vitamin B12 deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes - Endocr J. 2013 Sep 8 - "Metformin-induced B12 lowering in diabetes was associated with elevation of homocysteine, and hyperhomocysteinemia was independently related to retinopathy" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Association between low-dose folic acid supplementation and blood lipids concentrations in male and female subjects with atherosclerosis risk factors - Med Sci Monit. 2013 Sep 4;19:733-9 - "Folic acid (FA) is one of the B complex vitamins. It is thought that FA deficiency promotes atherosclerosis formation in arterial endothelium. FA, acting through reducing homocysteine (Hcy) levels, may contribute to decreased cholesterol (Ch) synthesis ... enrolled 124 Caucasian individuals (60 M, ages 20-39; and 64 F, ages 19-39) with atherosclerosis risk factors ... participants were asked to take FA at a low dose of 0.4 mg/24 h for 12 weeks ... FA levels increased in females (6.3 vs. 12.5 ng/dL; p=0.001) and males (6.4 vs. 11.4 ng/dL; p=0.001) and Hcy levels decreased (10.6 vs. 8.3 µmol/L; p=0.001 and 11.5 vs. 9.3; p=0.001, respectively). A significant reduction in mean concentration of total cholesterol in females (203.4 vs. 193.1 mg/dL; p=0.001) and in males (209.5 vs. 201.9; p=0.002) was observed. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels decreased in females and in males (107.4 vs. 99.9 mg/dL; p=0.001 and 121.5 vs. 115.1; p=0.002, respectively). The apoAI concentrations increased in smoking women and in men with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (p=0.032 and p=0.024, respectively)" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Genistein in the Metabolic Syndrome: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jul 3 - "Patients included 120 postmenopausal women with MetS ... postmenopausal women with MetS were randomly assigned to receive placebo (n = 60) or 54 mg genistein daily (n = 60) for 1 year ... At 1 year in genistein recipients, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR (mean from 4.5 to 2.7; P < .001) decreased and were unchanged in placebo recipients. Genistein statistically increased HDL-C (mean from 46.4 to 56.8 mg/dL) and adiponectin and decreased total cholesterol, LDL-C (mean from 108.8 to 78.7 mg/dL), triglycerides, visfatin, and homocysteine (mean from 14.3 to 11.7) blood levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was also reduced in genistein recipients. Genistein recipients neither experienced more side adverse effects than placebo nor discontinued the study" - See genistein at Amazon.com.
  • Preventing Alzheimer's disease-related gray matter atrophy by B-vitamin treatment - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 May 20 - "Is it possible to prevent atrophy of key brain regions related to cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD)? One approach is to modify nongenetic risk factors, for instance by lowering elevated plasma homocysteine using B vitamins. In an initial, randomized controlled study on elderly subjects with increased dementia risk (mild cognitive impairment according to 2004 Petersen criteria), we showed that high-dose B-vitamin treatment (folic acid 0.8 mg, vitamin B6 20 mg, vitamin B12 0.5 mg) slowed shrinkage of the whole brain volume over 2 y. Here, we go further by demonstrating that B-vitamin treatment reduces, by as much as seven fold, the cerebral atrophy in those gray matter (GM) regions specifically vulnerable to the AD process, including the medial temporal lobe ... B vitamins lower homocysteine, which directly leads to a decrease in GM atrophy, thereby slowing cognitive decline" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com and vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Homocysteine, folate, vitamin B-12, and 10-y incidence of age-related macular degeneration - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 May 1 - "Serum folate, vitamin B-12, and tHcy were determined from blood samples drawn in 1997-1999 from cohort members aged ≥55 y. AMD was assessed in 1760 survivors from retinal photographs taken in 2002-2004 and 2007-2009. Total intakes of folate and vitamin B-12 were assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire ... Elevated serum tHcy and folate and vitamin B-12 deficiencies predicted increased risk of incident AMD, which suggests a potential role for vitamin B-12 and folate in reducing AMD risk" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com and vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Mixed Dietary Supplements on Total Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations (tHcy): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2012 Aug 1;82(4):260-266 - "Two-hundred and thirty-six hospitalized, acutely ill older patients, who were part of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, were assigned to receive a daily oral nutritional supplement drink containing 1.3 mg of vitamin B2, 1.4 mg of vitamin B6, 1.5 μg of B12, 200 μg of folic acid, or a placebo, for 6 weeks ... A mixed nutrient supplement containing physiological amounts of B vitamins significantly reduced plasma tHcy concentrations in older patients recovering from acute illness"
  • B vitamins may slow cognitive decline: Oxford University study - Nutra USA, 10/25/11 - "A daily combination of folic acid, and vitamins B6 and B12 was associated with a 30% reduction in levels of the amino acid homocysteine, and improvements in a range of mental tests, including global cognition and episodic memory ... One interpretation [of the data] is that lowering homocysteine concentrations by administering B vitamins slows brain atrophy, which in turn slows both cognitive and clinical decline ... The Vitacog study involved 266 people over the age of 70 with diagnosed mild cognitive impairment. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or a B vitamin supplement providing 0.8 mg per day of folic acid, 0.5 mg of vitamin B12 and 20 mg of vitamin B6" - [Abstract]
  • Low vitamin B12 levels may lead to brain shrinkage, cognitive problems - Science Daily, 9/26/11 - "Older people with low blood levels of vitamin B12 markers may be more likely to have lower brain volumes and have problems with their thinking skills ... An average of four-and-a-half years later, MRI scans of the participants' brains were taken to measure total brain volume and look for other signs of brain damage ... Having high levels of four of five markers for vitamin B12 deficiency was associated with having lower scores on the cognitive tests and smaller total brain volume ... On the cognitive tests, the scores ranged from -2.18 to 1.42, with an average of 0.23. For each increase of one micromole per liter of homocysteine -- one of the markers of B12 deficiency -- the cognitive scores decreasedby 0.03 standardized units or points" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • B-complex vitamins may help slow progression of dementia - Science Daily, 10/27/10 - "Large doses of B-complex vitamins could reduce the rate of brain shrinkage by half in elderly people with memory problems and slow the progression of dementia ... patients who already exhibit signs of dementia and test positive for high levels of homocysteine are more likely to respond well to the large doses of B vitamins. Homocysteine is an amino acid in the blood, and high blood levels are linked to an increased risk of developing Alzheimer disease"
  • Homocysteine and holotranscobalamin and the risk of Alzheimer disease: A longitudinal study - Neurology. 2010 Oct 19;75(16):1408-14 - "homocysteine (tHcy) and holotranscobalamin (holoTC), the active fraction of vitamin B12 ... The odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for AD were 1.16 (1.04-1.31) per increase of 1 μmol/L of tHcy at baseline and 0.980 (0.965-0.995) for each increase of 1 pmol/L baseline holoTC ... This study suggests that both tHcy and holoTC may be involved in the development of AD. The tHcy-AD link may be partly explained by serum holoTC. The role of holoTC in AD should be further investigated"
  • Vitamin B12 May Curb Risk for Alzheimer's Disease - Medscape, 10/18/10 - "holotranscobalamin (holoTC), the biologically active fraction of vitamin B12 ... for each 1-µmol/L increase in the baseline concentration of tHcy, the risk for AD increased by 16% (odds ratio [OR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 – 1.31). On the other hand, for each 1-pmol/L increase in baseline holoTC, the risk for AD was reduced by 2% (OR, 0.980; 95% CI, 0.965 – 0.995)" - [Science Daily] - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • B vitamins slow brain atrophy in people with memory problems - Science Daily, 9/12/10 - "on average the brains of those taking the folic acid, vitamin B6 and B12 treatment shrank at a rate of 0.76% a year, while those in the placebo group had a mean brain shrinkage rate of 1.08%. People with the highest levels of homocysteine benefited most, showing atrophy rates on treatment that were half of those on placebo"
  • Vitamin B may help prevent Alzheimer’s - Nutra USA, 9/9/10 - "The authors concluded that an accelerated rate of brain atrophy in elderly people with mild cognitive impairment could be slowed via dietary supplementation with homocysteine-lowering B vitamins"
  • Effects of metformin with or without supplementation with folate on homocysteine levels and vascular endothelium of women with polycystic ovary syndrome - Diabetes Care. 2009 Nov 23 - "Metformin exerts a slight but significant deleterious effect on serum Hcy levels in patients with PCOS, and supplementation with folate is useful to increase the beneficial effect of metformin on the vascular endothelium"
  • Impact of Homocysteine-Lowering Vitamin Therapy on Long-Term Outcome of Patients With Coronary Artery Disease - Am J Cardiol. 2009 Sep 15;104(6):745-749 - "Folic acid >/=400 mug/day with or without additional B vitamins was administered at the attending physicians' discretion ... Treatment was associated with significantly lower all-cause mortality in patients with homocysteine levels >15 mumol/L (4% vs 32%, p <0.001) but not in patients with lower levels (5% vs 7%, p >0.05)" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • High-Dose B Vitamin Supplementation and Progression of Subclinical Atherosclerosis. A Randomized Controlled Trial - Stroke. 2008 Dec 31 - "high-dose B vitamin supplementation (5 mg folic acid+0.4 mg vitamin B12+50 mg vitamin B6) or matching placebo for 3.1 years ... High-dose B vitamin supplementation significantly reduces progression of early-stage subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid artery intima media thickness) in well-nourished healthy B vitamin "replete" individuals at low risk for cardiovascular disease with a fasting tHcy >/=9.1 micromol/L"
  • Effects of folic acid and N-acetylcysteine on plasma homocysteine levels and endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease - Acta Cardiol. 2007 Dec;62(6):579-85 - "either folic acid 5 mg or NAC 600 mg or placebo daily for eight weeks ... endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) ... Folic acid and NAC therapies decreased plasma homocysteine (from 21.7 +/- 8.7 micromol/l to 12.5 +/- 2.5 micromol/l, P < 0.001; from 20.9 +/- 7.6 micromol/l to 15.6 +/- 4.3 micromol/l, P = 0.03, respectively), and increased EDD (6.7 +/- 6.1% P = 0.002, 4.4 +/- 2.6% P < 0.001, respectively) compared with placebo. There was no significant difference in improving EDD between the folic acid and the NAC group"
  • Folic acid supplementation in early second trimester and the risk of preeclampsia - Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jan;198(1):45.e1-7 - "Supplementation of multivitamins containing folic acid was associated with increased serum folate (on average 10.51 micromol/L), decreased plasma homocysteine (on average 0.39 micromol/L), and reduced risk of preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.75)" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B-12 Function May Be Diminished By Excessive Folate - Science Daily, 12/21/07 - "homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are at much higher levels in individuals who have a combination of vitamin B12 deficiency and high blood folate levels than in individuals who are also vitamin B12 deficient but have normal folate levels"
  • Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1384-91 - "concentrations of holoTC (a marker of reduced vitamin B-12 status), tHcy, and MMA predicted cognitive decline, but folate did not. A doubling in holoTC concentrations (from 50 to 100 pmol/L) was associated with a 30% slower rate of cognitive decline (-0.137 to -0.083), whereas a doubling in tHcy (from 10 to 20 mumol/L) or MMA (from 0.25 to 0.50 mumol/L) was associated with >50% more rapid cognitive decline (-0.090 to -0.169) and (-0.104 to -0.169), respectively" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Homocysteine, vitamins, and vascular disease prevention - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1563S-8S - "Dietary deficiency of vitamin B-6 and folic acid and absorptive deficiency of vitamin B-12, which result from traditional food processing or abnormal absorption of B vitamins, are important factors in causing elevations in blood homocysteine. Numerous clinical and epidemiologic studies have established elevated blood homocysteine as a potent independent risk factor for vascular disease in the general population. Dietary improvement, providing abundant vitamin B-6, folic acid, and cobalamin, may prevent vascular disease by lowering blood homocysteine. The dramatic decline in cardiovascular mortality in the United States since 1950 may possibly be attributable in part to voluntary fortification of the food supply with vitamin B-6 and folic acid. Fortification of the US food supply with folic acid in 1998, as mandated by the US Food and Drug Administration, was associated with a further decline in mortality from vascular disease, presumably because of increased blood folate and decreased blood homocysteine in the population"
  • The association between betaine and choline intakes and the plasma concentrations of homocysteine in women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):1073-1081 - "Total choline + betaine intake was inversely associated with tHcy, as was choline from 2 water-soluble choline-containing compounds. Remethylation of tHcy may be more dependent on the betaine pathway when methyl sources are low as a result of either inadequate folate intake or heavier alcohol consumption"
  • B Vitamin Plasma Levels and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack in a German Cohort - Stroke. 2007 Sep 20 - "Our data suggest that low vitamin B12 plasma levels, particularly in combination with low folate levels, increase the risk of cerebral ischemia. This effect may be mediated at least partly through elevations of homocysteine levels"
  • Review of the role of hyperhomocysteinemia and B-vitamin deficiency in neurological and psychiatric disorders - Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2007 Sep;75(9):e1-e18 - "Elevated concentration of total homocysteine (Hcy) in plasma (> 12 micromol/l) is a risk factor for several diseases of the central nervous system. Epidemiological studies have shown a dose-dependent relationship between concentrations of Hcy and the risk for neurodegenerative diseases. Hcy is a marker for B-vitamin deficiency (folate, B (12), B (6)). Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) causes hypomethylation which is an important mechanism that links Hcy to dementia ... Current evidence suggests that Hcy-lowering treatment has a positive effect for the secondary and primary prevention of stroke. HHcy is very common in patients with Parkinson disease particularly those who receive L-dopa treatment. Furthermore, a positive association has been reported between HHcy and multiple sclerosis. Moreover, HHcy and vitamin B deficiency are reported to have a causal role in depression, and epilepsy. In addition several anti-epileptic drugs cause secondary HHcy. Therefore, sufficient intakes of the vitamins are recommended for patients who have already developed neuropsychiatric diseases. Vitamin B deficiency should be suspected in children with development disorders, failure to thrive and unexplained neurological manifestations. Elderly people are also an important at-risk group where vitamin B deficiency and HHcy have been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Treatment with folate, B (12), and B (6) can improve cerebral function. Preventive vitamin B supplementation and sufficient intake seem very important for secondary and primary prevention of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially in subjects with a low intake or status of the vitamins"
  • WENBIT: No Benefit of B Vitamins - Medscape, 9/4/07 - "Homocysteine is a definite risk marker in heart disease, but it may not be causal"
  • Correlations between folate, B12, homocysteine levels, and radiological markers of neuropathology in elderly post-stroke patients - J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Jun;26(3):272-8 - "folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia are prevalent in elderly post-stroke patients. These two conditions are strongly and independently associated with the development of brain atrophy"
  • Effects of folic acid and vitamin B complex on serum C-reactive protein and albumin levels in stable hemodialysis patients - Curr Med Res Opin. 2007 Jun 29 - "Folic acid and vitamin B complex co-administration effectively lowers tHcy and hs-CRP levels and increases albumin levels in stable hemodialysis subjects, underscoring their potential benefit to attenuate the state of inflammation and possibly improve the nutritional status in patients on hemodialysis"
  • Vitamin link to bone loss probed - BBC News, 11/14/06 - "Increased amounts of homocysteine in the blood may increase the risk of developing osteoporosis ... Individuals who have a poor dietary intake of B-vitamins tend to have high homocysteine levels"
  • Older Adults May Need B12 Dose More Than 200 Times the RDA to Normalize Mild Vitamin Deficiency - Medscape, 5/26/06 - "As both methylmalonyl-coenzyme A (MMA) and homocysteine are metabolized by vitamin B12, elevated levels of these compounds in the plasma can reflect vitamin deficiency ... One analysis yielded 500 μg of vitamin B12 as the minimum dose necessary to produce the greatest effect on MMA levels. There was little additional benefit in using daily doses of vitamin B12 of more than 500 μg"
  • B12, Folate May Reduce Homocysteine Levels Without Affecting Cognition - Medscape, 12/19/05 - "randomized to receive (1) folic acid, 2.5 mg plus 400 µg of vitamin B12 or placebo, (2) 25 mg of vitamin B6 or placebo, or (3) 25 mg of riboflavin or placebo ... Homocysteine levels were significantly reduced by an average of 33% in the folic acid plus vitamin B12 group after 3 months ... B6 and riboflavin supplementation had no effect on homocysteine levels"
  • B vitamins to lower homocysteine may prevent strokes - Nutra USA, 11/10/05
  • Plasma homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels in age-related macular degeneration - Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2005 Sep 15;:1-5 - "Patients with both exudative and dry types of AMD had significantly higher plasma homocysteine levels ... Plasma vitamin B12 levels were found to be significantly lower in the exudative AMD group"
  • Homocysteine and folate as risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer disease - Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Sep;82(3):636-43 - "Elevated plasma tHcy concentrations and low serum folate concentrations are independent predictors of the development of dementia and AD"
  • Vitamin B12, homocysteine and carotid plaque in the era of folic acid fortification of enriched cereal grain products - CMAJ. 2005 Jun 7;172(12):1569-73 - "Vitamin B12 deficiency is surprisingly common among patients with vascular disease, and, in the setting of folic acid fortification, low serum vitamin B12 levels are a major determinant of elevated homocysteine levels and increased carotid plaque area"
  • Homocysteine and vitamin b(12) status relate to bone turnover markers, broadband ultrasound attenuation, and fractures in healthy elderly people - J Bone Miner Res. 2005 Jun;20(6):921-9 - "High Hcy and low vitamin B(12) concentrations were significantly associated with low BUA, high markers of bone turnover, and increased fracture risk"
  • Blood chemical is a stroke risk - BBC News, 1/14/05 - "looked at people genetically prone to high homocysteine levels and found they had a higher stroke risk than other individuals ... the risk can be reversed by taking folic acid ... Too much folic acid is also known to impact on a person's levels of vitamin B12 ... If this falls too low could, at worst, result in irreversible nerve damage"
  • The effect of low doses of betaine on plasma homocysteine in healthy volunteers - Br J Nutr. 2004 Oct;92(4):665-9 - "plasma tHcy is lowered rapidly and significantly by 3 or 6 g betaine/d in healthy men and women"
  • Impairment of coronary circulation by acute hyperhomocysteinaemia and reversal by antioxidant vitamins - J Intern Med. 2004 Nov;256(5):398-405 - "Our data suggest that acute hyperhomocysteinaemia reduces CFVR and increases plasma MCP-1 and IL-8 levels in healthy subjects. Pretreatment with antioxidant vitamin E and ascorbic acid prevents the effects of hyperhomocysteinaemia, suggesting an oxidative mechanism"
  • Treatment With Folate to Lower Homocysteine - Medscape, 7/29/04 - "For patients with known cardiovascular disease, it is generally recommended to treat with folic acid (1 mg/day), vitamin B6 (10 mg/day), and vitamin B12 (0.4 mg/day). Folic acid can be increased up to 5 mg/day to reach a goal of lowering homocysteine levels below 15 mmol/L"
  • Vitamins May Lower Osteoporosis Fractures - Intelihealth, 5/13/04 - "B vitamins are known to reduce levels of homocysteine ... high levels of homocysteine at least double the risk of osteoporosis-related fractures"
  • 48,000 Lives Saved by Vitamin Additive - WebMD, 3/5/04 - "folic acid has another benefit -- this one for adults. It lowers blood levels of a bad actor called homocysteine. High homocysteine levels weaken the walls of blood vessels, making a person more prone to heart disease and stroke" - See iHerb folic acid products.
  • Folic acid and vitamin B(12) are more effective than vitamin B(6) in lowering fasting plasma homocysteine concentration in patients with coronary artery disease - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Mar;58(3):481-7 - "The mean fasting plasma homocysteine concentration, however, decreased significantly after 12 weeks of folic acid combined with vitamin B(12) supplementation"
  • Low Dose Betaine Supplementation Leads to Immediate and Long Term Lowering of Plasma Homocysteine in Healthy Men and Women - J. Nutr. 133:4135-4138, December 2003 - "doses of betaine in the range of dietary intake reduce fasting and postmethionine loading plasma homocysteine concentrations. A betaine-rich diet might therefore lower cardiovascular disease risk" - See iHerb betaine products.
  • Elevated Homocysteine Raises Risk of Stroke, Dementia - Life Extension Magazine, 12/03
  • Mediterranean Diet Lowers C-reactive Protein Levels - Medscape, 11/11/03 - "For each 10-point increase in diet score, there was a corresponding 0.22 mg/dL reduction in C-reactive protein levels, a 0.21 pg/ml reduction in interleukin-6, a 12.5 mg/dL decrease in fibrinogen, and a 0.87 mmol/L decrease in homocysteine levels (P < .05), he said. Also, white blood cell count decreased significantly"
  • Startling New Findings About Homocysteine - Life Extension Magazine, 11/03 - "a startling 100% of French elderly hospitalized patients showed higher than desired homocysteine levels, with 45% suffering from severe hyperhomocysteinemia ... Administration of vitamins B6 and B12, and folate, causes a significant decrease of elevated serum homocysteine concentrations in older persons ... More recent studies not only confirm the cardiovascular dangers of homocysteine, but also its toxic effect on the brain. It turns out that high blood levels of homocysteine increase the incidence of depression, memory impairment, and even Alzheimer’s disease"
  • Vitamin B12 Improves Homocysteine Levels and Lipid Profiles in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease - Doctor's Guide, 10/6/03 - "During Phase 1, patients were prescribed oral doses of folic acid 5 mg/day and vitamin B12 0.6mg/day. Through out Phase 2, participants were given intravenous doses of vitamin B12 1mg every other day in addition to folic acid 5 mg/day ... By the completion of the study, patients exhibited significantly lower serum tHcy (29.4 verses 21.1 mg/dL), total cholesterol (222 verses 196 mg/dL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (139 versus 109 mg/dL). Serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels increased significantly among the participants"
  • B vitamin status and concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid in elderly German women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Oct;78(4):765-72 - "Even in younger, well-educated, female seniors, the prevalence of low B vitamin status and elevated plasma tHcy concentration is high. Thiamine, pyridoxine, folate, and cobalamin supplementation should be considered"
  • Relation between homocysteine concentrations and the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages: the French Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Aug;78(2):334-338 - "Wine consumption may increase tHcy concentrations, whereas beer consumption seems to have no effect (or even an inverse effect) on tHcy"
  • Betaine Supplementation Lowers Plasma Homocysteine in Healthy Men and Women - J. Nutr. 133:1291-1295, May 2003 - "Groups of twelve subjects ingested 6 g betaine, 800 µg folic acid with 6 g placebo or 6 g placebo each day for 6 wk ... Fasting plasma homocysteine decreased by 1.8 µmol/L ... in the betaine group and by 2.7 µmol/L ... in the folic acid group ... betaine suppressed the total area under the plasma homocysteine-time curve after methionine loading by 221 µmol . 24 h/L ... compared with placebo, whereas folic acid had no effect" - See iHerb betaine products.
  • Folic acid and reduction of plasma homocysteine concentrations in older adults: a dose-response study - Am. Journ. of Clin. Nutri., 5/03 - "In older adults, daily supplementation with folic acid effectively lowers plasma homocysteine concentrations, and a daily dose of ~ 400 µg is the minimum dose required for adequate homocysteine reduction" - See iHerb folic acid products.
  • Interrelationship of homocysteine-cobalamin-folate indices in human subjects of various ages: can hyper-homocyteinemia be relieved with B-12 supplementation? - Mo Med 2003 Mar-Apr;100(2):155-8 - "Thirty-nine of the subjects who had hyperhomocysteinemia were daily given 100 mcg B-12 for three months ... B-12 supplementation is effective in alleviating hyperhomocysteinemia" - 100 mcg is a fairly low dose compared to the 1000 and 5000 mcg doses being sold. - Ben
  • n -3 Fatty acids plus oleic acid and vitamin supplemented milk consumption reduces total and LDL cholesterol, homocysteine and levels of endothelial adhesion molecules in healthy humans - Clin Nutr 2003 Apr;22(2):175-82 - "The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a commercially available skimmed milk supplemented with n -3 PUFA, oleic acid, and vitamins E, B(6), and folic acid (Puleva Omega3((R))) on risk factors for cardiovascular disease ... Thirty volunteers were given 500 ml/day of semi-skimmed milk for 4 weeks and then 500 ml/day of the n -3 enriched milk for 8 further weeks ... The consumption of n -3 enriched milk produced a significant decrease in plasma concentration of total and LDL cholesterol accompanied by a reduction in plasma levels of homocysteine" - 500 ml is 2.1 cups.  Oleic acid is an omega-9.
  • Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia: Vitamins Can Help Prevent - WebMD, 2/28/03 - "High levels of a substance in the blood called homocysteine tops the list of potentially new risk factors for heart disease, stroke, and now dementia. A new study suggests that high homocysteine levels are linked with mental declines associated with Alzheimer's disease in elderly people ... High homocysteine levels can be treated very easily with vitamins, including folate, niacin, and B-12"
  • Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Levels in Patients Treated With Levodopa: Association With Vascular Disease - Archives of Neurology, 1/03 - "Levodopa therapy, rather than PD, is a cause of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with PD. Deficiency of folate or vitamin B12 levels does not explain the elevated homocysteine levels in these patients"
  • Mechanisms Differ Between Depression and Either Vitamin B12 Or Folate - Doctor's Guide, 12/10/02 - "hyperhomocysteinemia, vitamin B12 deficiency and, to a lesser extent, folate deficiency all were related to depressive disorders"
  • Argument Strengthens For Folic Acid To Reduce Homocysteine Level - Doctor's Guide, 11/26/02 - "A decrease in serum homocysteine of 3 micromol/l, which can be achieved by a daily intake of about 0.8 mg folic acid, should reduce the risk of ischaemic heart disease by 16 percent, deep vein thrombosis by 25 percent, and stroke by 24 percent"
  • Folic Acid for Your Heart - WebMD, 11/22/02 - "By increasing folic acid intake and thus decreasing homocysteine, the researchers say the risk of heart disease would drop by 16%, blood clots in the legs by 25%, and stroke by 24%"
  • Folic Acid May Have Benefits for Smokers - Doctor's Guide, 9/13/02 - "randomised to four weeks of folic acid 5 mg/day or placebo ... Results showed that folic acid reduced homocysteine concentrations (10.8+/-0.6 versus 7.9+/-0.5 µmol/L, p<0.001) and there was a significant reduction in blood pressure (mean BP 88+/-2 versus 83+/-1 mmHg, p<0.01) ... Benefits also seem to be largely independent of the lowering of homocysteine concentrations"
  • Homocysteine-Lowering Therapy [folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6] Improves Revascularisation, Angioplasty Outcome - Doctor's Guide, 8/29/02
  • New Views on Atherosclerosis - Life Extension Magazine, 8/02 - "A drug company has patented a product called FOLTX that cardiologists are now prescribing to their patients for the purpose of lowering homocysteine. Each tablet of FOLTX contains: 2.5 mg of folic acid, 1.0 mg of vitamin B12, 25 mg of vitamin B6.  The cost for 90 tablets of FOLTX from www.drugstore.com is $38.08—or about double the retail price of these same potencies of vitamins when purchased in a health food store"
  • An Anti-Atherosclerosis Aid For Adults With Hyperhomocysteinemia? - Doctor's Guide, 6/7/02 - "One year of folic acid supplementation was found to be linked with a significant increase in the subjects' mean plasma folate levels and a significant decline in their homocysteine levels ... Study authors suggest the findings demonstrate long-term folic acid improves arterial endothelial function and has potential implications for prevention of atherosclerosis in people with hyperhomocysteinemia"
  • Vitamins Fight Alzheimer's - WebMD, 5/28/02 - "There's new evidence that a substance found in blood can cause the type of brain and blood vessel deterioration that leads to dementia. But those same studies also show that taking certain vitamins can lower levels of this substance -- homocysteine -- and ward off the damage, possibly preventing Alzheimer's disease ... This is exciting information, because homocysteine levels can be reduced by taking the vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid"
  • Homocysteine Levels Higher, Serum Vitamin B12 Lower In Vegetarians - Doctor's Guide, 5/27/02 - "Vegetarians have considerably higher levels of total plasma homocysteine, greater prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia and lower levels of serum vitamin B12 than do non-vegetarians"
  • In Praise of Folic Acid - Time Magazine, 2/25/02 - "folic acid plays a crucial role in the development of just about every cell in the body ... subjects who had high levels of a particular amino acid called homocysteine in their blood were twice as likely to develop Alzheimer's as those who didn't. The finding is important because one of the easiest ways to lower homocysteine levels is to get plenty of folic acid ... There is no risk of overdose, although high levels of folic acid can mask the signs of pernicious anemia in people who have developed the disorder" - The way I understand it, taking vitamin B12 with the folic acid will avoid that problem. - Ben
  • New Alzheimer's Risk Factor Identified - WebMD, 2/13/02 - "High blood levels of a substance called homocysteine have been linked to an increased risk for both heart attack and stroke. Now, new research finds it to be a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and other age-related dementias ... It is known that B-vitamins like folic acid, B-6, and B-12 lower homocysteine levels"
  • Mix B-12 and Folic Acid for Heart Health - WebMD, 1/18/02 - "Folic acid alone reduces the level of a potentially harmful amino acid in the blood, called "homocysteine." When elevated, homocysteine has been shown to raise the risk of heart disease and stroke. In fact, some heart experts consider homocysteine to be a very important risk factor ... But adding vitamin B-12 to the mix "is likely to be much more effective in lowering homocysteine concentrations,"" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B12 Plus Folic Acid Significantly Reduces Homocysteine Levels - Doctor's Guide, 1/17/02 - "This finding suggests that a fortification policy based on folic acid and vitamin B12, rather than folic acid alone, is likely to be much more effective in lowering homocysteine concentrations"
  • Folic Acid [deficiency] Linked to Parkinson's Disease - WebMD, 1/17/02 - "The latest research shows that mice on a low-folic-acid diet are much more likely to get Parkinson's disease than mice on a normal diet ... The researchers were able to finger homocysteine as the likely culprit behind the loss of brain cells"
  • Folic acid and vitamin B12 save lives and money - Life Extension Magazine, 11/01 - "supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B12 would result in a tremendous increase in health and longevity of the American population at a low cost, while saving 24 billion dollars in healthcare costs over the coming decade ... folic acid could lower homocysteine by 25%; the addition of vitamin B12 led to a further 7% drop"
  • Folate Cost-Effective For Prevention Of Coronary Artery Reblockage - Intelihealth, 11/29/01 - "The vitamin therapy included a combination of folic acid (also known as folate or vitamin B9), vitamin B12, and vitamin B6. Patients who received the vitamins had significantly lower levels of homocysteine, and lower rates of restenosis and cardiac complications"
  • High Dose Oral Folic Acid Acutely Improves Endothelial Function in Coronary Artery Disease - Doctor's Guide, 11/14/01 - "Although high-dose folic acid (5 mg daily) improves endothelial function in CAD patients, it is controversial as to whether this improvement is due to homocysteine lowering or other direct actions of folic acid"
  • Battling Heart Disease with B Vitamins - Life Extension Magazine, 8/01 - "Studies to date have shown that folic acid alone may reduce heart disease risk by as much as 30% to 40%, primarily through its ability to lower homocysteine. In fact, folic acid has been deemed the mainstay of treatment for hyperhomocysteinaemia (elevated homocysteine).(5) However, folic acid works best when teamed up with vitamin B12, which enhances the benefits of folic acid supplementation"
  • A Prescription for Alarm - Nutrition Science News, 9/01 - "Increasing consumption of folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12, which lower homocysteine levels.  Homocysteine damages blood vessel walls and, says McCully, sets the stage for subsequent cholesterol deposits."

Other News:

  • High homocysteine is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer independently of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacities - Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov 13 - "Increased homocysteine was strongly associated with the risk of colorectal cancer independently of oxidative stress indicators and antioxidant capacities"
  • Homocysteine-related hTERT DNA demethylation contributes to shortened leukocyte telomere length in atherosclerosis - Atherosclerosis. 2013 Nov;231(1):173-179 - "Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is shortened in patients with clinical atherosclerosis (AS) ... human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) ... hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) ... Hcy was negatively correlated with LTL shortening in AS patients (r = -0.179, p = 0.015) and controls (r = -0.146, p = 0.031). Serum folate and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels significantly interacted with Hcy in LTL shortening. Hcy was related to hTERT mRNA downregulation and promoter demethylation, which combined was associated with LTL shortening in AS patients"
  • Higher plasma homocysteine is associated with increased risk of developing colorectal polyps - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Feb;65(2):195-201 - "participants with higher plasma homocysteine [odds ratio (OR) = 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13, 3.08) level exhibited significantly increased risk of colorectal polyps after adjusting for potential confounders. Plasma homocysteine was a strong predictor of the risk of colorectal polyps in participants with adequate B-vitamins status"
  • Homocysteine and the risk of nursing home admission and mortality in older persons - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Nov 9 - "In men, no significant associations were observed. In women, after adjustment for confounding, the highest quartile of homocysteine was associated with a significantly higher risk of NH admission compared with the first quartile (hazard ratio (HR)=2.97, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.36-6.49). Both women in the third and the fourth quartile of homocysteine had a significantly higher mortality risk (HR=1.70, 95% CI=1.08-2.65 and HR=1.91, 95% CI=1.22-3.00, respectively) compared with the first quartile"
  • Plasma homocysteine and cognitive decline in older hypertensive subjects - Int Psychogeriatr. 2011 May 6:1-9 - "Higher homocysteine showed an independent association with greater cognitive decline in three domains: speed of cognition (β = -27.33, p = 0.001), episodic memory (β = -1.25, p = 0.02) and executive function (β = -0.05, p = 0.04). The association with executive function was no longer significant after inclusion of folate in the regression model (β = -0.032, p = 0.22). Change in working memory and attention were not associated with plasma homocysteine, folate or B12. High homocysteine was associated with greater decline with a Cohen's d effect size of approximately 0.7 compared to low homocysteine. Conclusions: In a population of older hypertensive patients, higher plasma homocysteine was associated with cognitive decline"
  • Homocysteine levels are associated with hippocampus volume in type 2 diabetic patients - Eur J Clin Invest. 2011 Jan 20 - "Elevated total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) levels are associated with cognitive dysfunction, in which changes in the hippocampus plausibly play a pivotal role ... Our results indicate that the elevated levels of tHcy in Japanese nondementia patients with type 2 diabetes are characterised by hippocampal atrophy and insulin resistance and that the Z-score and HOMA index may be the primary factors that influence tHcy levels"
  • Homocysteine is associated with hippocampal and white matter atrophy in older subjects with mild hypertension - Int Psychogeriatr. 2010 Apr 7:1-8 - "In older hypertensives, plasma homocysteine levels are associated with increased rates of progressive white matter and hippocampal atrophy"
  • Homocysteine may be best predictor of CV risk in elderly - theheart.org, 1/8/09 - "for primary prevention, homocysteine appears to be the best predictor of cardiovascular mortality in the very elderly [1]. The research also confirms what many had already suspected—that the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) is not very accurate at predicting risk in this age group"
  • Plasma homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 levels in patients with laryngeal cancer - Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008 Dec;134(12):1328-33 - "The mean (SD) level of total homocysteine in patients with laryngeal carcinoma was 2.84 (1.62) mg/L vs 0.99 (0.24) mg/L in the control group"
  • Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for erectile dysfunction in men with adult-onset diabetes mellitus - Urology. 2008 May;71(5):897-900 - "Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) ... those with HHcy had 5.2 times the odds of vasculogenic ED compared with men without HHcy"
  • Homocysteine and diabetic retinopathy - Diabetes Care. 2007 Sep 26 - "Plasma total homocysteine concentration may be a useful biomarker and/or a novel risk factor for increased risk of diabetic retinopathy in people with type 2 diabetes"
  • Hyperhomocysteinemia: a novel risk factor for erectile dysfunction - Metabolism. 2006 Dec;55(12):1564-1568 - "Hyperhomocysteinemia, known to be an important risk factor in endothelial dysfunction, seems to be an important determinant in ED. These data suggest that slightly elevated Hcys levels are significantly related with arterial and probably endothelial dysfunction in patients with ED"
  • Biomarker For Age-related Macular Degeneration Found - Science Daily, 1/8/06 - "elevated homocysteine in the blood may be another biomarker for increased risk of AMD"
  • Erectile Trouble May Signal Heart Disease - HealthDay, 5/24/05 - "Levels of homocysteine may be a sign of how severe erectile dysfunction is ... Nutrition can influence homocysteine levels positively, and substitution with folic acid, in combination with vitamin B6 and B12, can reduce homocysteine levels significantly"
  • Homocysteine and cognitive function - Medscape, 3/25/05 - "Higher homocysteine levels were associated with worse function across a broad range of cognitive domains, and the magnitude of the associations was large. The data suggest that homocysteine may be a potentially important modifiable cause of cognitive dysfunction"
  • New Research: What is Your Optimal TSH Level? - About.com, 9/30/04 - "normalizing the TSH with a target TSH level of less than 2 mIU/mL is advisable to lower CRP levels and homocysteine levels, and possibly the cholesterol levels"
  • Metformin Treatment Leads to Increased Homocysteine, Decreased Vitamin B12 and Folate in Type 2 Diabetes Patients - Doctor's Guide, 10/20/03 - "Homocysteine requires folate and vitamin B12 to be properly metabolised, and serum vitamin B12 levels are known to decrease during metformin treatment ... compared with placebo, metformin was associated with an increase in serum homocysteine levels (4% [0.2 to 8 µmol L-1]; P=0.039), and decreases in vitamin B12 (-14% [-4.2 to -24 pmol L-1]; P<0.0001) and folate (-7%"
  • Elevated Homocysteine May Be Linked to Glaucoma - Doctor's Guide, 10/22/02 - "Hyperhomocysteinemia could be a significant risk factor for a particular type of glaucoma"
  • Long-Time Hormone Therapy Lowers Postmenopausal Homocysteine - Doctor's Guide, 8/14/02 - "long-term HRT results in lower total homocysteine concentrations in all methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotypes with no demonstrable difference in effect between unopposed and opposed hormone replacement therapy"
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