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Home > Anti-aging Research > Adiponectin

Adiponectin

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Alternative News:

  • Docosahexaenoic acid-enriched canola oil increases adiponectin concentrations: A randomized crossover controlled intervention trial - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014 Aug 20 - "We investigated the effect of 5 oils containing various amounts of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), oleic acid (OA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on plasma inflammatory biomarkers and expression levels of key inflammatory genes and transcription factors in whole blood cells ... Each diet provided 60 g/3000 kcal of different oils: 1) control corn/safflower oil blend (CornSaff; LA-rich), 2) flax/safflower oil blend (FlaxSaff; ALA-rich), 3) conventional canola oil (Canola; OA-rich), 4) high oleic canola oil (CanolaOleic; highest OA content), 5) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (CanolaDHA; OA- and DHA-rich) ... CanolaDHA increased plasma adiponectin concentrations compared with the control CornSaff oil treatment (+4.5%, P = 0.04) and FlaxSaff (+6.9%, P = 0.0008). CanolaDHA also reduced relative expression levels of interleukin (IL)1B compared with CornSaff and Canola (-11% and -13%, respectively, both P = 0.03). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations were lower after Canola than after FlaxSaff (-17.8%, P = 0.047)" - See docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Ingredients in Chocolate, Tea, Berries Could Guard Against Diabetes - Science Daily, 1/20/14 - "those who consumed the most flavone compounds had improved levels of a protein (adiponectin) which helps regulate a number of metabolic processes including glucose levels" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Tomato and Soy on Serum Adipokine Concentrations in Postmenopausal Women at Increased Breast Cancer Risk: A Cross-Over Dietary Intervention Trial - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jan 1:jc20133222 - "Seventy postmenopausal women at increased breast cancer risk participated in the study. The mean age and body mass index of participants was 57.2 years ... The interventions included 10 weeks of consumption of a tomato-based diet (≥25 mg lycopene daily) and 10 weeks of consumption of a soy-based diet (≥40 g of soy protein daily), with a 2-week washout in between ... After the tomato intervention, among all women, adiponectin concentration increased (ratio 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.18), with a stronger effect observed among nonobese women (ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.25). After the soy intervention, adiponectin decreased overall (ratio 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.97), with a larger reduction observed among nonobese women (ratio 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.98) ... Increasing dietary consumption of tomato-based foods may beneficially increase serum adiponectin concentrations among postmenopausal women at increased breast cancer risk, especially those who are not obese" - See carotenoids at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids: a review of the effects on adiponectin and leptin and potential implications for obesity management - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Oct 16 - "omega-3 fatty acids have been correlated with the prevention of obesity and subsequent development of chronic disease sequalae ... Current evidence suggests a positive, dose-dependent relationship between omega-3 fatty acid intake and circulating levels of adiponectin. In obese subjects, this may translate into a reduced risk of developing cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In non-obese subjects, omega-3 is observed to decrease circulating levels of leptin; however, omega-3-associated increases in leptin levels have been observed in obese subjects. This may pose benefits in the prevention of weight regain in these subjects following calorie restriction" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Genistein in the Metabolic Syndrome: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jul 3 - "Patients included 120 postmenopausal women with MetS ... postmenopausal women with MetS were randomly assigned to receive placebo (n = 60) or 54 mg genistein daily (n = 60) for 1 year ... At 1 year in genistein recipients, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR (mean from 4.5 to 2.7; P < .001) decreased and were unchanged in placebo recipients. Genistein statistically increased HDL-C (mean from 46.4 to 56.8 mg/dL) and adiponectin and decreased total cholesterol, LDL-C (mean from 108.8 to 78.7 mg/dL), triglycerides, visfatin, and homocysteine (mean from 14.3 to 11.7) blood levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was also reduced in genistein recipients. Genistein recipients neither experienced more side adverse effects than placebo nor discontinued the study" - See genistein at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Fish Oil on Circulating Adiponectin: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 May 23 - "In placebo-controlled RCTs, fish oil moderately increases circulating adiponectin" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Fish Oil Supplements May Help Fight Against Type 2 Diabetes - Science Daily, 5/22/13 - "Fish oil supplements, also called omega 3 fatty acid capsules, raise levels of adiponectin in the bloodstream. Adiponectin is an important hormone that has beneficial effects on metabolic processes like glucose regulation and the modulation of inflammation. In long-term human studies, higher levels of adiponectin are associated with lower risks of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease ... The meta-analysis reviewed and analyzed results from 14 randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Adiponectin Gene Variant Interacts with Fish Oil Supplementation to Influence Serum Adiponectin in Older Individuals - J Nutr. 2013 May 8 - "Individuals homozygous for the +45 T-allele aged >58 y had a 22% increase in serum adiponectin concentration compared with baseline after the highest dose (P-treatment effect = 0.008). If substantiated in a larger sample, a diet high in n3 PUFAs may be recommended for older individuals, especially those of the +45 TT genotype who have reported increased risk of hypoadiponectinemia, type 2 diabetes, and obesity" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • New research: Limiting carbs to dinner-time increases satiety, reduces risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease - Science Daily, 11/11/12 - "randomly assigned 78 police officers to either the experimental diet (carbohydrates at dinner) or a control weight loss diet (carbohydrates throughout the day). 63 subjects finished the six-month program ... researchers examined the experimental diet's effect on the secretion of three hormones: leptin, considered to be the satiety hormone, whose level in the blood is usually low during the day and high during the night; ghrelin, considered the hunger hormone, whose level in the blood is usually high during the day and low during the night; and adiponectin, considered the link between obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome, whose curve is low and flat in obese people ... the innovative dietary manipulation led to changes in daylight hormonal profiles in favor of the dieters: the satiety hormone leptin's secretion curve became convex during daylight hours with a nadir in the late day; the hunger hormone ghrelin's secretion curve became concave, peaking only in the evening hours; and the curve of adiponectin, considered the link between obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome, was elevated. At the same time this dietary pattern led to lower hunger scores, and better anthropometric (weight, abdominal circumference and body fat), biochemical (blood sugar, blood lipids) and inflammatory outcomes compared to the control group"
  • Telmisartan at 80 mg/Day Increases High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin Levels and Improves Insulin Resistance in Diabetic Patients - Adv Ther. 2012 Jul 20 - "patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension with poor control of blood pressure by 40 mg/day telmisartan were randomly assigned into the telmisartan 80 mg/day (Tel80) group (dose increase from 40 to 80 mg/day) or the telmisartan 40 mg + amlodipine 5 mg (Tel40 + Aml5) group ... Although the antihypertensive effects of the two doses of telmisartan were similar, a significant increase in HMW adiponectin levels was noted only in the Tel80 group" - See telmisartan at OffshoreRX.com.
  • Hormone curbs depressive-like symptoms in stressed mice - Science Daily, 7/9/12 - "A hormone with anti-diabetic properties also reduces depression-like symptoms in mice ... The hormone, called adiponectin, is secreted by adipose tissue and sensitizes the body to the action of insulin, a hormone that lowers blood sugar ... So far, only about half of the patients suffering from major depressive disorders are treated to the point of remission with antidepressant drugs ... The prevalence of depression in the diabetic population is two to three times higher than in the non-diabetic population. Unfortunately, the use of current antidepressants can worsen the control of diabetic patients. Adiponectin, with its anti-diabetic activity, would serve as an innovative therapeutic target for depression treatments, especially for those individuals with diabetes or prediabetes and perhaps those who fail to respond to currently available antidepressants" - [Abstract]
  • The effect of pioglitazone treatment on 15-epi-lipoxin A(4) levels in patients with type 2 diabetes - Atherosclerosis. 2012 May 7 - "Arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids (lipoxins and 15-epilipoxins) have a major role in resolution of inflammation. 15-epi-lipoxin A(4) (15-epi-LXA(4)) is a lipid mediator with strong anti-inflammatory and inflammation-resolving effects ... PIO 15 increased plasma 15-epi-LXA(4) levels (0.63 +/- 0.06-1.05 +/- 0.08 ng/mL, p < 0.01) and adiponectin levels (6.4 +/- 0.3-10.1 +/- 0.7 μg/mL, p < 0.001) and decreased fasting plasma glucose (125 +/- 8-106 +/- 9 mg/dL, p < 0.05), free fatty acids (FFA) (414 +/- 46-320 +/- 38 μmol/l, p < 0.05) and HOMA-IR (5.3 +/- 0.4 to 4.0 +/- 0.4, p < 0.05). Body weight (Δ = 0.2 kg) and HbA1c (7.4 +/- 0.2-7.1 +/- 0.2%) did not change significantly. PIO 30 treated patients had similar increase in plasma 15-epi-LXA(4) (0.64 +/- 0.10-1.08 +/- 0.09 ng/mL, p < 0.01), and decrease in plasma FFA (423 +/- 42-317 +/- 40 μmol/l, p < 0.05) despite a greater increase in plasma adiponectin (6.5 +/- 0.4-15.5 +/- 0.7 ug/mL, p < 0.001) and a greater reduction in HbA1c (8.7 +/- 0.5-7.4 +/- 0.3%, p < 0.01), FPG (159 +/- 16-120 +/- 10 mg/dL, p < 0.01), and HOMA-IR (6.6 +/- 0.8-4.4 +/- 0.4, p < 0.005). Furthermore, PIO 30 treated patients had a significant increase in body weight (Δ = 1.7 kg, p < 0.02)" - See pioglitazone at OffshoreRX.com.
  • A diet rich in slowly digested carbs reduces markers of inflammation in overweight and obese adults - Science Daily, 1/11/12 - "Among overweight and obese adults, a diet rich in slowly digested carbohydrates, such as whole grains, legumes and other high-fiber foods, significantly reduces markers of inflammation associated with chronic disease ... a low-glycemic-load diet reduced a biomarker of inflammation called C-reactive protein by about 22 percent ... C-reactive protein is associated with an increased risk for many cancers as well as cardiovascular disease ... a low-glycemic-load diet modestly increased -- by about 5 percent -- blood levels of a protein hormone called adiponectin ... a low-glycemic-load diet modestly increased -- by about 5 percent -- blood levels of a protein hormone called adiponectin. This hormone plays a key role in protecting against several cancers, including breast cancer, as well as metabolic disorders such as type-2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hardening of the arteries"
  • Low-Dose Dietary Resveratrol Has Differential Effects on Colorectal Tumorigenesis in Adiponectin Knockout and Wild-Type Mice - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Sep 29 - "Obesity is associated with a decrease in the antiinflammatory hormone, adiponectin, and increases in the circulating concentrations of multiple proinflammatory cytokines. These changes contribute to colon tumorigenesis. Resveratrol increases adiponectin production in adipocytes and attenuates the development of colon cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that adiponectin is an integral component of the mechanism by which resveratrol antagonizes colorectal tumorigenesis. To investigate this, we induced tumorigenesis in adiponectin knockout (KO) and wild-type (Wt) C57BL/6 mice through combined azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate treatment during which mice were fed a high-fat, lard-based diet, or the same diet containing 20 mg/kg resveratrol. After 14 wk on diet, Wt mice gained more weight and, on a percentage basis, had higher fat mass and lower lean mass than KO mice. Resveratrol tended to attenuate this response in male Wt mice. Resveratrol also tended to reduce aberrant crypt foci development and decrease circulating interleukin 6 and insulin concentrations in male but not female Wt mice. Taken together, resveratrol improved overall health of obese Wt but not KO mice as hypothesized with a differential sex response" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Isomer-specific effects of conjugated linoleic acid on blood pressure, adipocyte size and function - Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep 23:1-9 - "Consumption of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to modulate cytokine release from adipocytes and positively influence blood pressure in younger rats, but its physiological actions in older models with established hypertension and isomer-specific effects on adipocyte size remain to be determined. Therefore, we investigated the effects of CLA isomers on adipocyte size in relation to blood pressure and adipokine production by hypertrophic adipocytes in older fa/fa Zucker rats with established hypertension. fa/fa Zucker rats were fed with cis(c)9, trans(t)11-CLA or t10, c12-CLA isomers for 8 weeks and compared with lean and obese rats fed with the control diet. Blood pressure and adipocyte size were subsequently measured. Collagenase-isolated adipocytes were size-separated and angiotensinogen and adiponectin protein levels quantified by Western blotting. The t10, c12-CLA group had reduced blood pressure, fewer large adipocytes and increased serum adiponectin. Angiotensinogen was present at higher levels in the large adipocytes, whereas the converse was observed for adiponectin. The beneficial effects of the t10, c12-CLA isomer on blood pressure and adipocyte size in vivo may be due to its ability to reduce the number of large adipocytes, which alters the levels of vasoactive molecules secreted from adipose tissue" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Harvard study supports coffee’s anti-diabetes potential - Nutra USA, 9/21/11 - "Five cups of coffee per day for two months were associated with significant metabolic benefits and live function ... the metabolic benefits were more pronounced in caffeinated coffee, a result that supports the hypothesis that caffeine is responsible for some of the apparent benefits ... Coffee is also a rich source of polyphenols ... one cup of the stuff could provide 350 milligrams of phenolics ... Of these, the most abundant compounds in coffee are chlorogenic acids, making up to 12 per cent of the green coffee bean. The most abundant of these compounds is caffeic acid ... recruited 45 healthy, overweight coffee drinking 40 year olds ... volunteers were asked to drink five cups of coffee per day of instant caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or water for eight weeks ... coffee consumption was associated with a 60% reduction in blood levels of a compound called interleukin-6, which can promote inflammation, compared with the water group ... In addition, levels of adiponectin – a hormone released from fat cells that plays an important role in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and energy – also decreased in the caffeinated, but not decaffeinated group" - [Abstract]
  • Aerobic exercise may improve non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - Science Daily, 4/13/11 - "A study of 15 obese people with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease revealed that the daily walks not only increase insulin sensitivity, but improve the liver's polyunsaturated lipid index (PUI), which is thought to be a marker of liver health ... The improvements are linked to an increase in the hormone adiponectin ... Adiponectin influences the body's response to insulin and is associated with a reduced risk of heart attack because of its anti-inflammatory properties"
  • THE INFLUENCE OF BODY-MASS INDEX AND RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN-ALDOSTERONE SYSTEM ACTIVITY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN 25-HYDROXYVITAMIN D AND ADIPONECTIN IN CAUCASIAN MEN - Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Mar 14 - "Higher 25(OH)D concentrations were independently associated with higher adiponectin levels, particularly when BMI was high" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Niacin results in reduced monocyte adhesion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus - Atherosclerosis. 2010 Dec 25 - "increased adiponectin by 30.5%" - See niacin at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol’s health benefits linked to fat hormone control - Nutra USA, 1/11/11 - "adiponectin has a wide range of beneficial effects on obesity-related medical complications, and noted that both adiponectin and resveratrol display anti-obesity, anti-insulin resistance and anti-aging properties" - [Abstract] - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Up-regulation of Adiponectin by Resveratrol: THE ESSENTIAL ROLES OF THE Akt/FOXO1 AND AMP-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE SIGNALING PATHWAYS AND DsbA-L - J Biol Chem. 2011 Jan 7 - "RSV promotes adiponectin multimerization in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via a Sirt1-independent mechanism. In addition, we show that the stimulatory effect of RSV is regulated by both the Akt/FOXO1 and the AMPK signaling pathways. Last, we show that DsbA-L plays a critical role in the promoting effect of RSV on adiponectin multimerization and cellular levels" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Synergistic effects of ascorbic acid and thiazolidinedione on secretion of high molecular weight adiponectin from human adipocytes - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010 Dec;12(12):1084-9 - "AA supplementation significantly increased secretion of HMW adiponectin (1.7-fold) without altering adiponectin expression or total adiponectin secretion. TZD significantly increased expression (3-fold) and secretion of total (1.4-fold) but not HMW adiponectin. Combined supplementation resulted in a significant increase in expression (3-fold) and secretion of total (1.8-fold) and HMW (5-fold) adiponectin. Similar results were seen in cells co-treated with TNFα" - High adiponectin is a good thing.  Actos (pioglitazone) is a TZD and is something I've been taking for anti-aging for some time.  Not only does it increase adiponectin but it increases insulin sensitivity.  See my Insulin and Aging page.  See pioglitazone at OffshoreRX.com.
  • Coffee consumption but not green tea consumption is associated with adiponectin levels in Japanese males - Eur J Nutr. 2010 Oct 16 - "We not only revealed that habitual coffee consumption is associated with higher adiponectin levels in Japanese males but also found a dose-dependent association between coffee consumption and adiponectin levels. Therefore, our study suggested that coffee components might play an important role in the elevation of adiponectin level" - See my adiponectin page.  High adiponectin is a good thing.
  • Association of Japanese dietary pattern with serum adiponectin concentration in Japanese adult men - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Sep 27 - "Although previous studies suggest that the traditional Japanese dietary pattern is independently associated with a low cardiovascular disease mortality risk, the mechanisms mediating or linking this association are not well understood. Adiponectin has emerged as a valuable biomarker for cardiovascular diseases ... Greater adherence to the "Japanese" dietary pattern was independently associated to a higher serum adiponectin concentration in Japanese adult men. This finding supports the hypothesis that the traditional Japanese diet may have a potentially beneficial effect on adiponectin concentrations"
  • Astaxanthin’s heart benefits get human data support - Nutra USA, 8/9/10 - "Daily supplements of the carotenoid astaxanthin may improve HDL ‘good’ cholesterol levels in people with mildly abnormal blood lipid levels ... participants receiving the two highest doses experienced significant reductions in their triglyceride levels, of 25 and 24 percent, respectively, compared to baseline. Furthermore, people receiving 6 or 12 mg per day experienced significant increases in their HDL-cholesterol levels of 10 and 15 percent, respectively ... Additionally, adiponectin levels increased in the two highest dose groups, with increases over 20 percent in the 12 mg per day group, and between 15 and 20 percent in the 18 percent group" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.comor astaxanthin products at iHerb.
  • Administration of natural astaxanthin increases serum HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin in subjects with mild hyperlipidemia - Atherosclerosis. 2010 Apr;209(2):520-3 - "Multiple comparison tests showed that 12 and 18 mg/day doses significantly reduced triglyceride, and 6 and 12 mg doses significantly increased HDL-cholesterol. Serum adiponectin was increased by astaxanthin (12 and 18 mg/day), and changes of adiponectin correlated positively with HDL-cholesterol changes independent of age and BMI" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.comor astaxanthin products at iHerb.
  • Cutting fat and calories can lower cancer risk in dogs and people - Science Daily, 7/22/10 - "obesity in both dogs and humans limits the production of adiponectin, a hormone that has been shown to inhibit cancer cell growth. He recommended reducing calories, particularly those from sugar, which has the additional danger of not only causing obesity, but also feeding cancer cells and encouraging their growth"
  • Effects of a 1-year dietary intervention with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched olive oil on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients: a preliminary study - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2010 May 13 - "Consumption of olive oil enriched with n-3 PUFA demonstrated a significant improvement of liver echo-texture and of the Doppler Perfusion Index after 12 months (after: 0.19 +/- 0.02 vs. pre: 0.15 +/- 0.03; P < 0.05), whereas no significant changes were seen at the end of follow-up in controls. Moreover, patients who consumed the olive oil enriched with n-3 PUFA showed a significant amelioration of liver enzymes, and of triglycerides (post: 132.8 +/- 63.7 vs. pre: 164.5 +/- 85.5 mg/dl; P = 0.04) in a general linear model adjusted for age and gender. Interestingly, patients reported to have a significant increase of adiponectin levels (post: 1,487.9 +/- 96.7 vs. pre: 1,143 +/- 24.8 mug/ml; P = 0.04)"
  • Coffee’s anti-diabetes benefit strengthen - Nutra USA, 3/16/10 - "adiponectin levels increased by 6 per cent. Adiponectin is a protein hormone linked to various metabolic processes, and levels are inversely related to body fat levels"
  • Dietary supplementation of n-3 PUFA reduces weight gain and improves postprandial lipaemia and the associated inflammatory response in the obese JCR:LA-cp rat - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2009 Nov 16 - "n-3 PUFA treatment resulted in a significant improvement (i.e. decrease) in the postprandial response for triglyceride (45%) (p < 0.05), apoB48 (45%) (p < 0.03) and LBP (33%) (p < 0.05) compared to controls (measured as area under the clearance curve). In contrast, we observed a significant elevation in postprandial haptoglobin (165%) (p < 0.001) in obese rats supplemented with 10% n-3 PUFA. Treatment with 5% n-3 PUFA in the JCR:LA-cp obese animals resulted in a complementary decrease in total body weight gain (6%) (p < 0.001) and an increase (i.e. improvement) in adiponectin (33%) (p < 0.05) compared to controls, without a concomitant reduction in food intake" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid reduces the hepatic triacylglycerol content and the leptin mRNA level in adipose tissue in obese Zucker fa/fa rats - Br J Nutr. 2009 Mar 19:1-13 - "Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been reported to reduce body weight and beneficially affect glucose metabolism in animals, but the results are inconsistent and seem to depend on animal model and type of CLA isomer. In the present study, feeding male Zucker fa/fa rats diets supplemented with 1 % trans-10, cis-12-CLA for 10 d reduced the liver TAG content without improving the overall adiposity, and enhanced hepatic mitochondrial and peroxisomal beta-oxidation ... The present results suggest that dietary supplementation with trans-10, cis-12-CLA may increase the catabolism of lipids in liver and adipose tissue. Moreover, we provide new data suggesting that trans-10, cis-12-CLA modulates the expression of resistin and adiponectin inversely in adipose tissue. Hence, the present results suggest that trans-10, cis-12-CLA may have some beneficial effects on lipid metabolism and adiposity but possibly reduces insulin sensitivity" - See CLA products at iHerb.
  • Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation Enhances Antihypertensive Effect of Ramipril in Chinese Patients With Obesity-Related Hypertension - Am J Hypertens. 2009 Mar 19 - "Participants were randomized to a daily dose of 4.5 g/day CLA (nine 0.5-g capsules; a 50:50 isomer blend of c 9,t 11 and t 10,c 12 CLA) with 37.5 mg/day ramipril (group 1) or placebo with 37.5 mg/day ramipril (group 2) for 8 weeks ... Treatment with CLA significantly enhanced the reduction effect of ramipril on systolic BP and diastolic BP (P < 0.05). It also increased plasma adiponectin concentration (P < 0.05) and decreased plasma concentrations of leptin and angiotensinogen (P < 0.05); however, significant change was not observed in ACE activity" - See CLA products at iHerb.
  • Grape polyphenols may protect against obesity: Study - Nutra USA, 3/18/09 - "animals fed a high-fat diet but supplemented with the grape seed extract had adiponectin levels 61 per cent higher than animals only fed the high fat diet. Adiponectin is a protein hormone linked to various metabolic processes, and levels are inversely related to body fat levels" - [Abstract] - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Chardonnay grape seed procyanidin extract supplementation prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in hamsters by improving adipokine imbalance and oxidative stress markers - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 Nov 26 - "GSE prevented in part these effects, reducing insulinemia and leptinemia by 16.5 and 45%, respectively, whereas adiponectin level increased by 61% compared with obese controls. GSE lowered glycemia and HOMA-IR and strongly prevented cardiac production of superoxide by 74% and NAD(P)H oxidase expression by 30%. This is the first time that chronic consumption of grape phenolics is shown to reduce obesity development and related metabolic pathways including adipokine secretion and oxidative stress" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Red Wine's Resveratrol May Help Battle Obesity - Science Daily, 6/16/08 - "resveratrol inhibited the pre-fat cells from increasing and prevented them from converting into mature fat cells. Also, resveratrol hindered fat storage. Most interesting, according to Fischer-Posovszky, was that resveratrol reduced production of certain cytokines (interleukins 6 and 8), substances that may be linked to the development of obesity-related disorders, such as diabetes and clogged coronary arteries. Also, resveratrol stimulated formation of a protein known to decrease the risk of heart attack. Obesity decreases this substance, called adiponectin" - [WebMD] - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.

News & Research:

  • Adiponectin definition - Medterms.com - "Low levels of adiponectin are found in people who are obese (and who are at increased risk of a heart attack)"
  • Relations of Plasma Total and High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin to New-Onset Heart Failure in Adults ≥65 Years of Age (from the Cardiovascular Health Study) - Am J Cardiol. 2013 Oct 3 - "Total and HMW adiponectin were measured in 3,228 subjects without prevalent HF, atrial fibrillation or CVD. The relations of total and HMW adiponectin with HF were nonlinear, with significant associations observed only for concentrations greater than the median (12.4 and 6.2 mg/L, respectively). After adjustment for potential confounders, the hazard ratios per SD increment in total adiponectin were 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.72 to 1.21) for concentrations less than the median and 1.25 (95% confidence interval 1.14 to 1.38) higher than the median. There was a suggestion of effect modification by body mass index, whereby the association appeared strongest in participants with lower body mass indexes. Consistent with the HF findings, higher adiponectin tended to be associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and left atrial enlargement. Results were similar for HMW adiponectin"
  • Plasma Adiponectin and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in 5 US Cohorts - Medscape, 2/20/13 - "In this pooled analysis, low prediagnostic levels of circulating adiponectin were associated with an elevated risk of pancreatic cancer"
  • Thin Asians at Risk for Diabetes Due to Hidden Body Fat - Medscape, 2/11/13 - "Japanese American women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with diabetes as whites, despite having lower body-mass indexes (BMIs) ... Indians are often diagnosed with diabetes 10 years earlier and 5- to 10-units BMI thinner than whites ... Both believe the explanation lies in "hidden" visceral fat found inside the body, between organs, in Asians and probably other ethnic groups too, but not in whites. This in turn affects the levels of adipokines secreted, such as leptin and adiponectin, which can have adverse metabolic effects ... Overall, Japanese women had significantly lower BMIs (23.7 vs 25.3 kg/m2), leptin (15.0 vs 25.9 ng/mL), and adiponectin (11.7 vs 16.0 µg/mL) than whites ... one factor he believes may be playing an important role in India is vegetarianism. People there consume high amounts of folate but are deficient in vitamin B12, creating a low-B12/high-folate intrauterine environment that "produces babies who are mostly insulin resistant.""
  • Lower Adiponectin Levels at First Trimester of Pregnancy Are Associated With Increased Insulin Resistance and Higher Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus - Diabetes Care. 2013 Jan 8 - "Pregnant women with lower adiponectin levels at 1st trimester have higher levels of insulin resistance and are more likely to develop GDM independently of adiposity or glycemic measurements"
  • A Prospective Study of Plasma Adiponectin and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in Five US Cohorts - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012 Dec 14 - "The adipocyte-secreted hormone adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory properties. Although development of pancreatic cancer is associated with states of insulin resistance and chronic inflammation, the mechanistic basis of the associations is poorly understood ... conducted a nested case-control study of 468 pancreatic cancer case subjects and 1080 matched control subjects from five prospective US cohorts: Health Professionals Follow-up Study, Nurses' Health Study, Physicians' Health Study, Women's Health Initiative, and Women's Health Study ... Plasma adiponectin was inversely associated with pancreatic cancer risk, which was consistent across the five prospective cohorts (P (heterogeneity) = .49) and independent of other markers of insulin resistance (eg, diabetes, body mass index, physical activity, plasma C-peptide). Compared with the lowest quintile of adiponectin, individuals in quintiles 2 to 5 had multivariable odds ratios ([ORs] 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of OR = 0.61 (95% CI = 0.43 to 0.86), OR = 0.58 (95% CI = 0.41 to 0.84), OR = 0.59 (95% CI = 0.40 to 0.87), and OR = 0.66 (95% CI = 0.44 to 0.97), respectively (P (trend) = .04)"
  • Low adiponcetin associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk - Science Daily, 12/14/12 - "Low adiponectin plasma levels are associated with the insulin resistance that manifests in obesity and diabetes mellitus, both of which are risk factors for pancreatic cancer ... The researchers found a statistically significant inverse association between prediagnostic plasma adiponectin levels and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the five prospective cohorts"
  • Another potential risk factor for developing dementia and Alzheimer's disease in women - Science Daily, 1/2/12 - "One of the main features of adiponectin is that it has been shown to play a role in the sensitization of insulin and therefore may become a therapeutic target for the treatment of T2D (type 2 diabetes). Surprisingly, a higher adiponectin level was found to be a predictor of all-cause and vascular mortality. In concurrence with the mortality findings, the current investigation shows that an elevated adiponectin level is also an independent predictor for all-cause dementia and AD in women"
  • Hormone in Women Linked to Dementia, Study Finds - ABC News, 1/2/12 - "Adiponectin is supposed to be beneficial. It’s supposed to decrease your risk of diabetes, supposed to decrease the risk of heart disease. But in this particular study, to our surprise, it increased the risk of dementia ... The researchers also found high levels of the hormone in the men with dementia, but Schaefer said there were not enough men in the study to establish a link as strong as the one in women"
  • Adiponectin and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in the Northern Manhattan Study - Stroke. 2011 Dec 22 - "Our findings suggest that low adiponectin is associated with increased IMT in a multiethnic cohort and support a protective role for adiponectin in atherosclerosis"
  • Testosterone therapy decreased subcutaneous fat and adiponectin in ageing men - Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Dec 21 - "Our data showed that testosterone therapy decreased subcutaneous fat on the abdomen and lower extremities, but had no significant effect on visceral fat. Moreover, adiponectin levels were significantly decreased during testosterone therapy"
  • Adiponectin elevation by telmisartan ameliorates ISCHEMIC MYOCARDIUM IN Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats with metabolic syndrome - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2011 Nov 3 - "myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury ... Telmisartan reduced the extension of the infarct size in a dose-dependent fashion and decreased the levels of plasma troponin I, a specific marker of myocardial damage. Telmisartan also caused a dose-dependent increase in adiponectin both in plasma and cardiac tissue of infarcted ZDF rats. These levels were minimally increased (p<0.05 vs vehicle) by telmisartan 7 mg/kg/day and reached the maximum values with the highest dose of 12 mg/kg/day (p<0.01 vs vehicle). In contrast, within the infarcted tissue telmisartan decreased the expression of markers of inflammation such as the transcription factor NF-κB, the toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4 as well as TNF-α cytokine. Nitrosative stress was maximal in vehicle-treated infarcted hearts as evidenced by increased expression of iNOS, which was almost abolished after treatement with telmisartan. Conclusions: Treatment of ZDF rats for three weeks with telmisartan, a dual angiotensin II receptor antagonist and partial PPAR-γ receptor agonist, resulted in a significant reduction of myocardial damage induced by I/R and was assocciated with increased adiponectin and a decrease in inflammatory markers"
  • Pioglitazone induces regression and stabilization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients with impaired glucose tolerance - Diabet Med. 2011 Sep 26 - "Compared with the control group, 6 months' treatment with pioglitazone significantly decreased coronary plaque burden (50.7 +/- 11.1 vs. 64.1 +/- 10.3%, P < 0.05), plaque area (6.22 +/- 2.03 vs. 8.31 +/- 4.29, P < 0.05), thin-cap fibroatheroma prevalence (11 vs. 22%, P < 0.05) and percentage of necrotic core area (16 +/- 8 vs. 31 +/- 7%, P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and plasma endothelin-1 levels were significantly lower and adiponectin level significantly higher in patients in the pioglitazone group. Serum adiponectin level was negatively correlated with plasma endothelin-1 level and coronary plaque area (r = 0.739 and -0.431, respectively, both P < 0.05). Conclusions:  Pioglitazone may induce regression and stabilization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques. The mechanisms might involve inhibition of inflammation, increase in adiponectin level and improvement in endothelial function"
  • Adiponectin and the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Hispanics and African Americans: The IRAS Family Study - Diabetes Care. 2011 Aug 4 - "After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, and smoking, adiponectin was significantly inversely associated with diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 0.54 per 1 SD difference [95% CI 0.38-0.76])"
  • Plasma adiponectin-an independent indicator of liver fat accumulation - Metabolism. 2011 May 10 - "Adiponectin is a very strong predictor for liver brightness, even after adjustment for the numerous other metabolic risk factors, markers of inflammation, and novel obesity-related peptide hormones. Whether low adiponectin levels predict to liver fat accumulation remains to be explored in a future prospective follow-up of this cohort"
  • Association of plasma adiponectin levels with hearing thresholds in adults - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011 Apr 30 - "Plasma adiponectin may protect peripheral hearing function, particularly that related to high frequencies. Adiponectin may be a mediator of obesity-associated, age-related hearing impairment"
  • Contribution of adiponectin to the cardiometabolic risk of postmenopausal women with loss-of-function lipoprotein lipase gene mutations - Menopause. 2011 Jan 19 - "these results suggest that a low plasma adiponectin level significantly contributes to the cardiometabolic risk profile of postmenopausal women with LPLD, independently of anthropometrics, lipids, and other covariates"
  • New clues uncover how 'starvation hormone' works - Science Daily, 12/26/10 - "how the hormone adiponectin functions and eventually could lead to new treatments for conditions ranging from diabetes and weight loss to heart disease and cancer ... the researchers used models of inducible cell suicide in both pancreatic beta cells, which produce insulin, and cardiomyocytes, which are specific muscle cells located in a part of the heart known as the myocardium, to determine how the single hormone could exert such different influences ... When the researchers introduced adiponectin into cells, they found that the hormone triggers the conversion of ceramides from a destructive force into one that helps cells survive and inhibits cell death ... the new findings have implications for the treatment of numerous diseases including diabetes and cancer ... we can protect those cells from cell death with adiponectin ... Adiponectin, which Dr. Scherer discovered in 1994, not only controls sensitivity to insulin but also is known to play an integral role in metabolism and obesity ... As a person accumulates more fat, however, adiponectin levels decline. Once adiponectin levels start dropping, the body begins storing fat in dangerous places such as the heart, liver and muscle tissues -- where it can cause inflammation and pave the way for heart disease ... adiponectin is very important and is probably a key manipulator of lipid levels"
  • Adiponectin shows potential in blocking obesity-related carcinogenesis - Science Daily, 10/19/10 - "our results suggest an attractive molecular strategy employing adiponectin analogues for potential therapy of metastatic HCC ... With the prevalence of obesity in the U.S., our study could significantly improve overall survival for a vast number of obese liver cancer patients by using adiponectin to inhibit growth, invasion, and migration of HCC cells"
  • High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the ARIC Study - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Aug 18 - "Adiponectin, synthesized by adipocytes, has been shown to be a predictor of type 2 diabetes ... High-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin is thought to be the most biologically active form of adiponectin in terms of glucose homeostasis ... Overall hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for developing diabetes for those in the fourth (vs. the first) quartile of total adiponectin, HMW adiponectin, and the ratio of HMW to total were 0.40 (0.25-0.64), 0.38 (0.23-0.63), and 0.65 (0.42-0.99), respectively ... Conclusions: In this community-based sample of U.S. adults, higher total and HMW adiponectin concentrations were similarly associated with a lower incidence of diabetes over 9 yr of follow-up"
  • Circulating Adiponectin Is Associated with Obesity and Serum Lipids in West Africans - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Apr 9 - "Significant negative associations were observed between log-adiponectin levels and measures of obesity after adjusting for age and gender. Similarly, log-adiponectin levels were significantly negatively associated with serum triglycerides and insulin resistance but positively associated with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and total cholesterol after adjusting for age, gender, and body mass index"
  • Telmisartan ameliorates hyperglycemia and metabolic profile in nonobese Cohen-Rosenthal diabetic hypertensive rats via peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-gamma activation - Metabolism. 2010 Jan 12 - "adiponectin was significantly (60%, P < .01) increased by telmisartan ... The telmisartan-induced increase in adiponectin was most probably associated with a decrease in glucose and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels. Therefore, in addition to its hypotensive effect, telmisartan demonstrated beneficial thiazolidinedione-like effects" - See telmisartan at OffshoreRx.com.
  • Pioglitazone Reduces ER Stress in the Liver: Direct Monitoring of in vivo ER Stress Using ER Stress-activated Indicator Transgenic Mice - Endocr J. 2009 Sep 29 - "8 weeks of pioglitazone treatment reduced the accumulation of fat droplets in the liver and attenuated the development of insulin resistance. In the liver of the ERAI transgenic mice, ERAI fluorescence activity was clearly reduced as early as after 4 weeks of pioglitazone treatment, preceding the improvement of insulin resistance. In addition, after the pioglitazone treatment, serum free fatty acid and triglyceride levels were decreased, and serum adiponectin levels were increased. These data indicate that pioglitazone treatment suppresses ER stress in the liver which may explain, at least in part, the pharmacological effects of pioglitazone to reduce insulin resistance"
  • Higher Levels Of A Certain Protein Associated With Lower Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes - Science Daily, 7/15/09 - "Persons with higher levels of adiponectin, a protein that is produced by fat cells and that has anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties, have an associated lower risk of type 2 diabetes"
  • Study Links a Protein With Diabetes Risk - WebMD, 7/7/09
  • Higher Levels of Adiponectin Associated With Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes - Doctor's Guide, 7/7/09 - "Although these epidemiologic studies cannot establish causality, the consistency of the association across diverse populations, the dose-response relationship, and the supportive findings in mechanistic studies indicate that adiponectin is a promising target for the reduction of risk of type 2 diabetes"
  • Low-dose pioglitazone increases serum high molecular weight adiponectin and improves glycemic control in Japanese patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2009 Jun 20 - "7.5mg/day of pioglitazone ... adiponectin increased markedly from 5.2 (2.4, 8.6)mug/ml at baseline to 9.8 (4.1, 12.6)mug/ml" - See pioglitazone at OffshoreRX.com.
  • Pioglitazone Improves Endothelial Function with Increased Adiponectin and High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Type 2 Diabetes - Endocr J. 2009 Jun 9 - "After treatment, HbA1c levels equally decreased in both groups, but PIO-treated group had significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, and decreased triglyceride, fasting insulin levels and HOMA-R. After treatment, increases in %FMD, plasma HDL-C and adiponectin (APN) levels were significantly greater in PIO-treated group than those in control group. Changes of %FMD showed significant positive correlations with those of plasma APN and HDL-C levels. In conclusion, the present study showed that treatment of T2DM improved endothelial function with greater increases in %FMD, APN and HDL-C levels in PIO-treated group than those in control group, suggesting the beneficial effect of PIO on endothelial function in T2DM" - See pioglitazone at OffshoreRX.com.
  • Efficacy and safety of therapy with metformin plus pioglitazone in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial - Curr Med Res Opin. 2009 Mar 23 - "Mean HbA(1c) was reduced by 0.67% in patients receiving pioglitazone plus metformin versus an increase of 0.25% in those receiving metformin alone (p < 0.0001). After 8 weeks' treatment and until the end of the study, HbA(1c) was significantly lower with pioglitazone plus metformin and more patients in this group achieved an HbA(1c) < 6.5% (38.6% vs. 8.1%; p < 0.0001). FBG was also reduced by a significantly greater amount in patients receiving pioglitazone plus metformin compared with metformin monotherapy (-20.5 vs. 1.9 mg/dl; p < 0.0001). Combination therapy was associated with significantly increased HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and adiponectin, and significantly decreased levels of fasting insulin, free fatty acids, and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-R) compared with metformin monotherapy" - See pioglitazone at OffshoreRX.com.
  • Adiponectin Is A Metabolic Link Between Obesity And Bone Mineral Density - Science Daily, 11/25/08 - "adiponectin, a protein secreted from adipocytes, is a metabolic link that can explain, in part, the known positive relationship between obesity and both bone mineral density and reduced susceptibility to fractures ... In summary, elevated circulating adiponectin was associated with lower bone mass and weaker bones in growing mice compared to control animals"
  • Levels Of Key Hormone During First Trimester Of Pregnancy Could Lead To Earlier Diagnosis Of Gestational Diabetes - Science Daily, 10/7/08 - "New research shows women who develop diabetes during pregnancy (gestational diabetes mellitus) have reduced levels of an insulin-sensitive hormone, adiponectin, as early as nine weeks into the pregnancy"
  • Adiponectin May Be a Marker for Type 2 Diabetes - Medscape, 9/3/08 - "Adiponectin levels were associated with a significantly lower risk for type 2 diabetes in multivariate models that adjusted for body mass index (BMI). For the highest quintiles vs the lowest quintiles, odds ratio (OR) was 0.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12 - 0.25) for total adiponectin and 0.10 (95% CI, 0.06 - 0.15) for high-molecular-weight adiponectin. Even after adjustment for total adiponectin, a higher ratio of high-molecular-weight adiponectin to total adiponectin was associated with a statistically significantly lower risk for type 2 diabetes (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.31 - 0.65) "
  • Adiponectin Levels Indicative of Diabetes Risk - Medscape, 4/29/08 - "Baseline levels of adiponectin are inversely related to diabetes risk in subjects at high risk for developing the condition"
  • Fat Hormone May Contribute To Longevity - Science Daily, 11/21/07 - "long-lived Snell dwarf mice burn less glucose and more fatty acids during periods of fasting, and as a result produce fewer free radicals ... The key to this switch may be adiponectin, a hormone produced by fat cells that helps lower glucose production and stimulates cells to use fat for energy instead. The researchers found that Snell mice had three times as much adiponectin in their blood as control mice" - Something that was also in today's abstracts (see below) was pioglitazone, which increased adiponectin 156%.
  • Key Hormone Protects Obese Mice From Diabetes - WebMD, 8/23/07 - "The high levels of adiponectin, however, made the mice physiologically skinny ... This discovery also suggests that in people who have low adiponectin levels fat cells don't send the signal that they're ready to accept fat, Dr. Scherer said. Instead, the fat is stored in dangerous places -- liver, heart and muscle tissues -- where it can cause inflammation and pave the way for disease"
  • Pioglitazone Treatment Increases Concentrations of Adiponectin in Plasma - Doctor's Guide, 11/16/06 - "Results showed there was a 6.9 mcg/mL mean increase in adiponectin levels in the pioglitazone group while in non-pioglitazone patients it decreased by 0.42 mcg/mL"
  • Adiponectin Level Found to be Independent Risk Factor for Endometrial Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 3/34/05 - "The investigators found that mean serum adiponectin levels were significantly lower among patients with endometrial cancer than among controls"

Abstracts:

  • Adiponectin: Target for MetS, Diabetes, & Coronary Disease? - Medscape, 9/24/14 - "Hypoadiponectinemia is consistently associated with obesity, MS, atherosclerosis, CAD, T2DM. Lifestyle correction helps to favorably modify plasma adiponectin levels. Low adiponectinemia in obese patients is raised via continued weight loss programs in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals and is also accompanied by reductions in pro-inflammatory factors. Diet modifications, like intake of fish, omega-3 supplementation, adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and coffee consumption also increase adiponectin levels. Antidiabetic and cardiovascular pharmacological agents, like glitazones, glimepiride, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are also able to improve adiponectin concentration ... Since adiponectin levels are consistently inversely correlated with each of these ailments, the finding of pharmacologic agents proficient to improve its plasma levels should be target of exhaustive research"
  • Adiponectin Levels and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies - Am J Med Sci. 2012 Nov 1 - "Twelve prospective studies comprising 8 nested case-control studies and 4 cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis ... The pooled RR for CHD was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.69-0.98, P = 0.031). Subgroup analyses showed that the pooled RRs (95% CIs) for CHD risk were 0.78 (0.66-0.92) and 0.75 (0.59-0.94) for men and women, respectively. For studies with mean age less than 65 years, the pooled RR (95% CI) for CHD risk was 0.72 (0.59-0.87). For studies with 100 or more CHD cases, the pooled RR was marginally significant (RR = 0.83, 95% CI, 0.69-1.00; P = 0.051)"
  • Arterial Stiffness Is Inversely Related to Plasma Adiponectin Levels in Young Normotensive Patients With Type 1 Diabetes - Diabetes Care. 2012 Sep 21 - "Data from 80 patients (age 27.1 +/- 6.1 years, BMI 24.2 +/- 3.1 kg/m(2), HbA(1c) 7.5 +/- 1.6%, 39 men, adiponectin 13.9 +/- 6.7 μg/mL, and PWV 5.6 +/- 0.9 m/s) were analyzed. Log adiponectin inversely correlated with age-adjusted PWV (r = -0.291, P = 0.009) and waist circumference (r = -0.427, P < 0.001). In a fully adjusted model, age, expiration/inspiration index, and log adiponectin were independently associated with PWV, explaining 39.6% of its variance ... Arterial stiffness is inversely related to adiponectin concentration in young patients with type 1 diabetes without major complications"
  • Plasma adiponectin levels in relation to prognosis in patients with angiographic coronary artery disease - Metabolism. 2012 Jul 10 - "major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) ... The incidence of MACE was significantly higher in the low adiponectin group (P=.037). In a multivariate Cox regression analysis for adiponectin levels, previously documented risk factors, coronary artery stenosis scores, and low adiponectin levels were indicated as independent predictors of MACE in patients with CAD (RR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.066-2.865; P=.027). Further adjustment for hsCRP, Ccr, LVEF, fasting glucose and lipid profile did not attenuate this association (RR=2.36; 95% CI 1.338-4.167; P=.003). The relative risk for low adiponectin levels after additional adjustment for the coronary score was 2.42 (95% CI 1.367-4.279; P=.002). The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis curve suggested that patients with lower adiponectin concentrations had a decreased event-free survival ratio (log-rank χ(2) =4.592, P=.032)"
  • Hormone curbs depressive-like symptoms in stressed mice - Science Daily, 7/9/12 - "A hormone with anti-diabetic properties also reduces depression-like symptoms in mice ... The hormone, called adiponectin, is secreted by adipose tissue and sensitizes the body to the action of insulin, a hormone that lowers blood sugar ... So far, only about half of the patients suffering from major depressive disorders are treated to the point of remission with antidepressant drugs ... The prevalence of depression in the diabetic population is two to three times higher than in the non-diabetic population. Unfortunately, the use of current antidepressants can worsen the control of diabetic patients. Adiponectin, with its anti-diabetic activity, would serve as an innovative therapeutic target for depression treatments, especially for those individuals with diabetes or prediabetes and perhaps those who fail to respond to currently available antidepressants"
  • Inverse relationship of serum adiponectin concentration with type 2 diabetes mellitus incidence in middle-aged Japanese workers: 6-year follow-up - Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2012 Jan 6 - "Age- and sex-adjusted homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was inversely associated with adiponectin quintiles at baseline. During six years of follow-up, 164 individuals developed T2DM. In a fully-adjusted model, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of T2DM in Q2 to Q5 compared to Q1 were 0.62 (0.41-0.94), 0.44 (0.25-0.77), 0.40 (0.20-0.78) and 0.85 (0.48-1.49), respectively"
  • Plasma total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels and risk of coronary heart disease in women - Atherosclerosis. 2011 Jul 20 - "Adjusted for matching factors, parental history of myocardial infarction, hormone replacement therapy, alcohol consumption, physical activity, body mass index, hypertension, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, the relative risk in the highest versus lowest quintile was 0.50 (95%-CI 0.33-0.75; p trend=0.001) for total adiponectin, 0.53 (95%-CI 0.35-0.80; p trend=0.004) for HMW adiponectin, and 0.63 (95%-CI 0.43-0.93; p trend=0.03) for HMW/total adiponectin ratio. After adjustment for diabetes, HDL-cholesterol, HbA1c, and CRP these associations were attenuated and no longer significant (RRs, 0.84; 95%-CI 0.53-1.33; p trend=0.62; 0.95; 95%-CI 0.60-1.52; p trend=0.98; 0.97; 95%-CI 0.64-1.47; p trend=0.80) ... High levels of total and HMW adiponectin, and HMW/total adiponectin ratio are associated with a lower risk of CHD among women. HMW adiponectin and HMW/total adiponectin ratio are not more closely related to risk than total adiponectin. These associations are largely mediated by parameters related to glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation, especially HDL-cholesterol levels"
  • The association of circulating adiponectin levels with pancreatic cancer risk; a study within the prospective EPIC cohort - Int J Cancer. 2011 Jun 16 - "Overall, adiponectin showed no association with pancreas cancer risk; however, among never smokers, higher circulating levels of adiponectin were associated with a reduction in pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 0.44 [95% CI 0.23-0.82] for highest vs. lowest quartile), whereas among current smokers there was no significant association (OR = 1.59 [95% CI 0.67-3.76] for highest vs. lowest quartile; p-trend = 0.530; p-interaction = 0.309). In our study, lower adiponectin concentrations may be associated with the development of pancreatic cancer among never smokers, whereas the only other prospective study being conducted so far showed a decrease in risk among male smokers"
  • A longitudinal analysis on associations of adiponectin levels with metabolic syndrome and carotid artery intima-media thickness. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study - Atherosclerosis. 2011 Apr 8 - "In a multivariable model adjusted for age, sex, MetS components, LDL-cholesterol, CRP, insulin, leptin, smoking and family history of coronary disease, 1-unit increase in baseline adiponectin levels was associated with reduced odds (odds ratio [OR]=0.94, 95% CI 0.89-0.99, P=0.04) of incident MetS. Of the MetS components, adiponectin levels were inversely associated with the incidence of hyperglycemia in multivariable analyses (OR=0.94 (0.90-0.99), P=0.04). When studying the adiponectin×MetS interaction on IMT, we observed a significant interaction when examining IMT in 2001 (r=-0.11 (MetS(-)) vs. r=-0.17 (MetS(+)), P for interaction 0.047) and IMT in 2007 (r=-0.12 (MetS(-)) vs. r=-0.21 (MetS(+)), P for interaction 0.005), suggesting the inverse association between adiponectin and IMT is stronger among those with MetS"
  • Adiponectin and adiponectin receptor in relation to colorectal cancer progression - Int J Cancer. 2010 Dec 15;127(12):2758-67 - "Although obesity is a risk factor for colorectal cancer, the underlying mechanism is not clear. Adiponectin is an adipokine that binds to 2 types of receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. The plasma concentrations of adiponectin are reduced in obese individuals and adiponectin has been reported to have anticarcinogenic properties. Furthermore, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 have been reported to be expressed in several malignancies ... AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 immunostaining was detected in 72 and 68% of human colorectal cancer tissue, respectively. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression levels were inversely related to T stage. The lowest AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression were detected in poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. RT-PCR also showed the expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in HCT116 and SW620. MTT assay and TUNEL assay demonstrated the tendency of growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in both cell lines after full-length adiponectin treatment although statistically insignificant. Microarray analysis revealed several gene responses to full-length adiponectin, including upregulation of ENDOGL1 and MT1G. In conclusion, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 may be intimately related to the progression of colorectal cancer"
  • Adiponectin inhibits osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption via APPL1-mediated suppression of AKT1 - J Biol Chem. 2011 Feb 7 - "adiponectin is important in maintaining the balance of energy metabolism, inflammatory responses and bone formation"
  • Hypoadiponectinemia is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome in korean type 2 diabetes patients - J Am Coll Nutr. 2010 Jun;29(3):171-8 - "Our findings show that hypoadiponectinemia is strongly associated with MetS in type 2 DM patients. Dietary intake may be indirectly associated with adiponectin levels through factors such as BMI, waist circumference, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and blood pressure. Therefore, our results suggest that manipulation of the level of adiponectin may prevent MetS and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in type 2 DM patients"
  • Adiposity and Insulin Resistance Correlate with Telomere Length in Middle-aged Arabs: The Influence of Circulating Adiponectin - Eur J Endocrinol. 2010 Aug - "Studies in obesity have implicated adipocytokines in the development of insulin resistance, which in turn may lead to accelerated aging ... HOMA-IR was the most significant predictor for TL in males, explaining 35% of the variance (p = 0.01). In females, adiponectin, accounted for 28% of the variance in TL (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with chromosomal TL among adult Arabs. Evidence of causal relations needs further investigation. The positive association of adiponectin to TL has clinical implications as to the possible protective effects of this hormone from accelerated aging" - Note:  HOMA-IR = (glucose x insulin)/405 for glucose in mass units (US units) mg/dL.
  • Pioglitazone, but not metformin, reduces liver fat in Type-2 diabetes mellitus independent of weight changes - J Diabetes Complications. 2009 Jul 3 - "metformin (Met) ... Pio plus the American Diabetes Association diet (Pio+ADA) ... Pio plus a portion control weight loss diet (Pio+PC) ... The Pio+ADA group gained (mean+/-S.E.M.) 2.15+/-1.09 kg, while Pio+PC and Met+ADA group lost -2.59+/-1.25 and -3.21+/-0.7 kg, respectively. Pio-treated groups (Pio+ADA and Pio+PC) significantly decreased hepatic fat as indicated by increased liver density on CT scan [10.1+/-2.4: 11.4+/-1.0 Hounsfield units (HU)], compared with Met+ADA group (-2.4+/-3.1 HU). The Pio groups demonstrated significantly increased serum adiponectin, (8.6+/-1.5; 7.4+/-1.6 mug/ml) independent of weight change, compared to Met+ADA (-0.14+/-0.6 mugm/ml) group which lost weight. Serum hs-CRP decreased in groups showing weight loss (Pio+PC, -3.1+/-1.7 mg/l; Met+ADA, -1.5+/-1.2 mg/l) compared to Pio+ADA (1.8+/-3.0 mg/l) group that gained weight" - Note:  This is just one of the many reasons I take pioglitazone even though I don't have diabetes.  See pioglitazone at pioglitazone at OffshoreRX.com.
  • Adiponectin Regulates Arterial Calcification - J Bone Miner Res. 2009 Mar 3 - "adiponectin inhibited osteoblastic differentiation of CVSMCs via AdipoR1/p38 signaling pathway ... Our findings firstly demonstrated that Adiponectin(-/-) mice developed arterial calcification, and this could be attributed to the loss of inhibitory action of adiponectin on osteoblastic differentiation of CVSMCs. It suggested that adiponectin play a protective role against arterial calcification"
  • Effect of drinking on adiponectin in healthy men and women: A randomised intervention study of water, ethanol, red wine and beer with or without alcohol - Diabetes Care. 2009 Feb 24 - "Among females adiponectin significantly increased after with red wine (29,8% p<0.05), among men after ethanol solution (17.4%, p<0.05) and beer (16.1%, p<0.05)"
  • Plasma Adiponectin Concentrations Are Associated with Body Composition and Plant-Based Dietary Factors in Female Twins - J Nutr. 2008 Dec 23 - "A significant relationship between adiponectin and 3 derived dietary patterns (F&V, dieting, traditional English), carbohydrate, protein, trans fat, and alcohol intake was also observed. Strong inverse associations with adiponectin were observed for BMI (-10.72%; 95% CI: -13.78, -7.55), total (-6.89%: 95% CI: -10.34, -3.30; P < 0.05), and central fat mass (-12.50%; 95% CI: -15.82, -9.05; P < 0.05); these relationships were significant both when twins were analyzed as individuals and when characteristics were contrasted within-twin pairs, suggesting a direct effect. We observed modest associations between dietary factors and adiponectin in female twins, independent of adiposity, and report strong inverse associations with body composition. These data reinforce the importance of weight maintenance and increasing consumption of diets rich in plant-based foods to prevent CVD and type 2 diabetes"
  • Effects of Telmisartan and Ramipril on Adiponectin and Blood Pressure in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - Am J Hypertens. 2008 Oct 30 - "There was a significant increase in adiponectin levels in the telmisartan (0.68 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.27 to 1.10) microg/ml, P < 0.01) but not in the ramipril group"
  • Anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and plant sterols in hyperlipidemic individuals - Atherosclerosis. 2008 Sep 27 - "The combination of n-3 PUFA and plant sterols reduced several inflammatory markers. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was reduced by 39% (P=0.009), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by 10% (P=0.02), interleukin-6 (IL-6) by 10.7% (P=0.009), leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) by 29.5% (P=0.01) and adiponectin was increased by 29.5% (P=0.05). Overall cardiovascular risk was reduced by 22.6% (P=0.006) in the combination group. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated, for the first time that dietary intervention with n-3 PUFA and plant sterols reduces systemic inflammation in hyperlipidemic individuals. Furthermore, our results suggest that reducing inflammation provides a potential mechanism by which the combination of n-3 PUFA and plant sterols are cardioprotective" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Adiponectin prevents atherosclerosis by increasing cholesterol efflux from macrophages - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Aug 11
  • Relation of dietary and other lifestyle traits to difference in serum adiponectin concentration of Japanese in Japan and Hawaii: the INTERLIPID Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Aug;88(2):424-30 - "The significantly higher mean serum adiponectin concentration in Japan than in Hawaii may be attributable largely to differences in BMI"
  • High adiponectin concentrations are associated with the metabolically healthy obese phenotype - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Aug 5 - "Certain obese individuals have adiponectin levels similar to those found in normal BMI subjects; this is associated with the metabolically healthy obese phenotype"
  • Adiponectin, but not leptin or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, is associated with blood pressure independently of general and abdominal adiposity - Hypertens Res. 2008 Apr;31(4):633-40 - "all three markers were significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure (negative correlation for adiponectin and positive correlations for leptin and hs-CRP)"
  • Telmisartan but not candesartan affects adiponectin expression in vivo and in vitro - Hypertens Res. 2008 Apr;31(4):601-6 - "the changes in serum adiponectin and plasma glucose over 3 months were significantly greater in the telmisartan group than in the candesartan group. In vitro, although the protein level of adiponectin was not significantly elevated, the mRNA expression of adiponectin was elevated 1.5-fold by telmisartan in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our findings suggest that telmisartan may have beneficial effects in type 2 diabetes beyond its antihypertensive effect" - I've been saying that telmisartan should be the first line treatment for hypertension for some time now if natural methods such as coenzyme Q10 don't work.
  • Acarbose Treatment Increases Serum Total Adiponectin Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - Endocr J. 2008 May 15 - "Treatment with acarbose and pioglitazone decreased HbA1c values by 0.49 % and 0.63 %, respectively. Pioglitazone, as expected, increased serum levels of total adiponectin by 2.1 fold and its high molecular weight isoform by 3.6 fold. We found that acarbose also caused a small but significant increase in serum concentrations of total adiponectin. However, in contrast to pioglitazone, no appreciable changes were observed in the levels of high molecular weight adiponectin"
  • Telmisartan treatment decreases visceral fat accumulation and improves serum levels of adiponectin and vascular inflammation markers in Japanese hypertensive patients - Hypertens Res. 2007 Dec;30(12):1205-10 - "telmisartan treatment was associated with an improvement of vascular inflammation, reductions in visceral fat and increases in serum adiponectin"
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma agonism modifies the effects of growth hormone on lipolysis and insulin sensitivity - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2008 Mar 10 - "Adiponectin levels almost doubled during pioglitazone treatment " - See pioglitazone at OffshoreRx.com.
  • Low Adiponectin Levels are Associated with Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Lipid-Rich Plaque in Non-Diabetic Coronary Arteries - Br J Nutr. 2008 Feb 6;:1-8 - "Low adiponectin levels are associated with atherogenic lipoproteins (elevated triglycerides, small dense LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol), increased plaque volume, lipid-rich plaque, and ID-pathological intimal thickening in the total cohort which was driven by the non-diabetic population, suggesting an anti-atherogenic role in the early stages of lesion development"
  • Effect of green tea on kidney tubules of diabetic rats - Br J Nutr. 2008 Feb 6;:1-8 - "It has been documented that green tea (GT) and its catechin components improve renal failure and inhibit the growth of mesangial cells ... GT treatment significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the serum glucose, glycosylated protein, serum creatinine and blood urea N levels by 29.6 (sem 3.7), 22.7 (sem 5.2), 38.9 (sem 10) and 41.7 (sem 1.9) %, respectively ... the GT-treated group showed a significant 44 (sem 10.8) % higher creatinine clearance (Ccr) ... GT reduced the urea N, creatinine, glucose and protein excretion rates by 30 (sem 7.6), 35.4 (sem 5.3), 34.0 (sem 5.3) and 46.0 (sem 13.0) % compared with the 12 weeks diabetic group. Administration of GT to 12 weeks diabetic rats significantly (P < 0.001) prevented (99.98 (sem 0.27) % less) the accumulation of glycogen in the kidney tubules. These results indicate that in STZ diabetes, kidney function appears to be improved with GT consumption which also prevents glycogen accumulation in the renal tubules, probably by lowering blood levels of glucose. Therefore, GT could be beneficial additional therapy in the management of diabetic nephropathy" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Increased total and high-molecular weight adiponectin after extended-release niacin - Metabolism. 2008 Mar;57(3):404-9 - "at least part of the cardioprotective benefits of niacin may be attributed to a shift in the HMW/LMW adiponectin ratio in obese men with the metabolic syndrome"
  • Adiponectin, Change in Adiponectin, and Progression to Diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program - Diabetes. 2008 Jan 11 - "Adiponectin is a powerful marker of diabetes risk in subjects at high risk of diabetes, even after adjustment for weight. An increase in adiponectin in lifestyle and placebo was associated with a reduction in diabetes risk. However, these changes in adiponectin were comparatively small and less strongly related to diabetes outcome than baseline adiponectin levels"
  • Coffee consumption is associated with higher plasma adiponectin concentrations in women with and without type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study - Diabetes Care. 2007 Dec 10 - "High consumption of caffeine-containing coffee is associated with higher adiponectin and lower inflammatory marker concentrations"
  • Dietary lipoic acid-dependent changes in the activity and mRNA levels of hepatic lipogenic enzymes in rats - Br J Nutr. 2007 Dec 7;:1-9 - "Lipoic acid profoundly decreased serum and liver concentrations of TAG, and also lowered serum concentrations of phospholipid and NEFA, and the concentration of cholesterol in the liver. A hypoglycaemic effect of this compound was also observed. Lipoic acid dose-dependently decreased the activity and mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase, ATP-citrate lyase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme and pyruvate kinase in the liver despite that reductions were considerably attenuated in the NADPH-producing enzymes. This compound also dose-dependently lowered the mRNA levels of spot 14, adiponutrin, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, and Delta5- and Delta6-desaturases. In addition, lipoic acid dose-dependently lowered serum concentrations of insulin and leptin, but increased those of adiponectin. Lipoic acid appeared to reduce hepatic lipogenesis and hence decreases serum and liver lipid levels. Alterations in serum concentrations of insulin and (or) adiponectin may trigger this consequence" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Adiponectin, the controversial hormone - Public Health Nutr. 2007 Oct;10(10A):1145-50 - "Considering the anti-inflammatory properties of adiponectin and the fact that it is negatively associated with adiposity, this cytokine could be one of the links between obesity and inflammation. The main mechanisms of action of adiponectin are directed to a protective role against atherogenic and insulin resistance processes. Research has revealed interesting new functions far beyond metabolism, such as immunity, cancer and bone formation. Contrary to all adipose-related proteins, adiponectin decreases with obesity. Most of the contradictory data surrounding adiponectin are related to plasma values and their relationship with body fat, gender differences and insulin resistance"
  • High-molecular weight adiponectin is independently associated with the extent of coronary artery disease in men - Atherosclerosis. 2007 Nov 14 - "HMW adiponectin and the HMW/total-adiponectin ratio inversely correlate with the extent of CAD. HMW adiponectin in particular seems to be a better marker for CAD extent than total adiponectin"
  • Pioglitazone improves myocardial blood flow and glucose utilization in nondiabetic patients with combined hyperlipidemia a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study - J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007 Nov 20;50(21):2051-8 - "myocardial glucose utilization (MGU) and blood flow (MBF) in nondiabetic patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) ... in the pioglitazone group HDL cholesterol (+28%; p = 0.003) and adiponectin (+156.2%; p = 0.0001) were increased and plasma insulin (-35%; p = 0.017) was reduced ... In patients with FCHL treated with conventional lipid-lowering therapy, the addition of pioglitazone led to significant improvements in MGU and MBF, with a favorable effect on blood lipid and metabolic parameters"
  • Nutritional intervention to reduce the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio increases adiponectin concentration and fatty acid oxidation in healthy subjects - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Aug 15 - "Dietary intervention was associated with significant reductions in TNF-alpha (baseline: 2.2 (s.d. 0.3), post-intervention: 1.5 (s.d. 0.3) pg/ml, P=0.01) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (baseline: 2.5 (s.d. 0.2), post-intervention: 2.3 (s.d. 0.1) mmol/l, P=0.03) and increased adiponectin (baseline: 6.5 (s.d. 0.7), post-intervention: 7.6 (s.d. 0.6) mug/ml, P=0.02). Fasting lipid oxidation was increased (baseline: 0.7 (s.d. 0.1), post-intervention: 0.9 (s.d. 0.1) mg/kg.min, P=0.01), whereas glucose oxidation decreased in both fasting (baseline: 1.6 (s.d. 0.1), post-intervention: 1.3 (s.d. 0.1) mg/kg.min, P=0.02) and hyperinsulinaemic conditions (baseline: 3.6 (s.d. 0.1), post-intervention: 3.3 (s.d. 0.1) mg/kg.min, P=0.04). Insulin sensitivity was not affected by the intervention.  Conclusion:  A decreased n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio can be achieved with simple dietary counselling, resulting in multiple, potentially favourable effects on the metabolic and inflammatory profiles"
  • The effect of thiazolidinediones on adiponectin serum level: a meta-analysis - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007 Jul 21 - "The results clearly reveal an increase of endogenous serum adiponectin levels by intake of TZDs and may point to a potential new option to manage obesity-related diseases"
  • Low serum adiponectin is associated with high circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease - Metabolism. 2007 Jul;56(7):881-886 - "low adiponectin concentration indicates increased oxidative state in the arterial wall, which further supports previous data on the role of adipose tissue in atherogenesis"
  • The Differential Effects of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers on Microalbuminuria in Relation to Low-Grade Inflammation in Metabolic Hypertensive Patients - Am J Hypertens. 2007 May;20(5):565-72 - "There was a significant increase in high molecular weight adiponectin in the telmisartan group ... The reductions of microalbuminuria and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were significant in the telmisartan group"
  • Adiponectin in health and disease - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007 May;9(3):282-9 - "Adiponectin is an important adipokine because of its beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. Low levels of adiponectin are associated with disease states such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease ... Adiponectin levels in humans can be increased through indirect methods such as weight loss or treatment with thiazolidinediones"
  • Adiponectin accelerates reverse cholesterol transport by increasing high density lipoprotein assembly in the liver - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 May 15 - "APN might protect against atherosclerosis by increasing HDL assembly through enhancing ABCA1 pathway and apoA-1 synthesis in the liver"
  • Do low levels of circulating adiponectin represent a biomarker or just another risk factor for the metabolic syndrome? - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007 May;9(3):246-58 - "The metabolic syndrome is currently defined by various combinations of insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. The tendency for these risk factors to appear simultaneously suggests a single aetiologic basis. A low level of circulating adiponectin is associated with the appearance of each metabolic syndrome risk factor ... An association between the metabolic syndrome and low adiponectin supports the view that the development of the metabolic syndrome may be triggered by a single underlying mechanism. Clinical studies in the future may show that a low level of circulating adiponectin is a primary biomarker for a specific cluster of metabolic syndrome risk factors rather than all the possible combinations of risk factors currently used to identify the metabolic syndrome"
  • Decreased Plasma Adiponectin is Associated with Insulin Resistance and HDL Cholesterol in Overweight Subjects - Endocr J. 2007 May;54(2):221-6 - "In overweight subjects, adiponectin levels negatively correlated with body weight (r = -0.35, P<0.001), body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.28, P<0.006), systolic blood pressure (r = -0.21, P<0.04), fasting insulin (r = -0.19, P<0.01) and HOMA-IR (r = -0.20, P<0.01) and positively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (r = 0.27, P<0.009). Overweight subjects with low HDL-C levels had significantly decreased plasma adiponectin levels compared to those with high HDL-C levels ... findings may suggest that circulating adiponectin is associated with insulin resistance and HDL-C levels independent from BMI in overweight subjects"
  • Raised alanine transaminase and decreased adiponectin are features of the metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007 May;9(3):438-40 - "Mean ALT was significantly higher in patients with the MS and higher ALT was associated with lower adiponectin levels. As the number of features of MS increased, ALT increased and adiponectin decreased independent of glycaemic control"
  • The effect of testosterone replacement therapy on adipocytokines and C-reactive protein in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes - Eur J Endocrinol. 2007 May;156(5):595-602 - "Testosterone treatment reduced leptin (-7141.9 +/- 1461.8 pg/ml; P=0.0001) and adiponectin levels"
  • Lower plasma adiponectin is a marker of increased intima-media thickness associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and with male gender - Eur J Endocrinol. 2007 Mar;156(3):387-94 - "Increased IMT in type 2 diabetes may in part be explained by lower plasma adiponectin and higher triglycerides, but not by leptin, resistin, and TNF-alpha"
  • Effect of antihypertensive agents on plasma adiponectin levels in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome - Nephrology (Carlton). 2007 Apr;12(2):147-53 - "Ramipril and valsartan increased the plasma adiponectin levels significantly higher than the other regimens"
  • Rosiglitazone treatment increases plasma levels of adiponectin and decreases levels of resistin in overweight women with PCOS: a randomized placebo-controlled study - European Journal of Endocrinology, Vol 156, Issue 2, 263-269 - "Rosiglitazone had beneficial effects on serum levels of adiponectin and resistin, suggesting that these adipocytokines may contribute to the improvement in insulin sensitivity observed during the treatment"
  • Comparison of the effects of pioglitazone and metformin on insulin resistance and hormonal markers in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and early diabetes - Hypertens Res. 2007 Jan;30(1):23-30 - "pioglitazone was superior to metformin for the improvement of insulin resistance and adiponectin "
  • Telmisartan improves lipid metabolism and adiponectin production but does not affect glycemic control in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes - Adv Ther. 2007 Jan-Feb;24(1):146-53 - "Triglyceride levels were significantly decreased, however, and adiponectin levels were significantly increased"
  • Effect of PPAR-gamma agonist on adiponectin levels in the metabolic syndrome: lessons from the high fructose fed rat model - Am J Hypertens. 2007 Feb;20(2):206-10 - "rosiglitazone increased plasma levels of adiponectin fourfold from 4.3 +/- 0.1 to 18.4"
  • The effects of irbesartan and telmisartan on metabolic parameters and blood pressure in obese, insulin resistant, hypertensive patients - J Endocrinol Invest. 2006 Dec;29(11):957-61 - "Group A (23) was submitted to irbesartan 150 mg/day, Group B (23) to telmisartan 80 mg/day for 6 months ... Both irbesartan or telmisartan reduced blood pressure and ameliorated the insulin sensitivity, with increased adiponectin values; in Group B, the amelioration of metabolic parameters was greater than in Group A"
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