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Home > Health
Conditions > ApoB.
ApoB (apolipoprotein B)
Effect of a
traditional Mediterranean diet on apolipoproteins B, A-I, and their ratio: A
randomized, controlled trial - Atherosclerosis. 2011 May 6 -
"Apolipoprotein (Apo)B, ApoA-I,
and their ratio could predict coronary
heart disease (CHD) risk more accurately than conventional lipid
measurements. Our aim was to assess the effect of a traditional
Mediterranean diet (TMD) on
apolipoproteins ... Participants assigned to a low-fat diet (control) (n=177),
or TMDs (TMD+virgin olive oil (VOO), n=181 or TMD+nuts, n=193) received
nutritional education and either free VOO (ad libitum) or nuts (dose: 30g/day).
A 3-month evaluation was performed ... Both TMDs promoted beneficial changes on
classical cardiovascular risk factors. ApoA-I increased, and ApoB and
ApoB/ApoA-I ratio decreased after TMD+VOO, the changes promoting a lower
cardiometabolic risk. Changes in TMD+VOO versus low-fat diet were -2.9mg/dL (95%
CI, -5.6 to -0.08), 3.3mg/dL (95% CI, 0.84 to 5.8), and -0.03mg/dL (-0.05 to
-0.01) for ApoB, ApoA-I, and ApoB/ApoA-I ratio, respectively ... Individuals at
high-cardiovascular risk who improved their diet toward a TMD pattern rich in
virgin olive oil, reduced their Apo B and ApoB/ApoA-I ratio and improved ApoA-I
concentrations" - The question is; is it the polyphenols or the omega-9
or both in the virgin olive oil responsible for the benefit? See
olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
Combination of niacin extended-release and simvastatin results in a less
atherogenic lipid profile than atorvastatin monotherapy - Vasc Health Risk
Manag. 2010 Nov 24;6:1065-75 - "niacin extended-release
+ simvastatin (NER/S) ... NER/S treatment significantly improved apo A-I levels
and the apo B:A-I ratio, significantly lowered the number of atherogenic LDL
particles and VLDL and chylomicron particles, and increased the mean size of LDL
and VLDL particles, compared with atorvastatin" - See
niacin at Amazon.com.
reduces the secretion of apolipoprotein B100 and lipids in HepG2 cells -
Lipids Health Dis. 2008 Oct 17;7(1):38 - "Higher
concentrations of serum lipids and apolipoprotein B100 (apoB) are major
individual risk factors of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease ... The
results demonstrated that an addition of taurine to the culture media reduces
triacylglycerol (TG)-mass in the cells and the medium. Similarly, cellular
cholesterol-mass was decreased. Taurine inhibited the incorporation of [14C]
oleate into cellular and medium TG, suggesting the inhibition of TG synthesis.
In addition, taurine reduced the synthesis of cellular cholesterol ester and its
secretion, suggesting the inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol
acyltransferase activity. Furthermore, taurine reduced the secretion of apoB,
which is a major protein component of very low-density lipoprotein ... This is a
first report to demonstrate that taurine inhibits the secretion of apoB from
HepG2 cells" - See
taurine at Amazon.com.
Omega-3 fatty acid containing diets decrease plasma triglyceride concentrations
in mice by reducing endogenous triglyceride synthesis and enhancing the blood
clearance of triglyceride-rich particles - Clin Nutr. 2008 Mar 22 -
"Levels of hepatic TG and apoB synthesis were 30-50% and
42% lower in mice fed with the fish oil diet compared to the other three diets.
In addition, compared to soy oil diet, fish oil feeding significantly increased
blood clearance of chylomicron-like lipid emulsions by 21-26%" - See
Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
Resveratrol attenuates the expression of HMG-CoA reductase mRNA in hamsters
- Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Dec 28 - "The
concentrations of serum total cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly
lower in the resveratrol-fed group than in the control group. The resveratrol
contained diet significantly decreased Apo B, Lp(a), and
cholesterol-ester-transport protein (CETP) concentrations, but increased Apo A-I
levels and the Apo A-I/Apo B ratio. The contents of cholesterol and triglyceride
in hepatic tissue were significantly lower in the resveratrol group than in the
control group. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that HMGR mRNA expression was
significantly lower in the resveratrol group than in the control group" -
resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
Broccoli compound identified for heart benefits - Nutra USA, 10/3/07 -
"the indole-based compound, indole-3-carbinol, was
able to reduce the secretion of apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB) by 56 per cent,
and thereby confer cardiovascular benefits" - See
indole-3-carbinol at Amazon.com.
Novel Dietary Supplement [Sytrinol™] Shows Dramatic Effects in Lowering
Cholesterol, LDL, and Triglycerides - Life Extension Magazine, 11/04 -
"those with the highest ratios of apolipoprotein B
to apolipoprotein A were at the greatest risk of dying from a heart attack
... treatment with Sytrinol™ substantially cut levels of plasma total
cholesterol (-20%), LDL (-22%), apolipoprotein B (-21%), and triglycerides
(-28%). Additionally, subjects in the second trial benefited from a
significant 5% increase in apolipoprotein A1, an important structural
protein of HDL" - See
Sytrinol at Amazon.com.
Fish Oil May Augment Atorvastatin As Treatment For Dyslipidemia In Obese,
Insulin-Resistant Men - Doctor's Guide, 8/7/02 -
significantly decreased plasma levels of triglycerides and very low density
lipoprotein-apoB, decreased the very low density lipoprotein-apoB secretion
rate" - See TwinLab TwinEPA at
Randomized controlled trial of the effect of n–3 fatty acid supplementation
on the metabolism of apolipoprotein B-100 and chylomicron remnants in men
with visceral obesity1 - Am. J. of Clin. Nutr., 2/03 -
"Fish oil supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) lowered plasma
concentrations of triacylglycerols (-18%) and VLDL apo B (-20%) and the
hepatic secretion of VLDL apo B (-29%) compared with placebo" - Doing
the math, 45% of 4 grams equals 1,800 mg of EPA, 39% of 4 grams equals
1,560 mg of DHA.
of apolipoprotein B and incidence of metabolic syndrome in Korean men: A
5-years' follow-up study - Atherosclerosis. 2012 Dec 12 -
"Incidence of MetS increased according to quintiles of
serum ApoB levels [quintile 1-5: 9.1%, 16.4%, 22.1%, 27.3%, 36.4%, respectively
(P for trend <0.001)]. Even after adjusting for various covariates including
non-HDL-cholesterol, the hazard ratios (95% CI) for MetS increased in proportion
to the quintiles of serum ApoB levels, compared to quintile 1 [quintile 2-5:
1.64 (1.43-1.89), 1.98 (1.71-2.31), 2.32 (1.96-2.75) and 2.92 (2.37-3.60),
respectively (P for trend <0.001)]. These associations were apparent still in
the clinically relevant subgroup analyses"
ratio is better than LDL-C in detecting cardiovascular risk - Nutr Metab
Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Feb 18 - "An unfavourable
apoB/apoA-I (>/=0.9 for males and >/=0.8 for females) was present in 13.9% of
108 patients with LDL-C <100mg/dL: compared to subjects with lower apoB/apoA-I
(<0.9 for males and <0.8 for females), they had more elements of MetS and their
lipid profile strongly correlated with high CV risk. Out of 314 patients with
lower apoB/apoA-I, 40.12% had LDL-C >/=130mg/dL: these retained a more
favourable lipid profile than corresponding subjects with elevated apoB/apoA-I
ratio. Finally, we found a significant correlation between LDL-C and apoB/apoA-I
ratio (r=0.48, p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In NGT with LDL-C <100mg/dL, a higher
apoB/apoA-I exhibited an atherogenic lipid profile, indicating that LDL-C alone
is insufficient to define CV risk. Independent from LDL-level, when apoB/apoA-I
is lower, the lipid profile is, in fact, less atherogenic. This study
demonstrates that apoB/apoA-I is at least complementary to LDL-C in identifying
the "effective" CV risk profile of asymptomatic NGT subjects"
apoB/apoA-I ratio is associated with increased progression rate of carotid
artery intima-media thickness in clinically healthy 58-year-old men: Experiences
from very long-term follow-up in the AIR study - Atherosclerosis. 2008 Dec 3
"The results indicate that apoB/apoA-I ratio is an
important risk factor for predicting atherosclerotic progression rate during
very long-term follow-up in clinically healthy middle-aged men"
Cholesterol Testing Not Enough for Some - WebMD, 3/27/08 -
"once LDL cholesterol is lowered to recommended levels
in high-risk patients, testing for the protein ApoB may more accurately identify
those still at risk for cardiovascular events"
HDL cholesterol and
large HDL particles not cardioprotective when adjusted for apoA-1 and apoB -
Improving The Assessment Of Coronary Heart Disease Risk In Chinese - Science
Daily, 10/12/07 - "the risk of developing coronary heart
disease was more than three times as high in participants with the highest
values of both apolipoprotein B and the ratio of the total cholesterol over
HDL-C than patients who did not have the disease"
ApoB/apoA-I ratio: an independent predictor of insulin resistance in US
non-diabetic subjects - Eur Heart J. 2007 Sep 1 -
"In the US population, apoB/apoAI ratio is significantly associated with insulin
resistance in non-diabetic subjects"
- The apo B/A-I Ratio
-- A Stronger Predictor of Cardiovascular Events Than LDL, HDL, or Total
Cholesterol, Triglycerides, or Lipid Ratios - Medscape, 7/28/06 -
"the predictive power of the apo B/A-I ratio is superior to, and cannot be
improved by adding, any other lipid parameter or ratio"
Rosuvastatin Provides Better Rates of Lipid Lowering Compared to Other
Statins - Doctor's Guide, 10/27/04 -
another statin agent helped more patients achieve primary treatment goals
for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and secondary apolipoprotein
(apo) B treatment goals in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with high
Scientists Tout New Cholesterol Test - Intelihealth, 9/1/04 -
"Globally, 50 percent of the risk of a heart attack
is predicted by the apo B/apo A1 ratio"
Non-HDL Cholesterol and Apolipoprotein B Predict Cardiovascular Disease
Events Among Men With Type 2 Diabetes - Diabetes Care. 2004
"Non-HDL cholesterol and apoB are more potent
predictors of CVD incidence among diabetic men than LDL cholesterol.
Statistically, the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol is the best predictor
of CVD in this cohort of diabetic men"
Cholesterol, Worst Cholesterol - WebMD, 10/28/03
Rosuvastatin Improves Apolipoprotein Levels - Doctor's Guide, 10/1/03
- FDA Approves New Lescol
Indication To Reduce Triglycerides And Apo B - Doctor's Guide, 3/9/99
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