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Conditions > Homocysteine
Effects of Multivitamin
Supplements on Cognitive Function, Serum Homocysteine Level, and Depression of
Korean With Mild Cognitive Impairment in Care Facilities - J Nurs Scholarsh.
2016 Feb 15 - "Forty-eight adults 65 years of age and
older with MCI (experimental, n = 24; control, n = 24) who were living in care
facilities in Gyeong-gi-do, Korea, were recruited. Multivitamin supplements as
experimental treatment consisted of vitamin B6, B12, and folic acid ...
Multivitamin supplements increased cognitive function, and decreased serum
homocysteine level and depression of Korean older adults with MCI in care
facilities" - [Nutra
Levels Show Significant Differences among Mediterranean Dietary Quality Index
Variables Compared to Folate and Vitamin B12 Status in Women - Int J Vitam
Nutr Res. 2015 Dec;85(3-4):202-10 - "The strength of
correlation using biomarkers, regardless of group type, age, gender and other
measured parameters, was ranked from best (0.11) to worst (0.52) for olive oil,
fish, fruits and vegetables, grains, and meat, in this order"
N-acetylcysteine reduces plasma homocysteine concentrations regardless of lipid
or smoking status - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Oct 7 - "hyperlipidemic
group (HYL ... Four weeks of oral NAC treatment significantly decreased plasma
tHcy concentrations, irrespective of lipid or smoking status, and lowered
systolic blood pressure in both normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic men, with
significant diastolic blood pressure reductions in the HYL group only. Increased
oral intake of cysteine may therefore be considered for primary or secondary
prevention of vascular events with regard to the 2 independent risk factors of
hyperhomocysteinemia and arterial hypertension" - See
n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
dependent levels of plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance - Behav
Brain Res. 2015 Jan 16 - "Based on these results, folic
acid and vitamin B12 intervention in people with elevated hcy levels in India
could prove to be effective in lowering hcy levels and help maintain or improve
cognitive function" - See
vitamin B12 at Amazon.com
folic acid products at Amazon.com.
personalized diet and probiotic supplementation on inflammation, nutritional
parameters and intestinal microbiota - The "RISTOMED project": Randomized
controlled trial in healthy older people - Clin Nutr. 2014 Oct 8 -
"Addition of VSL#3 increased bifidobacteria and
supported adequate folate and vitamin B12 concentrations in subjects with
low-grade inflammation. Decrease in homocysteine with VSL#3 was clinically
relevant. suggesting protective potentials for aging-associated conditions, e.g.
cardiovascular or neurological diseases" - See
probiotic products at Amazon.com.
homocysteine associated with thinner cortical gray matter in 803 participants
from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative - Neurobiol Aging. 2014
Aug 30 - "A significant portion of our risk for dementia
in old age is associated with lifestyle factors (diet, exercise, and
cardiovascular health) that are modifiable, at least in principle. One such risk
factor, high-homocysteine levels in the blood, is known to increase risk for
Alzheimer's disease and vascular disorders ... These regional differences in
gray matter structure may be useful biomarkers to assess the effectiveness of
interventions, such as vitamin B supplements, that aim to prevent
homocysteine-related brain atrophy by normalizing homocysteine levels"
supplementation improves cognitive function in the middle aged and elderly with
hyperhomocysteinemia - Nutr Neurosci. 2014 Jun 18 -
"in Tianjin, China, aged 55-94 years old. Fifty-seven individuals with
hyperhomocysteinemia were included in the intervention group (vitamin B group,
which received 800 µg/day of folate, with 10 mg of vitamin B6 and 25 µg of
vitamin B12) and 47 patients in the placebo group. The endpoint was the
improvement in cognitive function as evaluated by Basic Cognitive Aptitude Tests
(BCATs) ... The BCAT total score and four sub-tests scores (digit copy, Chinese
character rotation, digital working memory, and recognition of meaningless
figure) of BCAT at 14 weeks significantly increased only for the vitamin B
group. Serum total homocysteine (tHcy) levels significantly decreased in the
intervention group" - See
B vitamins at Amazon.com.
levels of brain atrophy associated with homocysteine and cognitive decline -
Neurobiol Aging. 2014 May 15 - "Few B-vitamin trials to
lower homocysteine (Hcy) have reported evidence of beneficial effects on
cognition in older adults with cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. This
article reviews the role of Hcy in cognitive decline. It also considers some
reasons why meta-analyses have failed to find effects of B-vitamin treatment.
Findings from the successful VITACOG trial are examined from a new perspective
of critical levels of Hcy and brain atrophy that may impact on the efficacy of
B-vitamin treatment. It appears that there is a critical level of brain
shrinkage, possibly mediated by elevated Hcy, which when reached, results in
cognitive decline, especially in episodic memory performance"
of homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid on flow-mediated vasodilation
in patients with coronary artery disease: A meta-analysis of randomized
controlled trials - Atherosclerosis. 2014 Apr 18;235(1):31-35 -
"Our meta-analysis demonstrated that folic acid
supplementation can significantly improve endothelial dysfunction as assessed by
FMD in the brachial artery in patients with coronary heart disease" - See
folic acid products at Amazon.com.
protein and plasma total homocysteine, cysteine concentrations in coronary
angiographic subjects - Nutr J. 2013 Nov 7;12(1):144 -
"High animal-protein diet was positively associated with
high tHcy concentrations, whereas high plant-protein diet was inversely
associated with tHcy concentrations. Furthermore the total protein intake was
strongly related to tCys concentrations"
Vitamin B Supplements May
Lower Stroke Risk - Medscape, 9/18/13 - "Researchers
searched for randomized controlled trials published before August 2012 that
compared vitamin B supplementation with placebo, very-low-dose B vitamins, or
usual care; had a minimum follow-up of 6 months; and included stroke events as a
study endpoint ... The researchers noted a reduction in overall stroke events
resulting from lowered homocysteine levels following B vitamin supplementation
(risk ratio, 0.93"
Relationship between metformin use, vitamin B12 deficiency,
hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes
- Endocr J. 2013 Sep 8 -
"Metformin-induced B12 lowering in diabetes was associated with elevation of
homocysteine, and hyperhomocysteinemia was independently related to retinopathy"
vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
between low-dose folic acid supplementation and blood lipids concentrations in
male and female subjects with atherosclerosis risk factors - Med Sci Monit.
2013 Sep 4;19:733-9 - "Folic acid (FA) is one of the B
complex vitamins. It is thought that FA deficiency promotes atherosclerosis
formation in arterial endothelium. FA, acting through reducing homocysteine
(Hcy) levels, may contribute to decreased cholesterol (Ch) synthesis ...
enrolled 124 Caucasian individuals (60 M, ages 20-39; and 64 F, ages 19-39) with
atherosclerosis risk factors ... participants were asked to take FA at a low
dose of 0.4 mg/24 h for 12 weeks ... FA levels increased in females (6.3 vs.
12.5 ng/dL; p=0.001) and males (6.4 vs. 11.4 ng/dL; p=0.001) and Hcy levels
decreased (10.6 vs. 8.3 µmol/L; p=0.001 and 11.5 vs. 9.3; p=0.001,
respectively). A significant reduction in mean concentration of total
cholesterol in females (203.4 vs. 193.1 mg/dL; p=0.001) and in males (209.5 vs.
201.9; p=0.002) was observed. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)
levels decreased in females and in males (107.4 vs. 99.9 mg/dL; p=0.001 and
121.5 vs. 115.1; p=0.002, respectively). The apoAI concentrations increased in
smoking women and in men with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (p=0.032 and p=0.024, respectively)"
folic acid products at Amazon.com.
the Metabolic Syndrome: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial - J Clin
Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jul 3 - "Patients included 120
postmenopausal women with MetS ... postmenopausal women with MetS were randomly
assigned to receive placebo (n = 60) or 54 mg genistein daily (n = 60) for 1
year ... At 1 year in genistein recipients, fasting glucose, fasting insulin,
and HOMA-IR (mean from 4.5 to 2.7; P < .001) decreased and were unchanged in
placebo recipients. Genistein statistically increased HDL-C (mean from 46.4 to
56.8 mg/dL) and adiponectin and decreased total cholesterol, LDL-C (mean from
108.8 to 78.7 mg/dL), triglycerides, visfatin, and homocysteine (mean from 14.3
to 11.7) blood levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was also reduced in
genistein recipients. Genistein recipients neither experienced more side adverse
effects than placebo nor discontinued the study" - See
genistein at Amazon.com.
Alzheimer's disease-related gray matter atrophy by B-vitamin treatment -
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 May 20 - "Is it possible
to prevent atrophy of key brain regions related to cognitive decline and
Alzheimer's disease (AD)? One approach is to modify nongenetic risk factors, for
instance by lowering elevated plasma homocysteine using B vitamins. In an
initial, randomized controlled study on elderly subjects with increased dementia
risk (mild cognitive impairment according to 2004 Petersen criteria), we showed
that high-dose B-vitamin treatment (folic acid 0.8 mg, vitamin B6 20 mg, vitamin
B12 0.5 mg) slowed shrinkage of the whole brain volume over 2 y. Here, we go
further by demonstrating that B-vitamin treatment reduces, by as much as seven
fold, the cerebral atrophy in those gray matter (GM) regions specifically
vulnerable to the AD process, including the medial temporal lobe ... B vitamins
lower homocysteine, which directly leads to a decrease in GM atrophy, thereby
slowing cognitive decline" - See
folic acid products at Amazon.com
vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
Homocysteine, folate, vitamin B-12, and 10-y incidence of age-related
macular degeneration - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 May 1 -
"Serum folate, vitamin B-12, and tHcy were
determined from blood samples drawn in 1997-1999 from cohort members aged
≥55 y. AMD was assessed in 1760 survivors from retinal photographs taken in
2002-2004 and 2007-2009. Total intakes of folate and vitamin B-12 were
assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire ... Elevated serum tHcy and
folate and vitamin B-12 deficiencies predicted increased risk of incident
AMD, which suggests a potential role for vitamin B-12 and folate in reducing
AMD risk" - See
folic acid products at Amazon.com
vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
of Mixed Dietary Supplements on Total Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations
(tHcy): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial - Int J
Vitam Nutr Res. 2012 Aug 1;82(4):260-266 -
"Two-hundred and thirty-six hospitalized, acutely ill older patients, who
were part of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, were
assigned to receive a daily oral nutritional supplement drink containing 1.3
mg of vitamin B2, 1.4 mg of vitamin B6, 1.5 μg of B12, 200 μg of folic acid,
or a placebo, for 6 weeks ... A mixed nutrient supplement containing
physiological amounts of B vitamins significantly reduced plasma tHcy
concentrations in older patients recovering from acute illness"
B vitamins may slow cognitive decline: Oxford University study - Nutra
USA, 10/25/11 - "A daily combination of folic acid,
and vitamins B6 and B12 was associated with a 30% reduction in levels of the
amino acid homocysteine, and improvements in a range of mental tests,
including global cognition and episodic memory ... One interpretation [of
the data] is that lowering homocysteine concentrations by administering B
vitamins slows brain atrophy, which in turn slows both cognitive and
clinical decline ... The Vitacog study involved 266 people over the age of
70 with diagnosed mild cognitive impairment. Participants were randomly
assigned to receive either placebo or a B vitamin supplement providing
0.8 mg per day of folic acid, 0.5 mg of vitamin B12 and 20 mg of vitamin B6"
vitamin B12 levels may lead to brain shrinkage, cognitive problems -
Science Daily, 9/26/11 - "Older people with low
blood levels of vitamin B12 markers may be more likely to have lower brain
volumes and have problems with their thinking skills ... An average of
four-and-a-half years later, MRI scans of the participants' brains were
taken to measure total brain volume and look for other signs of brain damage
... Having high levels of four of five markers for vitamin B12 deficiency
was associated with having lower scores on the cognitive tests and smaller
total brain volume ... On the cognitive tests, the scores ranged from -2.18
to 1.42, with an average of 0.23. For each increase of one micromole per
liter of homocysteine -- one of the markers of B12 deficiency -- the
cognitive scores decreasedby 0.03 standardized units or points" - See
vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
B-complex vitamins may help slow progression of dementia - Science
Daily, 10/27/10 - "Large doses of B-complex vitamins
could reduce the rate of brain shrinkage by half in elderly people with
memory problems and slow the progression of dementia ... patients who
already exhibit signs of dementia and test positive for high levels of
homocysteine are more likely to respond well to the large doses of B
vitamins. Homocysteine is an amino acid in the blood, and high blood levels
are linked to an increased risk of developing Alzheimer disease"
Homocysteine and holotranscobalamin and the risk of Alzheimer disease: A
longitudinal study - Neurology. 2010 Oct 19;75(16):1408-14 -
"homocysteine (tHcy) and holotranscobalamin
(holoTC), the active fraction of vitamin B12 ... The odds ratios (ORs) (95%
confidence interval [CI]) for AD were 1.16 (1.04-1.31) per increase of 1
μmol/L of tHcy at baseline and 0.980 (0.965-0.995) for each increase of 1
pmol/L baseline holoTC ... This study suggests that both tHcy and holoTC may
be involved in the development of AD. The tHcy-AD link may be partly
explained by serum holoTC. The role of holoTC in AD should be further
Vitamin B12 May Curb Risk for Alzheimer's Disease - Medscape, 10/18/10 -
"holotranscobalamin (holoTC), the biologically
active fraction of vitamin B12 ... for each 1-µmol/L increase in the
baseline concentration of tHcy, the risk for AD increased by 16% (odds ratio
[OR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 – 1.31). On the other hand,
for each 1-pmol/L increase in baseline holoTC, the risk for AD was reduced
by 2% (OR, 0.980; 95% CI, 0.965 – 0.995)" - [Science
Daily] - See
vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
vitamins slow brain atrophy in people with memory problems - Science
Daily, 9/12/10 - "on average the brains of those
taking the folic acid, vitamin B6 and B12 treatment shrank at a rate of
0.76% a year, while those in the placebo group had a mean brain shrinkage
rate of 1.08%. People with the highest levels of homocysteine benefited
most, showing atrophy rates on treatment that were half of those on placebo"
Vitamin B may help prevent Alzheimer’s - Nutra USA, 9/9/10 -
"The authors concluded that an accelerated rate of brain
atrophy in elderly people with mild cognitive impairment could be slowed via
dietary supplementation with homocysteine-lowering B vitamins"
of metformin with or without supplementation with folate on homocysteine
levels and vascular endothelium of women with polycystic ovary syndrome
- Diabetes Care. 2009 Nov 23 - "Metformin exerts a
slight but significant deleterious effect on serum Hcy levels in patients
with PCOS, and supplementation with folate is useful to increase the
beneficial effect of metformin on the vascular endothelium"
of Homocysteine-Lowering Vitamin Therapy on Long-Term Outcome of Patients
With Coronary Artery Disease - Am J Cardiol. 2009 Sep 15;104(6):745-749
- "Folic acid >/=400 mug/day with or without
additional B vitamins was administered at the attending physicians'
discretion ... Treatment was associated with significantly lower all-cause
mortality in patients with homocysteine levels >15 mumol/L (4% vs 32%, p
<0.001) but not in patients with lower levels (5% vs 7%, p >0.05)"
folic acid at Amazon.com.
High-Dose B Vitamin Supplementation and Progression of Subclinical
Atherosclerosis. A Randomized Controlled Trial - Stroke. 2008 Dec 31 -
"high-dose B vitamin supplementation (5 mg folic
acid+0.4 mg vitamin B12+50 mg vitamin B6) or matching placebo for 3.1 years
... High-dose B vitamin supplementation significantly reduces progression of
early-stage subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid artery intima media
thickness) in well-nourished healthy B vitamin "replete" individuals at low
risk for cardiovascular disease with a fasting tHcy >/=9.1 micromol/L"
Effects of folic acid
and N-acetylcysteine on plasma homocysteine levels and endothelial function
in patients with coronary artery disease - Acta Cardiol. 2007
Dec;62(6):579-85 - "either folic acid 5 mg or NAC
600 mg or placebo daily for eight weeks ... endothelium-dependent dilation
(EDD) ... Folic acid and NAC therapies decreased plasma homocysteine (from
21.7 +/- 8.7 micromol/l to 12.5 +/- 2.5 micromol/l, P < 0.001; from 20.9 +/-
7.6 micromol/l to 15.6 +/- 4.3 micromol/l, P = 0.03, respectively), and
increased EDD (6.7 +/- 6.1% P = 0.002, 4.4 +/- 2.6% P < 0.001, respectively)
compared with placebo. There was no significant difference in improving EDD
between the folic acid and the NAC group"
supplementation in early second trimester and the risk of preeclampsia -
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jan;198(1):45.e1-7 -
"Supplementation of multivitamins containing folic acid was associated with
increased serum folate (on average 10.51 micromol/L), decreased plasma
homocysteine (on average 0.39 micromol/L), and reduced risk of preeclampsia
(adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.75)" -
folic acid at Amazon.com.
Vitamin B-12 Function May Be Diminished By Excessive Folate - Science
Daily, 12/21/07 - "homocysteine and methylmalonic
acid are at much higher levels in individuals who have a combination of
vitamin B12 deficiency and high blood folate levels than in individuals who
are also vitamin B12 deficient but have normal folate levels"
Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults -
Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1384-91 -
"concentrations of holoTC (a marker of reduced vitamin B-12 status), tHcy,
and MMA predicted cognitive decline, but folate did not. A doubling in
holoTC concentrations (from 50 to 100 pmol/L) was associated with a 30%
slower rate of cognitive decline (-0.137 to -0.083), whereas a doubling in
tHcy (from 10 to 20 mumol/L) or MMA (from 0.25 to 0.50 mumol/L) was
associated with >50% more rapid cognitive decline (-0.090 to -0.169) and
(-0.104 to -0.169), respectively" - See
vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
Homocysteine, vitamins, and vascular disease prevention - Am J Clin
Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1563S-8S - "Dietary deficiency
of vitamin B-6 and folic acid and absorptive deficiency of vitamin B-12,
which result from traditional food processing or abnormal absorption of B
vitamins, are important factors in causing elevations in blood homocysteine.
Numerous clinical and epidemiologic studies have established elevated blood
homocysteine as a potent independent risk factor for vascular disease in the
general population. Dietary improvement, providing abundant vitamin B-6,
folic acid, and cobalamin, may prevent vascular disease by lowering blood
homocysteine. The dramatic decline in cardiovascular mortality in the United
States since 1950 may possibly be attributable in part to voluntary
fortification of the food supply with vitamin B-6 and folic acid.
Fortification of the US food supply with folic acid in 1998, as mandated by
the US Food and Drug Administration, was associated with a further decline
in mortality from vascular disease, presumably because of increased blood
folate and decreased blood homocysteine in the population"
The association between betaine and choline intakes and the plasma
concentrations of homocysteine in women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007
Oct;86(4):1073-1081 - "Total choline + betaine
intake was inversely associated with tHcy, as was choline from 2
water-soluble choline-containing compounds. Remethylation of tHcy may be
more dependent on the betaine pathway when methyl sources are low as a
result of either inadequate folate intake or heavier alcohol consumption"
B Vitamin Plasma Levels and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke and Transient
Ischemic Attack in a German Cohort - Stroke. 2007 Sep 20 -
"Our data suggest that low vitamin B12 plasma
levels, particularly in combination with low folate levels, increase the
risk of cerebral ischemia. This effect may be mediated at least partly
through elevations of homocysteine levels"
Review of the role of hyperhomocysteinemia and B-vitamin deficiency in
neurological and psychiatric disorders - Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2007
Sep;75(9):e1-e18 - "Elevated concentration of total
homocysteine (Hcy) in plasma (> 12 micromol/l) is a risk factor for several
diseases of the central nervous system. Epidemiological studies have shown a
dose-dependent relationship between concentrations of Hcy and the risk for
neurodegenerative diseases. Hcy is a marker for B-vitamin deficiency
(folate, B (12), B (6)). Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) causes hypomethylation
which is an important mechanism that links Hcy to dementia ... Current
evidence suggests that Hcy-lowering treatment has a positive effect for the
secondary and primary prevention of stroke. HHcy is very common in patients
with Parkinson disease particularly those who receive L-dopa treatment.
Furthermore, a positive association has been reported between HHcy and
multiple sclerosis. Moreover, HHcy and vitamin B deficiency are reported to
have a causal role in depression, and epilepsy. In addition several
anti-epileptic drugs cause secondary HHcy. Therefore, sufficient intakes of
the vitamins are recommended for patients who have already developed
neuropsychiatric diseases. Vitamin B deficiency should be suspected in
children with development disorders, failure to thrive and unexplained
neurological manifestations. Elderly people are also an important at-risk
group where vitamin B deficiency and HHcy have been linked to
neurodegenerative diseases. Treatment with folate, B (12), and B (6) can
improve cerebral function. Preventive vitamin B supplementation and
sufficient intake seem very important for secondary and primary prevention
of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially in subjects with a low intake or
status of the vitamins"
- WENBIT: No Benefit
of B Vitamins - Medscape, 9/4/07 - "Homocysteine
is a definite risk marker in heart disease, but it may not be causal"
Correlations between folate, B12, homocysteine levels, and radiological
markers of neuropathology in elderly post-stroke patients - J Am Coll
Nutr. 2007 Jun;26(3):272-8 - "folate deficiency and
hyperhomocysteinemia are prevalent in elderly post-stroke patients. These
two conditions are strongly and independently associated with the
development of brain atrophy"
Effects of folic acid and vitamin B complex on serum C-reactive protein and
albumin levels in stable hemodialysis patients - Curr Med Res Opin. 2007
Jun 29 - "Folic acid and vitamin B complex
co-administration effectively lowers tHcy and hs-CRP levels and increases
albumin levels in stable hemodialysis subjects, underscoring their potential
benefit to attenuate the state of inflammation and possibly improve the
nutritional status in patients on hemodialysis"
Vitamin link to bone loss probed - BBC News, 11/14/06 -
"Increased amounts of homocysteine in the blood may
increase the risk of developing osteoporosis ... Individuals who have a poor
dietary intake of B-vitamins tend to have high homocysteine levels"
Older Adults May Need B12 Dose More Than 200 Times the RDA to Normalize Mild
Vitamin Deficiency - Medscape, 5/26/06 -
"As both methylmalonyl-coenzyme A (MMA) and
homocysteine are metabolized by vitamin B12, elevated levels of these
compounds in the plasma can reflect vitamin deficiency ... One analysis
yielded 500 μg of vitamin B12 as the minimum dose necessary to produce the
greatest effect on MMA levels. There was little additional benefit in using
daily doses of vitamin B12 of more than 500 μg"
- B12, Folate May
Reduce Homocysteine Levels Without Affecting Cognition - Medscape,
12/19/05 - "randomized to receive (1) folic acid,
2.5 mg plus 400 µg of vitamin B12 or placebo, (2) 25 mg of vitamin B6 or
placebo, or (3) 25 mg of riboflavin or placebo ... Homocysteine levels were
significantly reduced by an average of 33% in the folic acid plus vitamin
B12 group after 3 months ... B6 and riboflavin supplementation had no effect
on homocysteine levels"
B vitamins to lower homocysteine may prevent strokes - Nutra USA, 11/10/05
Plasma homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels in age-related macular
degeneration - Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2005 Sep 15;:1-5 -
"Patients with both exudative and dry types of AMD
had significantly higher plasma homocysteine levels ... Plasma vitamin B12
levels were found to be significantly lower in the exudative AMD group"
Homocysteine and folate as risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer disease
- Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Sep;82(3):636-43 - "Elevated
plasma tHcy concentrations and low serum folate concentrations are independent
predictors of the development of dementia and AD"
Vitamin B12, homocysteine and carotid plaque in the era of folic acid
fortification of enriched cereal grain products - CMAJ. 2005 Jun
"Vitamin B12 deficiency is surprisingly common among
patients with vascular disease, and, in the setting of folic acid
fortification, low serum vitamin B12 levels are a major determinant of
elevated homocysteine levels and increased carotid plaque area"
Homocysteine and vitamin b(12) status relate to bone turnover markers,
broadband ultrasound attenuation, and fractures in healthy elderly people
- J Bone Miner Res. 2005 Jun;20(6):921-9 -
"High Hcy and low vitamin B(12) concentrations were
significantly associated with low BUA, high markers of bone turnover, and
increased fracture risk"
- Blood chemical is
a stroke risk - BBC News, 1/14/05 -
"looked at people genetically prone to high
homocysteine levels and found they had a higher stroke risk than other
individuals ... the risk can be reversed by taking folic acid ... Too much
folic acid is also known to impact on a person's levels of vitamin B12 ...
If this falls too low could, at worst, result in irreversible nerve damage"
The effect of low doses of betaine on plasma homocysteine in healthy
volunteers - Br J Nutr. 2004 Oct;92(4):665-9 -
"plasma tHcy is lowered rapidly and significantly by
3 or 6 g betaine/d in healthy men and women"
Impairment of coronary circulation by acute hyperhomocysteinaemia and
reversal by antioxidant vitamins - J Intern Med. 2004 Nov;256(5):398-405
"Our data suggest that acute hyperhomocysteinaemia
reduces CFVR and increases plasma MCP-1 and IL-8 levels in healthy subjects.
Pretreatment with antioxidant vitamin E and ascorbic acid prevents the
effects of hyperhomocysteinaemia, suggesting an oxidative mechanism"
- Treatment With Folate
to Lower Homocysteine - Medscape, 7/29/04 -
"For patients with known cardiovascular disease, it
is generally recommended to treat with folic acid (1 mg/day), vitamin B6 (10
mg/day), and vitamin B12 (0.4 mg/day). Folic acid can be increased up to 5
mg/day to reach a goal of lowering homocysteine levels below 15 mmol/L"
Vitamins May Lower Osteoporosis Fractures - Intelihealth, 5/13/04 -
"B vitamins are known to reduce levels of
homocysteine ... high levels of homocysteine at least double the risk of
- 48,000 Lives
Saved by Vitamin Additive - WebMD, 3/5/04 -
"folic acid has another benefit -- this one for
adults. It lowers blood levels of a bad actor called homocysteine. High
homocysteine levels weaken the walls of blood vessels, making a person more
prone to heart disease and stroke" - See
iHerb folic acid
Folic acid and vitamin B(12) are more effective than vitamin B(6) in
lowering fasting plasma homocysteine concentration in patients with coronary
- Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Mar;58(3):481-7 - "The mean
fasting plasma homocysteine concentration, however, decreased significantly
after 12 weeks of folic acid combined with vitamin B(12) supplementation"
Low Dose Betaine Supplementation Leads to Immediate and Long Term Lowering
of Plasma Homocysteine in Healthy Men and Women - J. Nutr.
133:4135-4138, December 2003 -
"doses of betaine in the
range of dietary intake reduce fasting and postmethionine loading plasma
homocysteine concentrations. A betaine-rich diet might therefore lower
cardiovascular disease risk" - See
iHerb betaine products.
Elevated Homocysteine Raises Risk of Stroke, Dementia - Life Extension
- Mediterranean Diet
Lowers C-reactive Protein Levels - Medscape, 11/11/03 -
"For each 10-point increase in diet score, there was
a corresponding 0.22 mg/dL reduction in
C-reactive protein levels, a 0.21 pg/ml reduction in
interleukin-6, a 12.5 mg/dL decrease in fibrinogen, and a 0.87 mmol/L
decrease in homocysteine levels (P < .05), he said. Also, white blood cell
count decreased significantly"
Startling New Findings About Homocysteine - Life Extension Magazine,
"a startling 100% of French elderly hospitalized
patients showed higher than desired homocysteine levels, with 45% suffering
from severe hyperhomocysteinemia ... Administration of vitamins B6 and B12,
and folate, causes a significant decrease of elevated serum homocysteine
concentrations in older persons ... More recent studies not only confirm the
cardiovascular dangers of homocysteine, but also its toxic effect on the
brain. It turns out that high blood levels of homocysteine increase the
incidence of depression, memory impairment, and even Alzheimer’s disease"
Vitamin B12 Improves Homocysteine Levels and Lipid Profiles in Patients with
End-Stage Renal Disease - Doctor's Guide, 10/6/03 -
"During Phase 1, patients were prescribed oral doses
of folic acid 5 mg/day and vitamin B12
0.6mg/day. Through out Phase 2, participants were given intravenous doses of
vitamin B12 1mg every other day in addition to folic acid 5 mg/day ... By
the completion of the study, patients exhibited significantly lower serum
tHcy (29.4 verses 21.1 mg/dL), total cholesterol (222 verses 196 mg/dL), and
low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (139 versus 109 mg/dL). Serum
high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels
increased significantly among the participants"
B vitamin status and concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid
in elderly German women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Oct;78(4):765-72 -
"Even in younger, well-educated, female seniors, the
prevalence of low B vitamin status and elevated plasma tHcy concentration is
high. Thiamine, pyridoxine, folate, and cobalamin supplementation should be
Relation between homocysteine concentrations and the consumption of
different types of alcoholic beverages: the French Supplementation with
Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2003
Aug;78(2):334-338 - "Wine consumption may increase
tHcy concentrations, whereas beer consumption seems to have no effect (or
even an inverse effect) on tHcy"
Betaine Supplementation Lowers Plasma Homocysteine in Healthy Men and Women
- J. Nutr. 133:1291-1295, May 2003 -
"Groups of twelve subjects ingested 6 g
betaine, 800 µg folic acid with 6 g
placebo or 6 g placebo each day for 6 wk ... Fasting plasma homocysteine
decreased by 1.8 µmol/L ... in the betaine group and by 2.7 µmol/L ... in
the folic acid group ... betaine suppressed the total area under the plasma
homocysteine-time curve after methionine loading by 221 µmol . 24 h/L ...
compared with placebo, whereas folic acid had no effect" - See
iHerb betaine products.
Folic acid and reduction of plasma homocysteine concentrations in older
adults: a dose-response study - Am. Journ. of Clin. Nutri., 5/03 -
"In older adults, daily supplementation with
folic acid effectively lowers plasma homocysteine concentrations, and a
daily dose of ~ 400 µg is the minimum dose required for adequate
homocysteine reduction" - See
iHerb folic acid
Interrelationship of homocysteine-cobalamin-folate indices in human subjects
of various ages: can hyper-homocyteinemia be relieved with B-12
supplementation? - Mo Med 2003 Mar-Apr;100(2):155-8 -
"Thirty-nine of the subjects who had hyperhomocysteinemia were daily given
100 mcg B-12 for three months ... B-12
supplementation is effective in alleviating hyperhomocysteinemia" -
100 mcg is a fairly low dose compared to the 1000 and 5000 mcg doses being
sold. - Ben
n -3 Fatty acids plus oleic acid and vitamin supplemented milk consumption
reduces total and LDL cholesterol, homocysteine and levels of endothelial
adhesion molecules in healthy humans
- Clin Nutr 2003 Apr;22(2):175-82 - "The purpose of
this study was to evaluate the effect of a commercially available skimmed
milk supplemented with n -3 PUFA,
oleic acid, and
vitamins E, B(6), and
folic acid (Puleva Omega3((R))) on risk factors for cardiovascular
disease ... Thirty volunteers were given 500 ml/day of semi-skimmed milk for
4 weeks and then 500 ml/day of the n -3 enriched milk for 8 further weeks
... The consumption of n -3 enriched milk produced a significant decrease in
plasma concentration of total and LDL
cholesterol accompanied by a reduction in plasma levels of homocysteine"
- 500 ml is 2.1 cups. Oleic acid is an omega-9.
Disease and Dementia: Vitamins Can Help Prevent - WebMD, 2/28/03 -
"High levels of a substance in the blood called
homocysteine tops the list of potentially new risk factors for
heart disease, stroke, and now
dementia. A new study suggests that high homocysteine levels are linked
with mental declines associated with Alzheimer's disease in elderly people
... High homocysteine levels can be treated very easily with vitamins,
including folate, niacin, and
Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Levels in Patients Treated With Levodopa:
Association With Vascular Disease - Archives of Neurology, 1/03 -
"Levodopa therapy, rather than PD, is a cause of
hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with PD. Deficiency of folate or vitamin
B12 levels does not explain the elevated homocysteine levels in these
Mechanisms Differ Between Depression and Either Vitamin B12 Or Folate -
Doctor's Guide, 12/10/02 -
vitamin B12 deficiency and, to a lesser
extent, folate deficiency all were related to
Argument Strengthens For Folic Acid To Reduce Homocysteine Level -
Doctor's Guide, 11/26/02 -
"A decrease in serum homocysteine of 3 micromol/l,
which can be achieved by a daily intake of about 0.8 mg
folic acid, should reduce the risk of ischaemic
heart disease by 16 percent,
deep vein thrombosis by 25 percent, and stroke
by 24 percent"
- Folic Acid for
Your Heart - WebMD, 11/22/02 -
"By increasing folic acid
intake and thus decreasing homocysteine, the researchers say the risk of
heart disease would drop by 16%,
blood clots in the legs by 25%, and stroke
Folic Acid May Have Benefits for Smokers - Doctor's Guide, 9/13/02 -
"randomised to four weeks of
folic acid 5 mg/day or placebo ... Results showed that folic acid
reduced homocysteine concentrations (10.8+/-0.6 versus 7.9+/-0.5 µmol/L,
p<0.001) and there was a significant reduction in
blood pressure (mean BP 88+/-2 versus 83+/-1 mmHg, p<0.01) ... Benefits
also seem to be largely independent of the lowering of homocysteine
Homocysteine-Lowering Therapy [folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6]
Improves Revascularisation, Angioplasty Outcome - Doctor's Guide,
New Views on Atherosclerosis - Life Extension Magazine, 8/02 -
"A drug company has patented a product called FOLTX
that cardiologists are now prescribing to their patients for the purpose of
lowering homocysteine. Each tablet of FOLTX contains: 2.5 mg of
folic acid, 1.0 mg of vitamin B12, 25 mg
of vitamin B6. The cost for 90 tablets of
is $38.08—or about double the retail price of these same potencies of
vitamins when purchased in a health food store"
An Anti-Atherosclerosis Aid For Adults With Hyperhomocysteinemia? -
Doctor's Guide, 6/7/02 -
"One year of
folic acid supplementation was found to be
linked with a significant increase in the subjects' mean plasma folate
levels and a significant decline in their homocysteine levels ... Study
authors suggest the findings demonstrate long-term folic acid improves
arterial endothelial function and has potential implications for prevention
of atherosclerosis in people with hyperhomocysteinemia"
- Vitamins Fight
Alzheimer's - WebMD, 5/28/02 -
"There's new evidence that a substance found in
blood can cause the type of brain and blood vessel deterioration that leads
to dementia. But those same studies also
show that taking certain vitamins can lower levels of this substance --
homocysteine -- and ward off the damage, possibly preventing Alzheimer's
disease ... This is exciting information, because homocysteine levels can be
reduced by taking the vitamins B6, B12, and folic
Homocysteine Levels Higher, Serum Vitamin B12 Lower In Vegetarians -
Doctor's Guide, 5/27/02 -
"Vegetarians have considerably higher levels of
total plasma homocysteine, greater
prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia and lower levels of serum
vitamin B12 than do non-vegetarians"
Praise of Folic Acid - Time Magazine, 2/25/02 -
"folic acid plays a
crucial role in the development of just about every cell in the body ...
subjects who had high levels of a particular amino acid called homocysteine
in their blood were twice as likely to develop
Alzheimer's as those who didn't. The finding is important because one of
the easiest ways to lower homocysteine levels is to get plenty of folic acid
... There is no risk of overdose, although high levels of folic acid can
mask the signs of pernicious anemia in people who have developed the
disorder" - The way I understand it, taking vitamin B12 with the
folic acid will avoid that problem. - Ben
- New Alzheimer's
Risk Factor Identified - WebMD, 2/13/02 -
"High blood levels of a substance called
homocysteine have been linked to an increased risk for both heart attack and
stroke. Now, new research finds it to be a major risk factor for Alzheimer's
disease and other age-related dementias ... It is known that B-vitamins like
folic acid, B-6, and B-12 lower homocysteine levels"
- Mix B-12 and
Folic Acid for Heart Health - WebMD, 1/18/02 -
"Folic acid alone reduces the level of a potentially
harmful amino acid in the blood, called "homocysteine." When elevated,
homocysteine has been shown to raise the risk of heart disease and stroke.
In fact, some heart experts consider homocysteine to be a very important
risk factor ... But adding vitamin B-12 to the mix "is likely to be much
more effective in lowering homocysteine concentrations,"" - See
vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
Vitamin B12 Plus Folic Acid Significantly Reduces Homocysteine Levels -
Doctor's Guide, 1/17/02 -
"This finding suggests that a fortification policy
based on folic acid and vitamin B12, rather than folic acid alone, is likely
to be much more effective in lowering homocysteine concentrations"
- Folic Acid
[deficiency] Linked to Parkinson's Disease - WebMD, 1/17/02 -
"The latest research shows that mice on a
low-folic-acid diet are much more likely to get Parkinson's disease than
mice on a normal diet ... The researchers were able to finger homocysteine
as the likely culprit behind the loss of brain cells"
Folic acid and vitamin B12 save lives and money - Life Extension
Magazine, 11/01 -
"supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B12
would result in a tremendous increase in health and longevity of the
American population at a low cost, while saving 24 billion dollars in
healthcare costs over the coming decade ... folic acid could lower
homocysteine by 25%; the addition of vitamin B12 led to a further 7% drop"
Folate Cost-Effective For Prevention Of Coronary Artery Reblockage -
Intelihealth, 11/29/01 -
"The vitamin therapy included a combination of folic
acid (also known as folate or vitamin B9), vitamin B12, and vitamin B6.
Patients who received the vitamins had significantly lower levels of
homocysteine, and lower rates of restenosis and cardiac complications"
- High Dose Oral Folic Acid
Acutely Improves Endothelial Function in Coronary Artery Disease -
Doctor's Guide, 11/14/01 -
"Although high-dose folic acid (5 mg daily) improves
endothelial function in CAD patients, it is controversial as to whether this
improvement is due to homocysteine lowering or other direct actions of folic
Battling Heart Disease with B Vitamins - Life Extension Magazine, 8/01 -
"Studies to date have shown that folic acid alone
may reduce heart disease risk by as much as 30% to 40%, primarily through
its ability to lower homocysteine. In fact, folic acid has been deemed the
mainstay of treatment for hyperhomocysteinaemia (elevated homocysteine).(5)
However, folic acid works best when teamed up with vitamin B12, which
enhances the benefits of folic acid supplementation"
A Prescription for Alarm - Nutrition Science News, 9/01 -
"Increasing consumption of folic acid and vitamins
B6 and B12, which lower homocysteine levels. Homocysteine damages blood
vessel walls and, says McCully, sets the stage for subsequent cholesterol
homocysteine is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer
independently of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacities - Clin Nutr.
2013 Nov 13 - "Increased homocysteine was strongly
associated with the risk of colorectal cancer independently of oxidative stress
indicators and antioxidant capacities"
Homocysteine-related hTERT DNA demethylation contributes to shortened leukocyte
telomere length in atherosclerosis - Atherosclerosis. 2013
Nov;231(1):173-179 - "Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is
shortened in patients with clinical atherosclerosis (AS) ... human telomerase
reverse transcriptase (hTERT) ... hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) ... Hcy was
negatively correlated with LTL shortening in AS patients (r = -0.179, p = 0.015)
and controls (r = -0.146, p = 0.031). Serum folate and high-sensitivity
C-reactive protein levels significantly interacted with Hcy in LTL shortening.
Hcy was related to hTERT mRNA downregulation and promoter demethylation, which
combined was associated with LTL shortening in AS patients"
plasma homocysteine is associated with increased risk of developing colorectal
polyps - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Feb;65(2):195-201 -
"participants with higher plasma homocysteine [odds ratio (OR) = 1.87, 95%
confidence interval (CI) = 1.13, 3.08) level exhibited significantly increased
risk of colorectal polyps after adjusting for potential confounders. Plasma
homocysteine was a strong predictor of the risk of colorectal polyps in
participants with adequate B-vitamins status"
and the risk of nursing home admission and mortality in older persons - Eur
J Clin Nutr. 2011 Nov 9 - "In men, no significant
associations were observed. In women, after adjustment for confounding, the
highest quartile of homocysteine was associated with a significantly higher risk
of NH admission compared with the first quartile (hazard ratio (HR)=2.97, 95%
confidence interval (CI)=1.36-6.49). Both women in the third and the fourth
quartile of homocysteine had a significantly higher mortality risk (HR=1.70, 95%
CI=1.08-2.65 and HR=1.91, 95% CI=1.22-3.00, respectively) compared with the
homocysteine and cognitive decline in older hypertensive subjects - Int
Psychogeriatr. 2011 May 6:1-9 - "Higher homocysteine
showed an independent association with greater cognitive decline in three
domains: speed of cognition (β = -27.33, p = 0.001), episodic memory (β = -1.25,
p = 0.02) and executive function (β = -0.05, p = 0.04). The association with
executive function was no longer significant after inclusion of folate in the
regression model (β = -0.032, p = 0.22). Change in working memory and attention
were not associated with plasma homocysteine, folate or B12. High homocysteine
was associated with greater decline with a Cohen's d effect size of
approximately 0.7 compared to low homocysteine. Conclusions: In a population of
older hypertensive patients, higher plasma homocysteine was associated with
levels are associated with hippocampus volume in type 2 diabetic patients -
Eur J Clin Invest. 2011 Jan 20 - "Elevated total plasma
homocysteine (tHcy) levels are associated with cognitive dysfunction, in which
changes in the hippocampus plausibly play a pivotal role ... Our results
indicate that the elevated levels of tHcy in Japanese nondementia patients with
type 2 diabetes are characterised by hippocampal atrophy and insulin resistance
and that the Z-score and HOMA index may be the primary factors that influence
is associated with hippocampal and white matter atrophy in older subjects with
mild hypertension - Int Psychogeriatr. 2010 Apr 7:1-8 -
"In older hypertensives, plasma homocysteine levels are
associated with increased rates of progressive white matter and hippocampal
Homocysteine may be best predictor of CV risk in elderly - theheart.org,
1/8/09 - "for primary prevention, homocysteine appears
to be the best predictor of cardiovascular mortality in the very elderly .
The research also confirms what many had already suspected—that the Framingham
Risk Score (FRS) is not very accurate at predicting risk in this age group"
homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 levels in patients with laryngeal cancer
- Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008 Dec;134(12):1328-33 -
"The mean (SD) level of total homocysteine in patients
with laryngeal carcinoma was 2.84 (1.62) mg/L vs 0.99 (0.24) mg/L in the control
Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for erectile dysfunction in men with
adult-onset diabetes mellitus - Urology. 2008 May;71(5):897-900 -
"Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) ... those with HHcy had 5.2
times the odds of vasculogenic ED compared with men without HHcy"
Homocysteine and diabetic retinopathy - Diabetes Care. 2007 Sep 26 -
"Plasma total homocysteine concentration may be a useful
biomarker and/or a novel risk factor for increased risk of diabetic retinopathy
in people with type 2 diabetes"
Hyperhomocysteinemia: a novel risk factor for erectile dysfunction -
Metabolism. 2006 Dec;55(12):1564-1568 -
"Hyperhomocysteinemia, known to be an important risk factor in endothelial
dysfunction, seems to be an important determinant in ED. These data suggest that
slightly elevated Hcys levels are significantly related with arterial and
probably endothelial dysfunction in patients with ED"
Biomarker For Age-related Macular Degeneration Found - Science Daily, 1/8/06
- "elevated homocysteine in the blood may be another
biomarker for increased risk of AMD"
Erectile Trouble May Signal Heart Disease - HealthDay, 5/24/05 -
"Levels of homocysteine may be a sign of how severe
erectile dysfunction is ... Nutrition can influence homocysteine levels
positively, and substitution with folic acid, in combination with vitamin B6
and B12, can reduce homocysteine levels significantly"
Homocysteine and cognitive function - Medscape, 3/25/05 -
"Higher homocysteine levels were associated with
worse function across a broad range of cognitive domains, and the magnitude
of the associations was large. The data suggest that homocysteine may be a
potentially important modifiable cause of cognitive dysfunction"
- New Research: What is
Your Optimal TSH Level? - About.com, 9/30/04 -
"normalizing the TSH with a target TSH level of less
than 2 mIU/mL is advisable to lower CRP levels and homocysteine levels, and
possibly the cholesterol levels"
Metformin Treatment Leads to Increased Homocysteine, Decreased Vitamin B12
and Folate in Type 2 Diabetes Patients - Doctor's Guide, 10/20/03 -
"Homocysteine requires folate and vitamin B12 to be
properly metabolised, and serum vitamin B12 levels are known to decrease
during metformin treatment ... compared with placebo, metformin was
associated with an increase in serum homocysteine levels (4% [0.2 to 8 µmol
L-1]; P=0.039), and decreases in vitamin B12 (-14% [-4.2 to -24 pmol L-1];
P<0.0001) and folate (-7%"
Elevated Homocysteine May Be Linked to Glaucoma - Doctor's Guide,
"Hyperhomocysteinemia could be a significant risk
factor for a particular type of
Long-Time Hormone Therapy Lowers Postmenopausal Homocysteine - Doctor's
Guide, 8/14/02 -
HRT results in lower total homocysteine
concentrations in all methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotypes with no
demonstrable difference in effect between unopposed and opposed hormone
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